Several Moves By The Us Over The Last Week Aim To Shift The Course Of The Pandemic
The White House, the Food and Drug Administration and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention made several announcements this week that signaled an expansive effort by the federal government to control the pandemic at a time when Americans are desperate for normalcy and caseloads are creeping up with winters approach.
Dr. Bertha Hidalgo, an associate professor of epidemiology at the University of Alabama at Birmingham, said that in order to make it through this winter, people would have to be diligent about getting boosters and understand that some risk remains as the pandemic drags on.
Here is a rundown of those developments.
How Effective Is The Hpv Vaccine In Preventing Hpv
When doses are given at the recommended ages and at the appropriate intervals, it has been shown to prevent 90% of cancer-causing HPV. Research has also shown that fewer teens and young adults are getting genital warts. The number of cervical precancers are decreasing since HPV vaccines have been in use.
Hpv Vaccination For Transgender People
Trans women are eligible in the same way as MSM if their risk of getting HPV is similar to the risk of MSM who are eligible for the HPV vaccine.
Trans men are eligible if they have sex with other men and are aged 45 or under.
If trans men have previously completed a course of HPV vaccination as part of the girls’ HPV vaccine programme, no further doses are needed.
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How Is Gardasil 9 Vaccine Given
Gardasil 9 vaccine is given as an injection into a muscle in your upper arm or thigh. A healthcare provider will give you this injection.
Gardasil 9 vaccine is given in a series of 2 or 3 shots. You may have the first shot at any time as long as you are between the ages of 9 and 45 years. The second dose is given 2 to 6 months after your first shot. A third dose may be given 6 to 12 months after your first shot.
Be sure to receive all recommended doses of this vaccine or you may not be fully protected against disease.
Gardasil 9 vaccine should not be used in place of having a routine pelvic exam, Pap smear, anal, or head and neck exam to screen for cervical, anal, or head and neck cancer.
Who Should Get The Hpv Vaccine
The current recommendations for getting the HPV vaccine are:
- Children and adults ages 9 to 26 years: The HPV vaccination works best when given between the ages of 9 and 12 years old. Getting vaccinated at a young age provides the best protection against HPV cancers. HPV vaccination is recommended for all children and adults through 26 years old who have not been fully vaccinated.
- Adults ages 27 to 45 years: The HPV vaccination is not recommended in adults ages 27 through 45 years. The vaccine is less beneficial to people in this age range because more people have already been exposed to the virus. In some cases, your healthcare provider may recommend getting the vaccine as an adult.
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Gardasil 9 And Breastfeeding
Not enough studies have been done to determine if Gardasil 9 is safe to receive while breastfeeding. Its not known if Gardasil 9 can pass into breast milk. There is no animal data to determine if Gardasil 9 can pass into breast milk or harm a breastfeeding child.
If you are breastfeeding, talk to your doctor or pharmacist about the best time to get your Gardasil 9 vaccine.
Here are answers to some frequently asked questions about Gardasil 9.
Hpv Vaccine Slashes Cervical Cancer Rates By 87% Among Women In The Uk
ByYasemin Saplakoglu04 November 2021
A study finds that the vaccine is most effective when given to children between the ages of 12 and 13.
The human papillomavirus vaccine reduced cervical cancer cases by 87% among women in the U.K. who received the vaccine when they were 12 or 13 years old, according to a new study.
These new findings are based on follow-up data from a vaccination program that began in the U.K. in 2008. The strains of human papillomavirus that are transmitted through sexual contact are extremely common around the world, and most people are infected at some point in their lives, typically soon after becoming sexually active, according to The World Health Organization .
Many HPV infections clear up on their own without causing issues, but some infections can lead to cervical cancer. In fact, nearly all cervical cancer cases around the world are due to an infection with HPV, according to the WHO. Now, more than 100 countries, including the U.K. and the U.S., offer HPV vaccinations to young girls, and some countries are also offering them to young boys to prevent genital warts and cancer.
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As part of the U.K. program, girls between the ages of 12 and 13 were given an HPV vaccine called Cervavix, which protects against the two most common types of HPV that account for 70 to 80% of all cervical cancers, according to a statement. The vaccine was also offered to women up to age 18 as a”catch-up” vaccination.
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Messenger Rna Vaccinesalso Called Mrna Vaccines
Researchers have been studying and working with mRNA vaccines for decades and this technology was used to make some of the COVID-19 vaccines. mRNA vaccines make proteins in order to trigger an immune response. mRNA vaccines have several benefits compared to other types of vaccines, including shorter manufacturing times and, because they do not contain a live virus, no risk of causing disease in the person getting vaccinated.
mRNA vaccines are used to protect against:
Manufacturing Flexibility In Scale
Early vaccines were produced in vivo and used neat or purified with largely glass lab equipment. Later, the animal cells used for viral vaccines were grown in vitro and then infected to amplify virus for viral vaccines later these cells were grown on microcarriers in deep culture to enable high manufacturing volumes and efficiencies. Microbial vaccines have been produced in large bioreactors at larger scale. These products were processed in stainless steel equipment for purification. Large-scale production was used to increase capacity to meet the increased demand for these lifesaving products. The cost of these facilities was increasingly expensive through the past few decades, and systems were increasingly complex to automate, clean, sterilize, and validate the facilities for manufacturing. Large central manufacturing facilities enabled lower cost of manufacturing higher volumes were needed to lower the high fixed cost of construction, validation, and operation. The large central facilities were increasingly efficient, but also limited the manufacturing to a limited number of sites in developed countries.
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Doses Given Before The Recommended Age
Age recommendations for receipt of vaccines are based on the age at which the risk of disease is highest and for which vaccine safety and efficacy have been demonstrated. When providing vaccine doses at less than the recommended age, it is important to know the minimum age for administering the vaccine, since doses given before the recommended age may lead to a less than optimal immune response. For example, the minimum age for influenza vaccine is 6 months because the vaccine provides poor protection in younger infants.
There may be circumstances in which administering a vaccine a few days before the recommended age may be appropriate to avoid missing an opportunity for vaccination . However, generally, if a vaccine dose is given before the recommended age, the dose should be repeated on or after the date when the person reaches the age for which the vaccine is recommended. For example, although measles-mumps-rubella vaccine may be given as early as 6 months of age, 2 additional doses of measles-containing vaccine must be administered after the child is 12 months old to ensure long lasting immunity to measles.
Refer to vaccine-specific chapters in Part 4 for additional information on recommended and minimum ages for vaccine administration. Refer to Immunization of Travellers chapter in Part 3 for detailed information about accelerated immunization schedules for travel health protection.
Who Can Have The Hpv Vaccine Through The Nhs Vaccination Programme
The 1st dose of the HPV vaccine is routinely offered to girls and boys aged 12 and 13 in school Year 8. The 2nd dose is offered 6 to 24 months after the 1st dose.
If you miss either of your HPV vaccine doses, speak to your school immunisation team or GP surgery and make an appointment to have the missed dose as soon as possible.
It’s important to have both doses of the vaccine to be fully protected.
People who were eligible for HPV vaccination in school Year 8 but who missed it can still be vaccinated on the NHS up to their 25th birthday.
People who have the 1st dose of the HPV vaccine at 15 years of age or above will need to have 3 doses of the vaccine. This is because they do not respond as well to 2 doses as younger people do.
Read more about HPV vaccination safety and the possible side effects.
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How Well Do These Vaccines Work
HPV vaccination works extremely well. HPV vaccine has the potential to prevent more than 90% of HPV-attributable cancers.
- Since HPV vaccination was first recommended in 2006, there has been a significant reduction in HPV infections.
- Fewer teens and young adults are getting genital warts.
- HPV vaccine has also reduced the number of cases of precancers of the cervix in young women.
With more than 12 years of data, we know that HPV vaccine offers long-lasting protection against HPV infection and HPV disease.
- HPV vaccination does not lose the ability to protect against new HPV infections over time.
Before Taking This Medicine
To make sure Gardasil 9 vaccine is safe for you, tell your doctor if you have ever had:
an allergy to yeast, polysorbate 80, or to other vaccines
a weak immune system or
treatment with cancer medicine, steroids, or other drugs that can weaken your immune system.
Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant. If you get pregnant before you receive all needed doses of this vaccine, you may need to wait until after your baby is born to finish the series of shots.
If you are pregnant, your name may be listed on a pregnancy registry to track the effects of human papillomavirus vaccine on the baby.
It may not be safe to breastfeed while using human papillomavirus vaccine. Ask your doctor about any risk.
Gardasil 9 vaccine will not protect against sexually transmitted diseases such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, herpes, HIV, syphilis, and trichomoniasis.
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Dosage For Preventing Genital Warts Caused By Hpv
Gardasil 9 is effective at preventing genital warts that may be caused by HPV. By receiving the Gardasil 9 vaccine, some genital warts can be prevented. The dosage for adults ages 18 to 45 years old is a 0.5-mL injection into the muscle.
Its recommended that you receive three doses of Gardasil 9. After you receive one dose, you get a second dose 2 months later and a final dose 6 months after the first dose.
Is Gardasil 9 Safe
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . Its approved for use in children and adults ages 9 to 45 years old.
Gardasil 9 is an inactive vaccine. This means it cant cause HPV to occur in people who get the vaccine.
The most common side effects that can occur from a Gardasil 9 vaccine include pain, redness, or swelling at the injection site, headache, and fever. These side effects are very similar to side effects you may experience from other inactive vaccines.
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How Does The Hpv Vaccine Work
Gardasil has been the HPV vaccine used in the NHS vaccination programme since 2012.
Sometime during the 2021 to 2022 academic year, the HPV vaccine used in the NHS programme will switch to Gardasil 9.
Gardasil 9 protects against 9 types of HPV: 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58. Between them, types 16 and 18 are the cause of most cervical cancers in the UK . Types 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58 cause an additional 15% of cervical cancers.
These types of HPV also cause most anal cancers, and some genital and head and neck cancers.
HPV types 6 and 11 cause around 90% of genital warts, so using Gardasil 9 helps protect girls and boys against both cancer and genital warts.
HPV vaccination does not protect against other infections spread during sex, such as chlamydia, and it will not stop girls getting pregnant, so it’s still very important to practise safe sex.
How Long Does The Hpv Vaccine Protect For
Studies have shown that the vaccine protects against HPV infection for at least 10 years, although experts expect protection to last for much longer.
But because the HPV vaccine does not protect against all types of HPV that can cause cervical cancer, it’s important that all women who receive the HPV vaccine also have regular cervical screening once they reach the age of 25.
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How Much Does Hpv Vaccination Cost And Will Insurance Pay For It
Most private insurance plans cover HPV vaccination. The federal Affordable Care Act requires most private insurance plans to cover recommended preventive services with no copay or deductible.
Medicaid covers HPV vaccination in accordance with ACIP recommendations, and immunizations are a mandatory service under Medicaid for eligible individuals under age 21. In addition, the federal Vaccines for Children Program provides immunization services for children younger than 19 years who are Medicaid eligible, uninsured, underinsured, or Native American or Alaska Native.
Merck, the manufacturer of Gardasil 9, offers the Merck Vaccine Patient Assistance Program, which provides Gardasil 9 for free to people aged 19 to 45 years who live in the United States, do not have health insurance, and have an annual household income less than a certain amount.
More Common Side Effects
The more common side effects of Gardasil 9 can include:
- pain, swelling, or redness at the injection site
- bruising, bleeding, itching, or a lump at the injection site
- sore throat
- abdominal pain
Most of these side effects may go away within a few days or a couple of weeks. If theyre more severe or dont go away, talk with your doctor or pharmacist.
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What Types Of Hpv Vaccines Are There
Three HPV vaccines9-valent HPV vaccine , quadrivalent HPV vaccine , and bivalent HPV vaccine have been licensed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration . All three HPV vaccines protect against HPV types 16 and 18 that cause most HPV cancers.
Gardasil-9 , a nine-valent HPV vaccine that protects against HPV types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58, is the only HPV vaccine currently distributed in the U.S.
Subunit Recombinant Polysaccharide And Conjugate Vaccines
Subunit, recombinant, polysaccharide, and conjugate vaccines use specific pieces of the germlike its protein, sugar, or capsid .
Because these vaccines use only specific pieces of the germ, they give a very strong immune response thats targeted to key parts of the germ. They can also be used on almost everyone who needs them, including people with weakened immune systems and long-term health problems.
One limitation of these vaccines is that you may need booster shots to get ongoing protection against diseases.
These vaccines are used to protect against:
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Immunogenicity Efficacy And Effectiveness
HPV vaccine is highly immunogenic. More than 99% of vaccine recipients develop an antibody response to vaccine HPV types after completing a 3-dose series. In immunocompetent, non-HIV infected individuals 9 to 14 years of age, a 2-dose schedule of HPV2, HPV4, or HPV9 vaccine is as equally immunogenic as a 3 dose series in individuals 15 to 24 years of age. The immune correlates of protection against HPV infection are unknown.
Efficacy and effectiveness
In Canada, immunization against HPV types 16 and 18 contained in HPV2, HPV4 and HPV9 vaccine can prevent approximately 70% of anogenital cancers and 60% of high-risk precancerous cervical lesions. Immunization against HPV types 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58 contained in HPV9 vaccine could further prevent up to 14% of anogenital cancers and 30% of high-risk precancerous cervical lesions. Immunization with either HPV4 or HPV9 vaccine can prevent approximately 90% of genital warts.
HPV vaccine has no proven therapeutic effect on existing HPV infection. Prior infection with one or more vaccine HPV types does not diminish vaccine efficacy against other vaccine HPV types. The duration of protection following HPV vaccination is not known. Clinical trial subjects have been followed for approximately 10 years for HPV2 and HPV4 vaccines with no evidence of waning protection.
Why Is The Hpv Vaccine Recommended
HPV can cause some types of cancer and genital warts. The vaccine is an important way to prevent infection and the spread of HPV. It works best when given before someone might be exposed to the virus.
The HPV vaccine doesn’t protect against all types of HPV. So people who are sexually active should always use condoms. Girls and women should see their gynecologist regularly and get pap smears as recommended .
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Who Should Not Get The Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine
Children less than 2 years of age, and people who are pregnant, or planning to become pregnant, should not get the vaccine.
Speak with your health care provider if your child:
- Has an immune system weakened by disease or medical treatment
- Has severe asthma or active wheezing
- Had a life-threatening reaction to a previous dose of influenza vaccine, or any part of the vaccine
- Developed Guillain-Barré Syndrome within 8 weeks of getting any influenza vaccine without another cause being identified
- Is required to take Aspirin® or ASA for long periods of time due to a medical condition
- Is receiving an immune checkpoint inhibitor to treat cancer
People who will have contact with anyone who has a very weak immune system, such as a bone marrow transplant patient, within 2 weeks of being immunized should receive the inactivated influenza vaccine. If such contact can be avoided, they may receive LAIV.
There is no need to delay getting immunized because of a cold or other mild illness. However, if you have concerns speak with your health care provider.