Whats The Hpv Vaccine
The HPV vaccine helps protect you against certain types of HPV that can lead to cancer or genital warts. Also known by the brand name Gardasil 9, the HPV vaccine protects against:
HPV types 16 and 18 the 2 types that cause 80% of cervical cancer cases.
HPV types 6 and 11, which cause 90% of genital warts cases.
Another 5 types of HPV that can lead to cancer of the cervix, anus, vulva/vagina, penis, or throat.
The HPV vaccine is given in a series of shots. For people ages 15-45, the HPV vaccine is 3 separate shots. The second shot is given 2 months after the first, and the third shot is given 4 months after the second shot. So, in all, it takes about 6 months to get all 3 shots.
For people ages 9-14, you only need to get 2 shots. The second shot is given 6 months after the first shot.
The Time Is Now To Take A Shot At Eliminating Six Cancers Caused By Hpv
Its still in the public perception that HPV is largely a problem for women, Gillison told STAT. I think people have to be aware that the burden of HPV positive oropharynx cancer in men in the United States now exceeds the burden of cervical cancer diagnosed each year. Although survival rates are relatively high for these patients, treating these cancers is grueling for the patient and expensive for the health care system. The idea that tumors could be prevented with a few shots is bracing.
I just know that I dont have a single patient who wouldnt swap two or three shots for what I do to them to try to save their life, Gillison said.
The HPV vaccine was originally approved in 2006 to prevent cervical cancer, based on studies showing that it prevented the formation of pre-cancerous lesions caused by HPV that are known to be necessary for the virus to cause cervical cancer.
Dr. Paul Offit, director of the Vaccine Education Center at the Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia, said that the initial FDA approval was focused on girls because it was possible to show that the vaccine could prevent these lesions. Offit said he protested at the time that infections in boys were likely to be as important as those in girls. We sent the wrong message, Offit said. Its a message that we still havent shaken.
The Hpv Vaccine For Boys And Men
The HPV vaccine protects against different types of human papillomavirus , including types that can cause cancer.
The NHS HPV vaccination programme in schools started in 2008 and was only offered to girls. It was thought that this would also be of enough benefit to boys, as they would be protected indirectly thanks to girls being vaccinated .
In 2018, the Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation , which advises UK health departments on immunisation, decided the HPV vaccine should also be offered to boys.
The evidence shows that offering boys the HPV vaccine will help protect against a number of HPV-related cancers and conditions, including head and neck cancers, penile cancer and anal cancer, as well as genital warts. It will also strengthen herd protection this means helping protect anyone who is not vaccinated or is has not had all the doses.
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How Long Will The Vaccine Prevent Hpv Infection
How long a vaccine will protect people is never known when the vaccine is first introduced. Current research shows that the vaccine is effective, and theres no sign that the protection decreases with time. Research will continue to look at how long protection against HPV lasts, and if booster shots will be needed.
Hpv Vaccines Are Safe
There are two vaccines licensed by the Food and Drug Administration and recommended by CDC to protect against HPV-related illness. All vaccines used in the United States are required to go through extensive safety testing before they are licensed by FDA. Once in use, they are continually monitored for safety and effectiveness.
Numerous research studies have been conducted to make sure HPV vaccines were safe both before and after the vaccines were licensed. No serious safety concerns have been confirmed in the large safety studies that have been done since HPV vaccine became available in 2006. CDC and FDA have reviewed the safety information available to them for both HPV vaccines and have determined that they are both safe.
The HPV vaccine is made from one protein from the HPV virus that is not infectious and non-oncogenic .
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Men Get Cancers Caused By Hpv In Large Numbers Too
From 2013 to 2017, there were approximately 25,000 cases of HPV-associated cancers in women and 19,000 in men, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. More than four out of every ten cases of cancer caused by HPV are in men.
HPV should be of concern to all since men and women are affected virtually the same by this virus, says Abraham Aragones, an MSK physician who also studies public health.
Vaccine Efficacy In People Already Infected With Hpv
In women who are vaccinated regardless of their baseline HPV status , vaccine efficacy is lower than in HPV-naive women. This suggests reduced vaccine effectiveness among females who are already sexually active. This is because the HPV vaccines are prophylactic vaccines they prevent primary HPV infection.
Vaccination does not:
- treat an existing HPV infection
- prevent disease that may be caused by an existing vaccine HPV-type infection30,117-119
HPV vaccine protection is believed to be predominantly antibody mediated. Even low levels of antibodies can stop HPV entering the basal epithelial cells. HPV can only access the basal cell at sites of microtrauma, where there is a breach in the epithelium, and circulating HPV antibodies from sera are present at these sites.41
Because antibodies prevent viral entry, vaccination may still benefit sexually active men and women by protecting them against:
- new infections with other vaccine-preventable HPV types
- reinfection with vaccine-preventable types they have previously been exposed to for example, from an infected partner
- auto-inoculation of existing persistent HPV infection to other sites
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Like Any Vaccine Or Medicine Hpv Vaccines Might Cause Side Effects
HPV vaccines occasionally cause adverse reactions. The most commonly reported symptoms among females and males are similar, including injection-site reactions , dizziness, fainting, nausea, and headache.
Brief fainting spells and related symptoms can happen after many medical procedures, including vaccination. Fainting after getting a shot is more common among adolescents. Sitting or lying down for about 15 minutes after a vaccination can help prevent fainting and injuries that can be caused by falls.
When fainting was found to happen after vaccination, FDA changed prescribing information to include information about preventing falls and possible injuries from fainting after vaccination. CDC consistently reminds doctors and nurses to share this information with all their patients. Tell the doctor or nurse if your child feels dizzy, faint, or light-headed.
What Are Hpv Vaccines
HPV vaccines protect against infection with human papillomaviruses . HPV is a group of more than 200 related viruses, of which more than 40 are spread through direct sexual contact. Among these, two HPV types cause genital warts, and about a dozen HPV types can cause certain types of cancercervical, anal, oropharyngeal, penile, vulvar, and vaginal.
Three vaccines that prevent infection with disease-causing HPV have been licensed in the United States: Gardasil, Gardasil 9, and Cervarix. Gardasil 9 has, since 2016, been the only HPV vaccine used in the United States. It prevents infection with the following nine HPV types:
- HPV types 6 and 11, which cause 90% of genital warts
- HPV types 16 and 18, two high-risk HPVs that cause about 70% of cervical cancers and an even higher percentage of some of the other HPV-caused cancers
- HPV types 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58, high-risk HPVs that account for an additional 10% to 20% of cervical cancers
Cervarix prevents infection with types 16 and 18, and Gardasil prevents infection with types 6, 11, 16, and 18. Both vaccines are still used in some other countries.
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Why Adults Should Get The Hpv Vaccine
HPV infection is extremely common most sexually active people will be infected with HPV at some point in life. HPV infection usually causes no symptoms, but can cause genital warts and anal cancer in both women and men. HPV can also cause throat cancer.
In women, HPV infection can cause cells in the cervix to grow abnormally. In a small fraction of women, these HPV-induced changes will develop into cervical cancer. About 12,000 women are diagnosed with cervical cancer each year and about 4,000 women die from the condition.
The HPV vaccine prevents infection by the HPV types responsible for most cervical cancers. Up until 2017, there were two vaccines available . Today, Gardasil 9 is the only available HPV vaccine in the U.S.
Gardasil 9 prevents infection by the same HPV types as Gardasil, plus HPV-31, HPV-33, HPV-45, HPV-52, and HPV-58. Collectively, these types are implicated in 90% of cervical cancers. In October 2018, the FDA approved Gardasil9 for everyone ages 9 through 45
HPV vaccines are extremely effective at preventing infection by the HPV types they cover. Getting the HPV vaccine reduces a womanâs risk of cervical cancer and precancerous growths substantially. Men cannot develop cervical cancer, but the HPV vaccine may prevent genital warts, penile cancer, anal cancer, and the spread of HPV to sexual partners. Gardasil 9 is approved for males ages 9 through 26.
Few Young Adult Men Have Gotten The Hpv Vaccine
But they should: A cancer found in the throat is now the leading cancer caused by HPV and 80% of those diagnosed are men.
The COVID-19 vaccine isnt having any trouble attracting suitors.
But theres another, older model thats been mostly ignored by the young men of America: the HPV vaccine.
Using data from the 2010-2018 National Health Interview Surveys, Michigan Medicine researchers found that just 16% of men who were 18 to 21 years old had received at least one dose of the HPV vaccine at any age. In comparison, 42% of women in the same age bracket had gotten at least one shot of the vaccine.
The CDCs Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends two doses of the vaccine at 11 or 12 years old, but Americans can still benefit from the HPV vaccine if they receive it later, as long as they get three doses by age 26.
In the U-M study, however even among those who were vaccinated after turning 18 less than a third of men received all three vaccine doses, and about half of women did.
I dont think that a lot of people, both providers and patients, are aware that this vaccine is actually a cancer-prevention vaccine for men as well as women, Chen says. But HPV-associated oropharyngeal cancer can impact anyone and theres no good screening for it, which makes vaccination even more important.
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The Age Of People Who Are Recommended To Get The Hpv Vaccine Has Expanded What Do These Age Ranges Mean
First, its important to know that its still best for children to be vaccinated when they are about 11 or 12 years old. Thats the most important age range. Getting the vaccine before first sexual contact protects a person over their entire life.
The recommendations for Pap tests, HPV tests, and pelvic exams have been updated recently. An MSK expert explains what tests women need, at what ages.
When the vaccine was approved in 2006, anyone up to age 26 could get it. In October 2018, US health officials said anyone up to age 45 could get it. US health officials have taken a further step and now recommend that anyone up to the age of 26 man or woman get the vaccine.
If a person didnt receive the vaccine as an adolescent, as a rule of thumb, it makes the most sense to get it as early as possible, rather than waiting until later. People tend to have the most sexual partners in their twenties. Also, since HPV-associated cancers often take years to develop, you are protected longer if you get the vaccine when you are younger.
Is It Helpful To Have An Hpv Test Before Having The Hpv Vaccine
Trick question! There is no single HPV test to check for all HPV types at multiple body sites. Also, HPV is good at “hiding”, and may only be present at undetectable levels. This means there is no test that can help answer the questions Do I have HPV?, Does my partner have HPV?, Has my HPV gone?.
Therefore, HPV testing is not required before vaccination.
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Hpv Vaccine For The Treatment Of Head And Neck Cancer
On June 12, 2020, the FDA approved an expanded indication for Gardasil 9 for the prevention of oropharyngeal and other head and neck cancers caused by HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58. The oropharyngeal and head and neck cancer indication is approved under accelerated approval based on effectiveness in preventing HPV-related anogenital disease. Continued approval for this indication may be contingent upon verification and description of clinical benefit in a confirmatory trial, which is currently underway.
Is Hpv Testing Needed Before Getting The Vaccine
No. In fact, testing is not recommended because it cannot show if the HPV vaccine will be effective or not. A positive HPV test result doesnt always tell you which types of HPV you have. And even if you are infected with one type of HPV, the vaccine could still prevent other types of HPV infection. A negative test result cannot tell you if youve had HPV in the past.
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Hpv Vaccines Dont Negatively Affect Fertility
There is no evidence to suggest that HPV vaccine causes fertility problems. However, not getting HPV vaccine leaves people vulnerable to HPV cancers. If persistent high-risk HPV infection in a woman leads to cervical cancer, the treatment of cervical cancer could leave a woman unable to have children. Treatment for cervical pre-cancer could put a woman at risk for problems with her cervix, which could cause preterm delivery or other problems.
What Is In The Hpv Vaccine
The HPV vaccine used in the New Zealand Immunisation Programme from 2017 is Gardasil® 9. The vaccine contains HPV virus-like particles of HPV types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58. These particles are proteins from the outer shell of the virus. The VLPs do not contain DNA fragments in a form that could allow them to infect cells or reproduce. The particles mimic the HPV virus so that the immune system makes antibodies against it. These recombinant types of vaccine have been used around the world for over 20 years.
Each 0.5ml dose of the vaccine also contains a small amount of aluminium, which stimulates the immune response. Aluminium has been safely and effectively used in vaccines for more than 70 years. The vaccine also contains tiny amounts of sodium chloride , L-histidine , Polysorbate 80, sodium borate and sterile water.
The vaccine does not contain preservatives, antibiotics or any human or animal materials.
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Who Can Have The Hpv Vaccine Through The Nhs Vaccination Programme
The 1st dose of the HPV vaccine is routinely offered to girls and boys aged 12 and 13 in school Year 8. The 2nd dose is offered 6 to 24 months after the 1st dose.
If you miss either of your HPV vaccine doses, speak to your school immunisation team or GP surgery and make an appointment to have the missed dose as soon as possible.
It’s important to have both doses of the vaccine to be fully protected.
People who were eligible for HPV vaccination in school Year 8 but who missed it can still be vaccinated on the NHS up to their 25th birthday.
People who have the 1st dose of the HPV vaccine at 15 years of age or above will need to have 3 doses of the vaccine. This is because they do not respond as well to 2 doses as younger people do.
Read more about HPV vaccination safety and the possible side effects.
Can A Vaccine Help Prevent Hpv
Yes. Vaccines are available to help prevent infection by certain types of HPV and some of the cancers linked to those types. As of 2020, Gardasil 9 is the only HPV vaccine available in the United States. Other HPV vaccines are available outside the U.S.
All of these vaccines help prevent infection by HPV-16 and HPV-18. These 2 types cause most cervical cancers and pre-cancers, as well as many cancers of the anus, penis, vulva, vagina, and throat.
Gardasil 9 helps prevent infection by 4 types of HPV , plus 5 other high risk types: 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58. Together these types cause about 90% of cervical cancers.
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Are There Other Ways To Prevent Hpv
For those who are sexually active, condoms may lower the chances of getting HPV, if used with every sex act, from start to finish. Condoms may also lower the risk of developing HPV-related diseases . But HPV can infect areas that are not covered by a condomso condoms may not fully protect against HPV.
People can also lower their chances of getting HPV by being in a faithful relationship with one partner limiting their number of sex partners and choosing a partner who has had no or few prior sex partners. But even people with only one lifetime sex partner can get HPV. And it may not be possible to determine if a partner who has been sexually active in the past is currently infected. Thats why the only sure way to prevent HPV is to avoid all sexual activity.
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