Guidance On Reporting Adverse Events Following Immunization
To ensure the ongoing safety of vaccines in Canada, reporting of AEFIs by vaccine providers and other clinicians is critical, and in some jurisdictions, reporting is mandatory under the law.
Vaccine providers are asked to report AEFIs, through local public health officials, and to check for specific AEFI reporting requirements in their province or territory. In general, any serious or unexpected adverse event felt to be temporally related to vaccination should be reported.
For additional information about AEFI reporting, please refer to Adverse events following immunization. For general vaccine safety information, refer to Vaccine safety and pharmacovigilance in Part 2.
The Meningitis B Vaccine Can Help Prevent This Deadly Illness
Weve told you the scary stuff, now heres the part where we give you some reassuring news. First, any form of meningococcal diseaseincluding meningitis Bis relatively rare, and incidents have been on the decline in the last few decades. The CDC says that in 2017, there were about 350 total cases of meningococcal disease reported. Thats 0.11 cases per 100,000 people.
The other good news is that you can reduce your childs risk of getting meningitis B by making sure they get the meningitis B vaccine. The reason that we vaccinate against things is that they are severe diseases, even if they occur rarely, Adam J. Ratner, M.D., director of the division of Pediatric Infectious Disease at NYU Langone and associate professor in both the department of Pediatrics and department of Microbiology at NYU Langone, tells SELF.
The meningitis B vaccine introduces your body to a specific part of the bacteria cell, combined with whats called an adjuvantan extra material that helps boost the effectiveness of the immune responseso your body learns to produce antibodies that target that bacteria. Your body does not see the whole bacteria, and so it’s impossible to get the infection from the vaccine itself, Dr. Vyas explains. Theres more than one meningitis B vaccine available, but both require at least two doses for maximum effectiveness.
Meningococcal B Vaccine For Children Less Than Two Years Of Age
Fever is common in children aged two or under two years of age when meningococcal B vaccine is given.
It is recommended to use paracetamol 30 minutes before every dose of meningococcal B vaccine given to children under two years of age or as soon as practicable. Follow this with two more doses of paracetamol given 6 hours apart, even if the children do not have a fever.
This is to:
- reduce the chance of fever occurring
- reduce the severity of fever that does occur.
Be sure to give the paracetamol dose that is written on the bottle according to your child’s weight.
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Tetanus Diphtheria And Pertussis
One dose after age 7.
Tdap: Tetanus and diphtheria toxoids with acellular pertussis vaccine is given to adolescents and adults, usually as a single dose the exception is pregnant women who should receive Tdap during each pregnancy.
Q: We do not have Tdap available in my country, what should I do?Q: Does Td or DTaP fufill the Tdap requirement?
Can You Get Viral Meningitis More Than Once
Yes. But it is very rare for a person to have two or more episodes of meningitis, because most people develop immunity to the virus that caused their disease.
Recurrent viral meningitis is most often caused by herpes simplex 2, and sometimes herpes simplex 1. This type of the disease is called Mollaret meningitis. In order to be diagnosed as having Mollaret meningitis, an individual will have to experience at least three episodes of an illness consisting of a stiff neck, headache, fever, and other meningitis symptoms.
These illnesses last about two to five days, then subside on their own.
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Are There Any Adults Who Should Not Get The Meningococcal Vaccine
You shouldn’t get either type of meningococcal vaccine if you:
- Are moderately or seriously ill wait until you recover.
- Have had a serious allergic reaction to a previous dose
- Had a severe reaction to any part of the vaccine
If you are pregnant or have other concerns, ask your doctor which meningitis vaccine is right for you.
Is Meningitis Shot Mandatory
Fourteen of the 15 states with the highest rates of meningococcal ACWY vaccination have a mandate in place. As of July 2019, 31 states and Washington, D.C. mandate the first dose of the MenACWY vaccine at age 11-12, while just 17 states mandate the second dose of MenACWY at age 16-17, aligning with CDC recommendations.
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Meningitis B Is A Rare But Very Serious Disease
As the Mayo Clinic explains, meningitis is inflammation of the membrane that surrounds your brain and spinal cord . According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , meningitis B is caused by the bacteria N. meningitidis. Illnesses caused by this bacteria are referred to broadly as meningococcal diseases.
The B in meningitis B refers to a serogroupa subtypeof N. meningitidis. The CDC notes that the five other serogroups that most commonly cause meningococcal disease are A, C, W, X, and Y.
The CDC explains that N. meningitidis already lives in the mouths and throats of about 10 percent of the population without causing any problems. It can be spread through spit and saliva, but is less contagious than viruses like the common cold or flu. It takes close, prolonged contact, e.g., kissing someone who is a meningitis B carrier, or being in the same room with them for a prolonged period of time while theyre coughing. Outbreaks are rare, but when they do occur, its often among people in cramped living conditions, such as army barracks or college dorms.
- A stiff neck
How Is Meningitis Treated
- Bacterial meningitis and septicaemia need urgent hospital admission so appropriate care and treatment can be given as quickly as possible
- Bacterial meningitis can be treated with antibiotics, but depending on the condition of the patient many other procedures and interventions can be needed
- The progression of the disease varies, with some people needing only a few days in hospital and others needing a longer stay with treatment in an intensive care unit
- There is no specific treatment for viral meningitis, however some people will need hospital care, ensuring the patient has plenty of fluids, pain relief and rest
Why are antibiotics given to some people after a case of bacterial meningitis?
When there is a case of meningococcal disease there is a slightly increased risk of the disease spreading to the household and kissing contacts of a primary case.
Antibiotics are given to kill any meningococcal bacteria which may be carried at the back of the throat of the contact and prevent any further transmission. These antibiotics are not a form of prevention. If someone is already incubating the disease, the antibiotics will not stop them developing meningitis and/or septicaemia.
It is still important to look out for signs and symptoms.
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Is Viral Meningitis Contagious
Yes, but its unlikely to spread. While the viruses that cause the disease are generally easily passed between people, viral meningitis itself is not very easily passed between people. When it is, it happens mostly between people who are in regular, close contact.
Enteroviruses are present in the feces, mucus, and saliva of infected people, and are transmitted through direct contact with an infected person or surface.
In temperate climates, these viruses spread most during summer and autumn, and infection rates are high all year long in tropical and subtropical climates.
The herpes simplex virus can be passed to other people via contact with an infected area of skin during an outbreak .
Other meningitis-causing viruses are spread in different ways.
For instance, mumps, measles, and influenza are easily spread between the unvaccinated through coughing and sneezing, while HIV is spread through unprotected sex and sharing drug needles .
Frequently Asked Questions About Vaccine Schedules
Many people have questions about vaccine schedules. This page answers some of the most frequently asked questions about vaccine schedules.
Before a vaccine is added to the routine schedule, it must first be approved for use by Health Canada. Once a vaccine has been approved for use, recommendations on how to use the vaccine are then made by Canadas National Advisory Committee on Immunization . This committee is made up of experts in the fields of pediatrics, infectious diseases, immunology, medical microbiology, and public health. NACI makes recommendations for who should receive certain vaccines based on the burden of illness in Canada, as well as evidence about the vaccines safety and effectiveness. Their recommendations are published here.
The ministries of health in each of the provinces and territories then use these recommendations from NACI to develop their vaccine schedules and recommendations, taking into consideration other health priorities. Vaccines are only added to the vaccine schedule if they are known to be safe and effective. Even new vaccines have been studied for a long time to be sure that they are safe for your child and will provide important protection against disease.
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Why Are Meningococcal Vaccines Recommended
Meningococcal disease is caused by a type of bacteria. It can lead to an infection of the bloodstream or meningitis, or both, and can be life-threatening if not quickly treated. The MenACWY vaccine is very effective at protecting against four strains of the bacteria, while the MenB vaccine protects against a fifth strain.
When To See A Doctor
Meningitis symptoms can come on quickly and rapidly become serious in babies. For this reason, babies should be given emergency medical care if any symptoms of meningitis appear, or if the babyâs behavior is unusual.
Extreme fussiness without obvious cause, a fever, excessive sleepiness, or a rash should be checked by a doctor immediately.
Although meningitis can be serious, most babies will recover from viral or bacterial meningitis with proper medical care.
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Meningococcal Vaccine: Canadian Immunization Guide
For health professionals
Latest partial content update :
: The chapter has been updated to align with the National Advisory Committee on Immunization Statement : The Use of Bivalent Factor H Binding Protein Meningococcal Serogroup B Vaccine for the Prevention of Meningococcal B Disease.
MenB-fHBP vaccine may be considered as an option for use in individuals 10 years of age and older in situations when a serogroup B meningococcal vaccine should be offered:
MenB-fHBP vaccine may be considered as an option for individuals 1025 years of age who are not at higher risk of meningococcal disease than the general population, but who wish to reduce their risk of invasive serogroup B meningococcal disease.
Last complete chapter revision: May 2015
Persons With Inadequate Immunization Records
Children and adults lacking adequate documentation of immunization should be considered unimmunized and started on an immunization schedule appropriate for their age and risk factors. Conjugate meningococcal vaccine, as appropriate for age, may be given regardless of possible previous receipt of the vaccine, as adverse events associated with repeated immunization have not been demonstrated. Refer to Immunization of persons with inadequate immunization records in Part 3 for additional general information.
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Heres Who Should Consider Getting The Meningitis B Vaccine
The CDC currently states that anyone 10 and up should get the vaccine in the following circumstances:
The CDC specifically calls out that it can be beneficial for people who are 16 to 23especially 16 to 18to get vaccinated against meningitis B.
If youre hoping to reduce your childs risk of getting meningitis B and other forms of meningococcal disease, talk to their doctor about vaccination. Now you have the information, you can decide how to best protect your childand help them protect themselves.
When Are Meningococcal Vaccines Given
Vaccination with MenACWY is recommended:
- when kids are 11 or 12 years old, with a booster given at age 16
- for teens 1318 years old who haven’t been vaccinated yet
Those who have their first dose between the ages of 1315 should get a booster dose between the ages of 1618. Teens who get their first dose after age 16 won’t need a booster dose.
Kids and teens who are at higher risk for meningococcal disease need the full series of MenACWY vaccines, even if they’re younger than 11 years old. This includes kids who:
- live in or travel to countries where the disease is common
- are present during an outbreak of the disease
- have some kinds of immune disorders. If the immune disorders are chronic, these kids also need a booster dose a few years later, depending on their age at the first dose.
The sequence and dosage depends on the child’s age, medical condition, and vaccine brand. Some types of meningococcal vaccines can be given as early as 8 weeks of age.
Kids 10 years and older with these risk factors also should get the MenB vaccine. They’ll need 2 or 3 doses depending on the brand. They might need more booster doses as long as the risk factor remains.
For those without risk factors, the decision to receive the MenB vaccine should be made together by teens, their parents, and the doctor. For them, the preferred age range is 1618 years. Usually, they need 2 doses.
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Adding Additional Vaccination Or Tb Documentation After Initial Submission
Q: I have to submit additional TB testing results. How do I do that?
A: If you are asked to submit additional documentation of TB testing results, use the update button to enter the dates of your TB testing. If you have had a chest x-ray, please use the “upload” feature to attach a copy of the chest x-ray report. If you have additional questions regarding updating your Immunization Form and submitting additional records you may send a secured message to the nurse through the myhealth patient portal or contact our Immunization Line at 209-228-2273 Option 4.
Q: I submitted incorrect dates and/or information. What do I do?
A: As long as you can still click on the green “Update” button, you can add/modify dates. If the dates can’t be changed, then your dates have been acknowledged by one of our staff and you will need to contact us please call the Immunization Line at 209-228-2273 Option 4
Meningococcal Acwy Vaccine Side Effects
The meningococcal ACWY vaccine is effective and safe, although all medications can have unwanted side effects.
Side effects from this vaccine are uncommon and are usually mild, but may include:
- localised pain, redness and swelling at the injection site
- occasionally, an injection-site lump that may last many weeks
- low-grade temperature
- children being unsettled, irritable, tearful, or generally unhappy, drowsy and tired.
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Treating Meningitis In Babies
Bacterial meningitis is treated with antibiotics that are typically given intravenously in the hospital through an IV.
According to the AAP, most babies who receive prompt antibiotic treatment will recover completely. However, about 20 percent may be left with lifelong effects, including hearing problems, learning disabilities, seizures, and paralysis.
Viral meningitis does not respond to antibiotics. It is usually not as serious as bacterial meningitis , and many babies will recover completely without complications.
However, both types of meningitis require prompt medical attention. Babies may need extra hydration with IV fluids, pain relief, monitoring, and rest in order to make a full recovery.
Meningitis can be spread easily from person to person. Although it cannot be prevented completely, some precautions can significantly reduce the risk of a baby getting it.
Are You 65 Or Older Get Two Vaccinations Against Pneumonia
- By Gregory Curfman, MD, Assistant Professor of Medicine, Former Editor-in-Chief, Harvard Health Publishing
ARCHIVED CONTENT: As a service to our readers, Harvard Health Publishing provides access to our library of archived content. Please note the date each article was posted or last reviewed. No content on this site, regardless of date, should ever be used as a substitute for direct medical advice from your doctor or other qualified clinician.
If you or a loved one is age 65 or older, getting vaccinated against pneumonia is a good idea so good that the Centers for Disease Control now recommends that everyone in this age group get vaccinated against pneumonia twice.
This new recommendation is based on findings from a large clinical trial called CAPiTA, which were published today in The New England Journal of Medicine.
Streptococcus pneumoniae, sometimes just called pneumococcus, is a common bacterium that can cause serious lung infections like pneumonia. It can also cause invasive infections of the bloodstream, the tissues covering the brain and spinal cord , and other organs and tissues. Older individuals are especially prone to being infected by Pneumococcus, and these infections are often deadly.
The dark spots are pneumonia-causing Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria isolated from the blood of an infected person.
One caveat is that while PCV13 is effective in preventing pneumonia caused by S. pneumoniae, it does not prevent pneumonia caused by viruses or other bacteria.
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