Menacwy Vaccination Of Younger Children And Adults At Increased Risk
In certain situations, younger children and adults should receive MenACWY vaccines. Some people are at increased risk for serogroup A, C, W, or Y meningococcal disease due to
- Having certain medical conditions
Those who remain at increased risk need regular booster doses.
- For children under the age of 7 years, administer a booster dose 3 years after completion of the primary series and every 5 years thereafter.
- For children 7 years old or older and adults, administer a booster dose 5 years after completion of the primary series and every 5 years thereafter.
Persons New To Canada
Health care providers who see persons newly arrived in Canada should review the immunization status and update immunization for these individuals. Review of meningococcal vaccination status is particularly important for persons from areas of the world where sickle cell disease is present as persons with sickle cell disease are at risk of serious meningococcal infections. In many countries outside of Canada, conjugate meningococcal vaccines are in limited use. Information on vaccination schedules in other countries can be found on the World Health Organization website. Refer to Immunization of Persons New to Canada in Part 3 for additional general information.
Healthmeningitis Vaccine Protects Against Gonorrhea Too
Ultimately, the value of the new paper is that its educating physicians and parents alike, said Dr. Marian Michaels, a professor of pediatrics at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center and a pediatric infectious disease specialist at UPMCs Childrens Hospital of Pittsburgh.
When you look at surveys, you see that only about 50 percent of pediatricians know about the vaccine for MenB and an incredibly small percent just one third of family practice doctors know about it, she said.
From my standpoint, this is a very safe vaccine and while there isnt a huge incidence of meningococcal B disease, when it hits, it hits hard and , Michaels said. Within hours someone could be in the intensive care unit fighting for their lives.
Linda Carroll is a regular health contributor to NBC News and Reuters Health. She is coauthor of “The Concussion Crisis: Anatomy of a Silent Epidemic” and “Out of the Clouds: The Unlikely Horseman and the Unwanted Colt Who Conquered the Sport of Kings.”
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Meningococcal Resources For Your College
Information about meningococcal disease and prevention to raise awareness among students.
- Student video Protect yourself from preventable diseases by making sure you are up to date on your immunizations before you leave for college.
- Meningitis B Action Project The Meningitis B Action Project provides material and resources to educate parents and young adults about meningitis B and the vaccine to prevent it.
- Meningococcal Disease College Toolkit Raises awareness about the importance of meningococcal disease prevention among healthcare professionals, college health administrators, students, and the public.
Information for teens and college students on meningococcal disease.
Cost Effectiveness Of Immunization
To evaluate the cost effectiveness of a publicly funded immunization program targeting young adults admitted to universities in Canada, a simulation model was constructed, derived from an epidemio-economic model evaluating alternative control strategies for children . The experience of a cohort of 100,000 students, 50% being vaccinated at the time of university admission, was analyzed and follow-up was 10 years. Input variables in the base model are presented in . IMD incidence rates were derived from Health Canada surveillance data in the age group 18 to 27 years, and for the period from 1995 to 1998 . In sensitivity analyses, the IMD incidence rate during a university stay of four years was multiplied by a factor of 0.5 or 2.4 . Vaccine efficacy rates in the first year were based on US and UK data, and waning immunity rates over years were determined by experts, taking into account immunogenicity data . Incremental cost effectiveness and cost utility ratios from a societal perspective were calculated according to current guidelines .
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Submitting Proof Of Vaccination
Do not submit your vaccination proof to Undergraduate Admissions or the Student Health Center.
Texas State uses Magnus Health SMR for managing compliance with the meningitis vaccination requirement. New students planning to enroll at Texas State must submit proof of meningitis vaccination directly to Magnus Health SMR. Students subject to the bacterial meningitis requirement will receive an email from Magnus Health SMR with instructions. Students will be charged $10 by Magnus Health SMR for processing the documents and verifying compliance with the vaccination requirement. Acceptable evidence of vaccination may include any of the following:
- An official immunization record from a government health authority .
- An official immunization record received from school officials, including a record from another state .
- Students using a pharmacy should download and provide the pharmacist with the generic immunization form available on the Magnus website, once they have paid their processing fee, to ensure they receive an approvable document from the pharmacist . H-E-B customers should request their Vaccine Administration Consent Form for submission to Magnus.
- All records must be in English to be approved.
What Are The Symptoms Of Meningococcal Disease
Signs and symptoms of meningococcal disease include sudden onset of fever, stiff neck, headache, nausea, vomiting, sensitivity to light and/or mental confusion. A rash may also be present. Changes in behavior such as confusion, sleepiness, and unresponsiveness are important symptoms of illness. Anyone who has these symptoms should be seen by a healthcare provider immediately. In fatal cases, death can occur in as little as a few hours, even with appropriate medical treatment. Less common presentations include pneumonia and arthritis.
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Healthafter Daughters’ Deaths Moms Urge Parents To Consider Meningitis B Vaccine
Currently ACIP does not recommended MenB for all teens, which is why Mbaeyi suggests that parents and young people especially those with college plans talk over the risks and benefits of the MenB vaccine with their doctor.
The main downside is the cost of the vaccine, experts said, which can run between $300 and $400 for the two shot series.
Though rare, there have been recent outbreaks of MenB. In September officials at San Diego State University reported three students the number that fits the CDCs definition of an outbreak had developed the disease. And in late 2017 an outbreak started in Massachusettss five college consortium, with two cases reported in the fall of that year at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, and a third case in March of 2018 at nearby Smith College.
What Are Neisseria Meningitidis
Neisseria meningitidis are bacteria that may be found normally in peoples throats and noses. About 5 to 15% of people carry these bacteria and do not get sick from them. These people may be referred to as colonized. Colonized people only have bacteria for a short time. Usually, the bacteria go away and these people may have increased resistance to infection in the future. In rare cases, the bacteria may get into the blood and go to the tissue surrounding the spinal cord and brain, causing severe illness. It is not known why this occurs in certain people and not in others. A recent upper respiratory illness may be a contributing factor.
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Who Should Get Meningococcal Vaccines
CDC recommends meningococcal vaccination for all preteens and teens. In certain situations, CDC also recommends other children and adults get meningococcal vaccines. Below is more information about which meningococcal vaccines, including booster shots, CDC recommends for people by age.
Talk to your or your childs doctor about what is best for your specific situation.
Adolescents Are At Increased Risk For Meningococcal Disease
Anyone can get meningococcal disease. However, adolescents and young adults 16 through 23 years of age are at increased risk for meningococcal disease. In addition, college students have a slightly higher risk than other teens and young adults who are not attending college. Meningococcal bacteria can cause severe disease, including meningitis, bacteremia, and septicemia, resulting in permanent disabilities and even death.
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When Are Meningococcal Vaccines Given
Vaccination with MenACWY is recommended:
- when kids are 11 or 12 years old, with a booster given at age 16
- for teens 1318 years old who haven’t been vaccinated yet
Those who have their first dose between the ages of 1315 should get a booster dose between the ages of 1618. Teens who get their first dose after age 16 won’t need a booster dose.
Kids and teens who are at higher risk for meningococcal disease need the full series of MenACWY vaccines, even if they’re younger than 11 years old. This includes kids who:
- live in or travel to countries where the disease is common
- are present during an outbreak of the disease
- have some kinds of immune disorders. If the immune disorders are chronic, these kids also need a booster dose a few years later, depending on their age at the first dose.
The sequence and dosage depends on the child’s age, medical condition, and vaccine brand. Some types of meningococcal vaccines can be given as early as 8 weeks of age.
Kids 10 years and older with these risk factors also should get the MenB vaccine. They’ll need 2 or 3 doses depending on the brand. They might need more booster doses as long as the risk factor remains.
For those without risk factors, the decision to receive the MenB vaccine should be made together by teens, their parents, and the doctor. For them, the preferred age range is 1618 years. Usually, they need 2 doses.
People With Certain Medical Conditions Need A Primary Series Of Menb Vaccine And Routine Booster Doses
Vaccinate people who have the following medical conditions with a primary series of MenB vaccine:
- Complement component deficiency
- Functional or anatomic asplenia
The primary series for Bexsero® requires 2 doses. Administer the second dose at least one month after the first dose. The primary series for Trumenba® for people at increased risk requires 3 doses. Administer the second dose 1 to 2 months after the first dose. Administer the third dose 6 months after the first dose.
Administer a booster dose of MenB vaccine 1 year after series completion and then every 2 to 3 years thereafter, to people with these medical conditions.
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What Are The Possible Side Effects Of Meningococcal Vaccines
Some of the most common side effects are swelling, redness, and pain at the site of the injection, along with headache, fever, or tiredness. Serious problems, such as allergic reactions, are rare.
The meningococcal vaccines contains only a small piece of the germ, so it can’t cause meningococcal disease.
Special Considerations For Use Of Menactra For People With Functional Or Anatomic Asplenia Or Hiv
Children with functional or anatomic asplenia or HIV should not receive Menactra® before the age of 2 years. This timing avoids interference with the immunologic response to the infant series of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine . CDC recommends infants 2 through 23 months of age with functional or anatomic asplenia or HIV receive Menveo®.
People 2 years of age or older with functional or anatomic asplenia or HIV should not receive Menactra® at the same time as PCV. They should either receive Menveo® or MenQuadfi® when they get PCV or wait and receive Menactra® 4 weeks after completion of all PCV doses.
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What Are The Options For Meningococcal Vaccine
Meningococcal vaccine is highly effective at protecting against four strains of the meningococcal bacteria. Three strains are common in the United States and the fourth strain protects travelers to certain countries where the disease is more common.
The MenACWY vaccine does not contain the meningococcal B strain that may cause some cases in adolescents/young adults. The meningococcal B vaccine can be given to people age 16-23 years. MenB vaccine is also recommended for people over age 10 years with certain high-risk conditions. If your clinic does not carry the MenB vaccine, you can ask them to order it for you, or to refer you to another clinic that has the vaccine. Talk to your health care provider about this additional vaccine.
What Is Meningococcal Disease
Meningococcal disease is a serious illness caused by a bacterium. It can cause meningitis, which is an infection of the brain and spinal cord, and it can also cause blood infections. The infection can cause death or lifelong disability.
About 375 people get the disease each year, and about 10 to 15 out of 100 people infected with meningococcal disease die. Of those who survive, up to one out of five have permanent disabilities, such as deafness, brain damage, loss of limbs, or seizures.
A person with meningococcal disease may become seriously ill very quickly. Antibiotics can treat meningococcal infections, but often can’t be given soon enough to help.
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Risk Of Invasive Meningococcal Disease
In the literature, there have been reports of localized outbreaks in colleges and universities, and these were mainly caused by serogroup C strains . In the United Kingdom, an epidemiological study was performed during the period from 1994 to 1997, and showed that university students had a 2.4-fold increased IMD risk compared with nonstudents of similar age in the same region . In the United States, during the 1998 to 1999 period, surveillance data indicated that undergraduate students had a 0.5 lower IMD risk compared with 18- to 23-year old nonstudents . In first year students, however, IMD risk was 1.4-fold higher than that in the general population.
Incidence rate of invasive meningococcal disease in Quebec, according to age, from 1990 to 1992. Data from the Quebec Ministry of Health, written communication
Behavioural factors associated with an increased IMD risk among university students were similar to those found for asymptomatic carriage and included residence on campus, residence in dormitories, visiting/spending time in cafeterias and bars, alcohol consumption, active and passive smoking, and French kissing . It is, however, difficult to disentangle the independent effects of these highly correlated variables. IMD in young adults is particularly severe. In a review of IMD cases among college students in Allegheny county in Pennsylvania, the case fatality rate was 11%, and 20% of survivors had permanent physical sequelae .
Risk Of Meningococcal Infection
For any individual, IMD risk is associated with the probability of exposure to a virulent strain of Neisseria meningitidis, and exposure is determined by the frequency, duration and closeness of interpersonal contacts, and by the prevalence of asymptomatic carriers among contacts . Bringing together groups of young adults in a university setting is a recipe for the transmission of meningococci. In a longitudinal study of asymptomatic carriage of meningococci among students in their first year at the University of Nottingham in the United Kingdom, the prevalence rate increased from 6.9% on day 1 to 23.1% on day 4 in the first week of term in October, and was up to 34.2% in some groups in December . Independent risk factors for acquisition were frequency of visits to bar halls, active smoking, visits to night clubs and intimate kissing.
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Recommended Vaccines For College Students
This section provides information about recommended vaccinations for college students. Below you will find links to information about the vaccines and the diseases they protect against.
The Ohio Revised Code Section 1713.55 states that beginning with the academic year that commences on or after July 1, 2005, an institution of higher education shall not permit a student to reside in on-campus housing unless the student discloses whether the student has been vaccinated against meningococcal disease and hepatitis B by submitting a meningitis and hepatitis B vaccination status statement.
ORC Section 3701.133 states that the Ohio Department of Health shall make available on its Web site information about meningitis and hepatitis B, the risks associated with the diseases and the availability and effectiveness of the vaccines. ODH shall also make available, on its Web site, in a format suitable for downloading, a meningitis and hepatitis B vaccination status statement form that complies with the guidelines outlined in ORC Section 3701.133, .
On this page you will find a link to each disease and a vaccination status statement that may be downloaded, printed and used if the institution of higher education chooses. The institution may also develop its own form, but it must comply with ORC Section 3701.133, .
Which Colleges And Universities Currently Require The Meningitis B Vaccine Where Have There Been Past Cases
MenB is more common among those 16-23 and is 5+ times more likely in college students. Yet few colleges are requiring the Meningitis B vaccine. There are 5,300 colleges and universities, and more than 30,000 high schools in the United States. We only know of 42 schools currently requiring Meningitis B vaccination.
schools requiring MenB vaccination
schools with past MenB case
schools recommending MenB vaccination
Scroll down to see the list of schools. Data is compiled based on publicly available data from campus immunization forms.
SCHOOLS CURRENTLY REQUIRING MENB VACCINATION
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Efficacy Of Meningococcal Vaccines
A quadrivalent A, C, Y and W-135 polysaccharide vaccine has been available in Canada for many years. In young adults, short term protection against serogroups A and C IMD is around 90% . The duration of protection is not known. Following vaccination of military personnel in the United States, antigroups A and C bactericidal antibodies declined rapidly over the next two years but persisted above baseline for 10 years . There are no efficacy data for serogroups Y and W-135.
In Canada, a first serogroup C meningococcal conjugate vaccine was licensed in 2001 and several products are now available . Conjugate vaccines induce a T-cell dependent immune response implying a priming of immunologic memory, and immunity is thought to be long lasting. In the United Kingdom, the protection conferred by one dose of vaccine was around 90% in individuals aged one year or more , and three years after the initiation of a mass immunization campaign, there was no indication of waning immunity.