Sunday, June 4, 2023

Is Meningococcal Vaccine The Same As Meningitis

When Are Meningococcal Vaccines Given

Meningococcal (meningitis) vaccine for grade 7 students

Vaccination with MenACWY is recommended:

  • when kids are 11 or 12 years old, with a booster given at age 16
  • for teens 1318 years old who haven’t been vaccinated yet

Those who have their first dose between the ages of 1315 should get a booster dose between the ages of 1618. Teens who get their first dose after age 16 won’t need a booster dose.

Kids and teens who are at higher risk for meningococcal disease need the full series of MenACWY vaccines, even if they’re younger than 11 years old. This includes kids who:

  • live in or travel to countries where the disease is common
  • are present during an outbreak of the disease
  • have some kinds of immune disorders. If the immune disorders are chronic, these kids also need a booster dose a few years later, depending on their age at the first dose.

The sequence and dosage depends on the child’s age, medical condition, and vaccine brand. Some types of meningococcal vaccines can be given as early as 8 weeks of age.

Kids 10 years and older with these risk factors also should get the MenB vaccine. They’ll need 2 or 3 doses depending on the brand. They might need more booster doses as long as the risk factor remains.

For those without risk factors, the decision to receive the MenB vaccine should be made together by teens, their parents, and the doctor. For them, the preferred age range is 1618 years. Usually, they need 2 doses.

Where And When Can I Get The Vaccine

Talk to your doctor or local public health clinic to find out where and when your child should get vaccinated.

  • The cost of Men-C-C is covered everywhere in Canada.
  • Many provinces currently cover the cost of MCV-4 vaccine.
  • Currently, no provinces or territories cover the cost of Men-B vaccine for all children. Some provide it for children at high risk of getting meningococcal disease.

Who Needs A Meningococcal Vaccine

The CDC recommends a meningococcal vaccine for:

  • All children ages 11-18 or certain younger high-risk children
  • Anyone who has been exposed to meningitis during an outbreak
  • Anyone traveling to or living where meningitis is common, such as in sub-Saharan Africa
  • Military recruits
  • People with certain immune system disorders or a damaged or missing spleen

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Meningococcal B Recombinant Vaccine

There is an increased risk of fever and medically attended fever-related events, such as febrile seizures, associated with 4CMenB in some children age under 2 years. These events peaked at six hours post-vaccination and generally subsided by day 3. Prophylaxic paracetamol is recommended 30 minutes prior and six-hourly for up to 48 hours following vaccination for children aged under 2 years. Ibuprofen may be given as an alternative to paracetamol. Some infants will still develop a fever and/or injection-site pain even though they have received paracetamol doses.

In clinical trials, some infants and young children also experienced injection-site tenderness and irritability. Adolescents and adults may experience localised pain, nausea, myalgia, malaise, mild fever and headache.

Many Colleges Require Proof Of Menacwy Vaccination Within 5 Years Before Starting School

Meningococcal meningitis vaccine

Regardless of school requirements, CDC recommends a booster dose for all teens who received the first dose before their 16th birthday. The booster dose provides the best protection during the ages when teens are at highest risk. Teens who receive their first MenACWY vaccine dose at or after age 16 years do not need a booster dose.

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Ingredients In Menacwy Vaccines

Menactra, MenQuadfi, and Menveo are all made through a process which chemically links a protein recognized by the immune system with a sugar molecule found on the surface of certain types of Neisseria meningitidis.

Usually, those polysaccharides are hard for the immune system to spot, but when theyre linked to proteins the immune system recognizes, your body learns to mount a response to it. These vaccines are called conjugate vaccines.

Importantly, each one of these vaccines contains polysaccharides from four different serogroups of Neisseria meningitidis.That allows the vaccine to protect you against four different subgroups of bacteria.

These vaccines do not contain preservatives or adjuvants .

Menacwy Vaccines Are Safe However As With Any Vaccine Side Effects Can Occur

About half of the people who get a MenACWY vaccine have mild problems following vaccination, such as:

  • Redness where the shot was given
  • Soreness where the shot was given
  • Muscle pain
  • Headache
  • Feeling tired

If they occur, these reactions usually get better on their own within 1 to 2 days. Serious reactions are possible, but rare.

CDC continually monitors the safety of all vaccines, including MenACWY vaccines. For more information, view the Meningococcal ACWY Vaccine Information Statement.

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Who Should Not Get A Meningococcal Vaccine

Your preteen or teen shouldn’t get the meningococcal vaccine if they:

  • Has had a severe, life-threatening allergic reaction to a meningococcal vaccine before or to any vaccine component
  • Is moderately or severely ill
  • Has ever had Guillain-Barre syndrome

Pregnant women can get the meningococcal vaccine, but it’s only recommended for those with certain immune problems or those likely to be exposed to meningitis. With the newer MCV4 and MenB vaccines, there hasn’t been as much study in pregnant women compared to the MPSV4 vaccine.

Meningococcal C Conjugate Vaccine

SDSU students may need to get another meningitis vaccine

NeisVac-C is a meningococcal conjugate vaccine to protect against meningococcal group C only.

This can be used to protect babies under the age of 9 months. Babies who are less than 9 months of age need three doses to be protected. Children over 9 months of age and adults should be given the ACWY vaccine, Menactra.

The NeisVac-C vaccine is funded for children aged under 9 months with a medical condition that increases their risk of invasive meningococcal disease AND is listed on the Pharmaceutical Schedule. Refer to the Immunisation Handbookfor more details.

NeisVac-C is also available as a purchased vaccine through your family doctor. The cost is approximately $98 per dose.

For more advice on vaccines and their availability, talk to your family doctor, call the free Immunisation Advisory Centre helpline 0800 IMMUNE , or see the Immunisation Handbook.

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Muslims Undergoing The Hajj Or Umrah Pilgrimage

Pilgrims to Saudi Arabia are especially at risk of contracting meningococcal infection. There have been outbreaks in recent years. A proof of immunisation is needed to obtain a visa to go to Saudi Arabia for this purpose.

Note: some pilgrims may have been immunised in the past with an older vaccine which only protected against groups A and C. If you travel to Saudi Arabia again you should have an injection of the newer MenACWY vaccine. Proof of immunisation with MenACWY vaccine given within the preceding three years is now needed to get a new visa to visit Saudi Arabia.

How Common Is Meningococcal Disease

Meningococcal disease is becoming much less common. Over the past 20 years, the overall incidence of meningococcal disease in the US has declined 10-fold. Twenty years ago in Massachusetts there were 80-100 cases of meningococcal disease per year. In contrast, for the past decade the average is approximately 12 cases per year. Declining rates of meningococcal disease may be due in part to the introduction of meningococcal vaccines as well as other factors such as the decline in cigarette smoking, which may impact susceptibility to this disease.

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Dose And Administration Of Meningococcal Vaccine

The dose is 0.5 mL IM for MenACWY and 0.5 mL subcutaneous for MPSV4.

Two doses of MenACWY, given 8 weeks apart and followed by a booster every 5 years, are required for adults who have anatomic or functional asplenia, HIV infection, or persistent complement component deficiencies or who take eculizumab or ravulizumab. Adolescents with HIV infection are routinely vaccinated with a 2-dose primary series, given 8 weeks apart.

A single dose of MenACWY meningococcal vaccine is given to microbiologists who are routinely exposed to isolates of N. meningitidis, military recruits, people at risk during an outbreak attributable to a vaccine serogroup, and those who travel to or live in endemic areas. If risk continues , a booster dose is given every 5 years.

Based on a shared clinical decision-making discussion, adolescents and young adults aged 16 to 23 years who are not at increased risk of meningococcal disease are given two doses of MenB-4C at least 1 month apart or a 2-dose series of MenB-FHbp given at 0 and 6 months . The same MenB must be used for all doses.

People 10 years of age with certain high-risk conditions , and people identified to be at increased risk because of a meningococcal disease outbreak caused by serogroup B are given a 2-dose series of MenB-4C 1 month apart or a 3-dose series of MenB-FHbp at 0, 1 to 2, and 6 months .

When Should I Get Hepatitis A Vaccines

New meningitis vaccination requirement in Iowa for students

Ideally, you should get hepatitis A vaccines at least two weeks before you travel to an area where the virus is common. This will give the vaccine time to start working. If you are already in an area where hepatitis A is common or about to travel, you should get vaccinated as soon as possible. Vaccination is also recommended for people who are at increased risk for hepatitis A, such as those with chronic liver disease or those who have had a liver transplant.

Talk to your healthcare provider about which vaccine is right for you and make sure you are up-to-date on all your vaccinations before you travel.

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How Effective Is Meningococcal Vaccine

Having the meningococcal vaccine does not give you lifelong protection against meningococcal disease. When you get the vaccine, it causes your body’s defence system to produce antibodies to fight against the infection if you come into contact with someone who has the illness. But, over time, the antibody levels decrease. In older children, adolescents and adults, protection is expected to last for around 5 years after vaccination.The number and quality of antibodies and how long they last depend on what type of vaccine is used, the meningococcal group covered by the vaccine and the age of the person receiving the vaccine.

Are You Still At Risk Of Meningitis After The Immunisation

Yes. However, the MenC vaccine has greatly reduced the number of cases of meningitis and blood infection since it was introduced in 1999 and the MenB vaccine is expected to be as effective.

Note: other groups of meningococcus, and other germs can still cause meningitis.

You should get medical help immediately if you suspect that your child, or someone you know, has meningitis or septicaemia. The earlier the treatment of meningitis or septicaemia, the better the chance of recovery and preventing complications or death. See the separate leaflet called Meningitis. See also the separate leaflets called and Meningitis Symptoms Checklist for more details about the symptoms of meningitis and septicaemia.

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Are Students In College At Risk For Meningococcal Disease

In the 1990s, college freshmen living in residence halls were identified as being at increased risk for meningococcal disease. Meningococcal disease and outbreaks in young adults were primarily due to serogroup C. However, following many years of routine vaccination of young people with quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine , serogroup B is now the primary cause of meningococcal disease and outbreaks in young adults. Among the approximately 9 million students aged 18-21 years enrolled in college, there are an average of 20 cases and 2-4 outbreaks due to serogroup B reported annually.

Although incidence of serogroup B meningococcal disease in college students is low, college students aged 18-21 years are at increased risk compared to non-college students. The close contact in college residence halls, combined with certain behaviors , may put college students at increased risk.

Is there a vaccine against meningococcal disease?

Yes, there are 2 different meningococcal vaccines.

People Without A Spleen Or Whose Spleen Does Not Work Properly

Missouri adds meningitis vaccination to list of school-required immunizations

If you do not have a spleen, or your spleen does not work properly, or you have a weakened immune system then it is likely to be recommended to you that you receive the MenB and the MenACWY vaccines. The timing of your vaccines will depend on your age. Your doctor will be able to advise you in more detail regarding this.

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Which Meningococcal Vaccines Are Available

In the U.S., three meningococcal vaccines are available:

MPSV4 and MCV4 can prevent four types of meningococcal disease, which make up about 70% of the cases in the U.S.

The MenB vaccines prevent the Meningococcal B strain.

MCV4 is preferred for people age 55 and younger. The recommendation for teens is one dose at age 11 and one dose at age 16. The doctor or nurse injects one dose into the muscle. If MCV4 is not available, you can use MPSV4. The doctor or nurse injects one dose beneath the skin.

MPSV4 is the only meningococcal vaccine approved for use in people over 55.

The MenB vaccines are recommended for ages 10-24, by the CDC for high risk patients, but can also be used in older adults. Trumenba is administered in three doses while Bexsero requires two doses.

Implementation Of The Meningitis Vaccine Project The Organization The Scientific And Technical Partnerships And Collaboration

In 2001, a structured proposal including a vaccine development plan assembled by WHO and PATH , a Seattle-based non-governmental organization with experience in developing appropriate technology for poor settings, with support from several partners including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , was awarded a grant by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation . The Meningitis Vaccine Project was born as a partnership between WHO and PATH with core funds from BMGF with the scope to develop and license a meningococcal conjugate vaccine to prevent meningitis epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa . At the end of 2009, the meningococcal serogroup A conjugate vaccine, MenAfriVac®, was licensed by DCGI for manufacture by Serum Institute of India Ltd., Pune , and in June 2010, it was prequalified by WHO. Mass vaccination of the 1- to 29-year-old population started in late 2010 in Burkina Faso, Mali, and Niger. In 2014, WHO recommended that vaccination with MenAfriVac® be included in the infant vaccination programs of meningitis belt countries.

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Problems That Could Happen After Getting Any Injected Vaccine

  • People sometimes faint after medical procedures, including vaccination. Sitting or lying down for about 15 minutes can help prevent fainting, and injuries caused by a fall. Tell the provider if you or your child feel dizzy, have vision changes, or have ringing in the ears.
  • As with any medicine, there is a very remote chance of a vaccine causing a severe allergic reaction, other serious injury, or death.

Quadrivalent Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine

Meningitis Vaccine, Packaging Type: Vial, For Clinical

Potential adverse reactions after meningococcal conjugate vaccines include localised pain, irritability, headache and fatigue. Fever is reported by 25 percent of adolescents who receive MenACWY-D.

The safety of two doses of MenACWY-D was assessed in a phase III trial of infants: dose one was administered at age 9 months and dose two was administered at age 12 months, with or without routine childhood vaccines. The percentage of participants with solicited systemic reactions after MenACWY-D administration alone at age 12 months was lower than after the vaccination at age 9 months , lower than the control groups at age 12 months and lower than when MenACWY-D was administered concurrently with the routine childhood vaccines .

The safety profile of MenACWY-T is very similar to other meningococcal conjugate vaccines.

GuillainBarré syndrome

There is no evidence of an association between meningococcal conjugate vaccines and GBS. An early report in the US of a suspected temporal association between MenACWY-D and GBS was followed by a large retrospective cohort study in the US that found no evidence of an increased risk of GBS following administration of MenACWY-D. If indicated, meningococcal conjugate vaccines may be administered to individuals with a history of GBS.

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Persons New To Canada

Health care providers who see persons newly arrived in Canada should review the immunization status and update immunization for these individuals. Review of meningococcal vaccination status is particularly important for persons from areas of the world where sickle cell disease is present as persons with sickle cell disease are at risk of serious meningococcal infections. In many countries outside of Canada, conjugate meningococcal vaccines are in limited use. Information on vaccination schedules in other countries can be found on the World Health Organization website. Refer to Immunization of Persons New to Canada in Part 3 for additional general information.

Can The Meningococcal Vaccine Cause Meningococcal Disease

The short answer is no. There are actually four meningococcal vaccines licensed in the U.S. None of the vaccines contains live bacteria.

The vaccines contain antigens — substances that trigger the body’s immune system and cause it to make antibodies. These antibodies then protect the body by attacking and killing the bacteria if it should invade your system.

The first vaccine — meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine or MPSV4 — was approved in 1978. It’s made with the antigens contained in the outer polysaccharide or sugar capsule that surrounds the bacterium.

The meningococcal conjugate vaccine or MCV4 was approved in 2005. It uses antigens taken from the polysaccharide capsule and then bound to a separate protein that targets the body’s immune cells. This makes it easier for the body’s immune system to see and recognize the antigens.

One type of MCV4, Menveo, is licensed for use in people ages 2 to 55. Another version, Menactra, is approved for those 9 months to 55 years old. MPSV4 is the only vaccine licensed for use in people over 55 as well as people 2 to 55. Both vaccines protect against four types of meningococcal disease.

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