Tuesday, May 30, 2023

Is Pneumococcal Vaccine Given Yearly

How Does It Work

Your Best Shot Pneumococcal Vaccines

Prevnar 20 is a conjugate vaccine. This means that it contains pieces of sugar-like substances called polysaccharides that typically coat the bacteria but also hide it from our immune system. The vaccine uses only a certain portion of the bacteria not the bacteria itself so its unable to cause an infection.

This conjugate vaccine uses 20 slightly different polysaccharides that are specific to the 20 serotypes and attaches them to proteins that our immune systems can recognize. If the bacteria enters the body after the vaccination is administered, the immune system can recognize the polysaccharide molecule and release antibodies to fight the bacteria before it causes an infection.

Health Authorities Set To Roll Out Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine In Darjeeling From 3 Nov

Children from six weeks of age group will receive the vaccines from immunisation centres from 3 November in the district, and at the time when they will get the first dose of polio, rotavirus, pentavalent vaccine and other routine vaccines,

Statesman News Service | Siliguri | October 31, 2021 12:25 pm

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Health authorities are all set to roll out the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in Darjeeling district from 3 November.

The Centre on Friday launched the nationwide expansion drive for the Pneumococcal 13-valent Conjugate Vaccine under the Universal Immunisation Programme . It is for the first time in the country that the PCV would be available for universal use. Pneumonia and diarrhoea are two major causes of deaths among children, and pneumonia is among the leading causes of death among children under five years of age globally.

The UIP is one of the largest public health programmes, targeting close to 26.7 million newborns and 29 million pregnant women annually. The countrywide expansion drive of the PCV was launched a few years after its introduction in Bihar, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh.

Why It Is Used

Pneumococcus is a type of bacteria that can cause severe infections, such as pneumonia, meningitis, and blood infections . These infections can be serious and can even cause death, especially in people who have impaired immune systems, older adults, and children younger than 2 years of age.

Doctors use two types of pneumococcal vaccines for routine immunization: pneumococcal conjugate or pneumococcal polysaccharide . The type of vaccine used depends on a person’s age.

  • Pneumococcal conjugate
  • PCV is recommended for routine use in babies who get 3 or 4 doses depending on your provincial recommendations.
  • Children from 1 to 18 years old may be recommended to get an extra dose if they did not get all the doses as a baby. They may also need an extra dose if they have certain medical conditions that place them at high risk for infection with pneumococcus.
  • The vaccine may be recommended for adults at high risk for infection with pneumococcus. This recommendation depends on the medical condition the adult has and on provincial recommendations.
  • Pneumococcal polysaccharide for people at high risk
  • PPV is generally recommended for all people 65 and older and for those ages 2 to 64 who have a chronic disease or illness, an impaired immune system, or who live in areas or among social groups where there is an increased risk for pneumonia or meningitis.
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    Free Pneumococcal Vaccine For Toddlers

    There was no system of providing pneumococcal vaccines to the toddlers from the state government so far. Parents procure the vaccines from chemists shops in open markets at around Rs 3,500 each for immunizations against pneumonia.

    Statesman News Service | October 30, 2021 2:36 pm

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    The state government has decided to launch a pneumococcal vaccination programme for toddlers aged between one-day and one year free of cost at a time when cribs are falling seriously ill with symptoms of viral fever and pneumonia across the state.

    There was no system of providing pneumococcal vaccines to the toddlers from the state government so far. Parents procure the vaccines from chemists shops in open markets at around Rs 3,500 each for immunizationsagainst pneumonia.

    From now, the vaccines would be given to the newborns by the state government without any charges from the parents. Paediatricians in the city felt that the immunizations among toddlers to fight pneumonia are essential when cases of viral pneumonia among children are on the rise in the state. This year, many newborns have died of viral fever showing symptoms of severe lung infections in different districts across the state.

    Immunity power among the toddlers would be increased once they are given the doses of pneumococcal vaccines with the state government initiatives, they felt.The vaccine would help fight the Covid-19 infections that also affect lungs, a senior pulmonologist felt saying,

    Who Should Get The Pneumococcal Vaccine

    Preventing and Treating Community
    • Adults aged 65 years or older may only need 1 dose. Another dose of either vaccine may be given, if they are at least 1 year apart. Your healthcare provider will tell you if you need more vaccine doses and when to get them.
    • Adults aged 19 to 64 at high risk for pneumococcal disease will need 1 or more doses of the vaccine. If you are Native Alaskan or American Indian, ask your healthcare provider if you need the vaccine. Any of the following can increase your risk for pneumococcal disease:
    • A chronic heart or lung disease, or diabetes
    • Liver disease or alcoholism
    • A cerebrospinal fluid leak or cochlear implant
    • A damaged or removed spleen, or sickle cell disease
    • A weak immune system, HIV, cancer, kidney failure, or an organ transplant
    • Living in a nursing home or long-term care facility

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    What To Think About

    Medicines, such as penicillin, used to work well for the treatment of pneumonia and meningitis. These diseases have recently become resistant to these medicines. For this reason it is important to try to prevent the infections by having the PCV or PPV vaccine.

    PCV can prevent some ear infections. But ear infections have many causes and PCV only works to prevent some of them. Your child may still have ear infections, even after getting a PCV shot.

    PPV has not been studied in pregnant women. There is no evidence that the vaccine is harmful to either the mother or the baby. Pregnant women should talk with a doctor about getting the medicine. Women who are at high risk of pneumococcal disease should have the shot before becoming pregnant, if possible.

    Pneumococcal Vaccine For Babies And Children

    Pneumococcal vaccine is offered as part of the UK childhood immunisation schedule. It helps to protect against infections such as pneumonia and meningitis.

    The vaccine will be injected into your child’s leg or upper arm.

    The most common side-effects are tenderness at the site of the injection, a raised temperature and lack of appetite. These should soon pass.

    In this article

    Pneumococcal vaccine for babies and children

    In this article
    Childhood immunisation to protect against pneumococcal infection
    Also called
    Available as Intramuscular injection

    Pneumococcus is a germ which can cause pneumonia, meningitis and some other infections. Pneumococcal infections can affect anybody, but they are particularly common in young children. Some pneumococcal infections are more serious than others.

    Immunisation against pneumococcus is part of the routine childhood immunisation programme in the UK. For babies born after 1 January 2020, the routine schedule consists of two injections the first at age 12 weeks and the second at one year. Babies born before 31 December 2019 will continue on a three-dose schedule given at age 2 months, 4 months and between the ages of 12 and 13 months.

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    Before Your Baby Is Given Pneumococcal Vaccine

    Before your child is given PCV, make sure your doctor knows:

    • If your child has been unwell recently or has a high temperature .
    • If your child has previously had an allergic reaction to a vaccine or medicine.
    • If your child has a condition that makes them bleed more than is normal, such as haemophilia.
    • If you have been told your child has a weakened immune system.

    Things To Know About The Pneumococcal Vaccine

    ASK UNMC What is the new recommendation on pneumonia vaccines for older adults?

    The pneumococcal vaccine is important for people 65 and older HealthPartners geriatric medicine specialist Dr. von Sternberg explains why.

    Theres been a lot of talk lately about vaccines, their safety and whether they really work. One vaccine I always recommend for my older patients is the pneumococcal vaccine. I recently got mine and feel much safer as a result.

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    People With Medical Risk Factors

    In addition to the 3 doses of 13vPCV routinely recommended for healthy non-Indigenous children < 5 years of age, children 12 months of age with risk conditions for pneumococcal disease are recommended to receive:

    • An additional dose of at 6 months of age
    • a dose of at 4 years of age
    • a 2nd dose of at least 5 years after the 1st dose of 23vPPV

    This is because of the higher disease burden and the possibility of lower antibody responses in these children.2-4

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children diagnosed with risk conditions at 12 months of age who live in the Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia and Western Australia already receive these extra doses as part of their routine schedule.

    Any child aged 6 to 11 months with a newly identified risk condition who has not received an additional dose of 13vPCV at 6 months of age should receive this dose at diagnosis. The exception is children who have received a haematopoietic stem cell transplant these children are recommended to receive 3 doses of 13vPCV

    All children and adults with newly identified risk conditions are recommended to receive:

    • 1 dose of at diagnosis (at least 2 months after any previous doses of 13vPCV
    • or at 4 years of age whichever is later
    • a 2nd dose of 23vPPV at least 5 years later

    See also Vaccine information and Variations from product information for more details.

    Can Pneumococcal Vaccine Cause Problems

    Along with their useful effects, vaccines like most medicines can cause unwanted side-effects, although not every child experiences them. Pneumococcal immunisation often causes no problems, but the table below contains some of the side-effects which may occur. You will find a full list in the manufacturer’s information leaflet supplied with the vaccine. Speak with a doctor or nurse if any of the following side-effects continue or become troublesome.

    Common pneumococcal vaccine side-effects
    Loss of appetite, being sick , diarrhoea Make sure your child has plenty to drink. If this continues, let your doctor know

    You will normally be asked by the doctor or nurse to wait several minutes after the immunisation to make sure that your child does not react badly to the vaccine. Although allergic reactions are extremely rare, you should seek urgent medical advice if your child becomes breathless, or if any swelling or a rash develops within a few days of the immunisation.

    If you experience any other symptoms which you think may be due to the vaccine, speak with your doctor or pharmacist.

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    Side Effects Of The Pneumococcal Vaccine

    Like most vaccines, the childhood and adult versions of the pneumococcal vaccine can sometimes cause mild side effects.

    These include:

    • redness where the injection was given
    • hardness or swelling where the injection was given

    There are no serious side effects listed for either the childhood or adult versions of the vaccine, apart from an extremely rare risk of a severe allergic reaction .

    Influenza Vaccination For Pregnant Women

    Incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease in Finland
    • Women who are or will be pregnant during influenza season should receive inactivated influenza vaccine . Live attenuated influenza vaccine is not recommended for use during pregnancy.
    • Postpartum women can receive either LAIV or IIV.
    • Pregnant and postpartum women do not need to avoid contact with persons recently vaccinated with LAIV.

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    Summary Of Information Contained In This Naci Statement

    The following highlights key information for immunization providers. Please refer to the remainder of the Statement for details.

    1. What

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a bacterium that can cause many types of diseases including invasive pneumococcal disease , and community-acquired pneumonia .

    For the prevention of diseases caused by S. pneumoniae in adults, two types of vaccines are available in Canada: pneumococcal 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine containing 23 pneumococcal serotypes and pneumococcal 13-valent conjugate vaccine containing 13 pneumococcal serotypes.

    NACI has been tasked with providing a recommendation from a public health perspective on the use of pneumococcal vaccines in adults who are 65 years of age and older, following the implementation of routine childhood pneumococcal vaccine programs in Canada.

    2. Who

    Information in this statement is intended for provinces and territories making decisions for publicly funded, routine, immunization programs for adults who are 65 years of age and older without risk factors increasing their risk of IPD. These recommendations supplement the recent NACI recommendations on this topic that were issued for individual-level decision making in 2016.

    3. How

    4. Why

    When To Get The Vaccine & What To Expect

    Of course, before seeking the pneumococcal vaccines, its important to first speak with your primary care physician and other providers in your healthcare network. Both vaccines are safe but can have side effects and should be avoided by individuals with allergic reactions to any of the components in the vaccine. Keep in mind, its recommended that you not receive both vaccines at the same time. Talk to your healthcare provider to determine if both vaccinations are the right choice for your needs. If both vaccines are needed, PCV13 should be given prior to PPSV23. Its important to schedule a separate visitation at least one year after the professionally suggested PCV13 vaccination to receive a dose of the PPSV23 vaccine.

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    Who Should Get The Vaccine

    People over age 65. As you age, your immune system doesnât work as well as it once did. Youâre more likely to have trouble fighting off a pneumonia infection. All adults over age 65 should get the vaccine.

    Those with weakened immune systems. Many diseases can cause your immune system to weaken, so itâs less able to fight off bugs like pneumonia.

    If you have heart disease, diabetes, emphysema, asthma, or COPD , youâre more likely to have a weakened immune system, which makes you more likely to get pneumonia.

    The same goes for people who receive chemotherapy, people who have had organ transplants, and people with HIV or AIDS.

    People who smoke. If youâve smoked for a long time, you could have damage to the small hairs that line the insides of your lungs and help filter out germs. When theyâre damaged, they arenât as good at stopping those bad germs.

    Heavy drinkers. If you drink too much alcohol, you may have a weakened immune system. Your white blood cells donât work as well as they do for people with a healthy immune system.

    People getting over surgery or a severe illness. If you were in the hospital ICU and needed help breathing with a ventilator, youâre at risk of getting pneumonia. The same is true if youâve just had major surgery or if youâre healing from a serious injury. When your immune system is weak because of illness or injury or because itâs helping you get better from surgery, you canât fight off germs as well as you normally can.

    Questions To Ask Your Doctor

    Confused About the Pneumococcal Vaccine Schedule? You’re Not Alone | The Morning Report
    • When should I make an appointment to get each type of pneumococcal vaccine?
    • Should I still get the vaccines if Ive recently had pneumonia?
    • Should I wait to turn 65 before I get each dose of pneumococcal vaccines?
    • If I have a negative reaction to one type of pneumococcal vaccine, am I likely to have that same reaction to the other?

    Funding was provided for these pneumococcal resources through an unrestricted grant from Pfizer Independent Grant for Learning and Change .

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    How Dispatchhealth Is Improving Healthcare

    While pneumococcal vaccines can protect at-risk individuals from getting pneumonia and developing extreme complications from other respiratory infections, contraction can still happen. For seniors, in particular, pneumonia can be life threateningespecially in those with chronic conditions . Pneumonia can also occur post infection, developing after the flu or COVID-19making it important for at-risk adults to watch for symptoms.

    If you do have symptoms, reach out to DispatchHealth for on-demand services that come to you. We provide an urgent healthcare alternative for those with chronic conditions and acute medical concerns, treating a variety of health complications in the comfort of the home. Our medical teams will come prepared with nearly all the tools and technologies found in a traditional ER setting, but without the disruptive or impersonal medical experience. Whats more, our streamlined service is compatible with most insurancesincluding Medicaid and Medicareand we offer an affordable flat rate for uninsured patients.

    This flu season, you can count on DispatchHealth. We can also test for COVID-19 as well as treat and support COVID-19 patients. To request care, simply contact us via phone, mobile app, or through our website.

    Symptoms And Causative Agent

    Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria, also called pneumococcal bacteria, pneumococci , and pneumococcus , are one of the leading causes of illness in young children. At least 90 types of pneumococcal bacteria are known to exist. As the name implies, they can cause pneumonia however, these bacteria also can cause bloodstream infections , meningitis, sinusitis, and middle ear infection, among other illnesses. Collectively, the different illnesses caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae are referred to as pneumococcal disease.

    Symptoms of pneumococcal disease vary based on the specific illness the bacteria have caused. Pneumococcal pneumonia symptoms include fever, chest pain, cough, and shortness of breath. When pneumococci infect normally sterile locations, so-called invasive pneumococcal disease may result. The two major types of invasive pneumococcal disease are bacteremia and meningitis . Pneumococcal meningitis symptoms include fever, headache, stiffness in the neck, light sensitivity, and disorientation. Pneumococcal bacteremia may complicate localized infections such as pneumonia and is commonly associated with high fever and shaking chills.

    Invasive pneumococcal disease can be fatal survivors of meningitis may have permanent injury, including brain damage, seizures, or hearing loss.

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