Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Given At 2 Months 4 Months And 12 Months
The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine protects children against invasive pneumococcal infections such as pneumonia, bacteraemia and meningitis .
What is invasive pneumococcal disease ?
IPD is an infection caused by a type of bacteria called streptococcus pneumoniae . This type of bacteria can cause any of the following:
Pneumococcal infection is also a frequent cause of ear infections .
Pneumonia, bacteraemia and meningitis can sometimes cause death or long lasting complications such as deafness, especially in people with a high-risk medical condition.
Sometimes antibiotics do not work against the pneumococcal infection . Antibiotic resistance occurs when drugs, used to treat the infection, are no longer effective in killing or stopping the growth of particular microorganisms, such as pneumococcal bacteria. When there is antibiotic resistance, it is more difficult to treat the infection.
Vaccines For Adolescents: A New Generation Of Vaccines
Adolescents, like adults, were recommended to get tetanus boosters every 10 years most requiring their first booster dose around age 11. Other than this, however, most adolescents did not require additional vaccines unless they missed one in childhood. By 2005, vaccines specifically recommended for adolescents were only recommended for sub-groups based on where they lived or medical conditions that they had. However, a new group of vaccines became available in the latter part of the decade.
- New vaccines: Tdap, 2005, meningococcal conjugate , HPV , meningococcal serogroup B vaccine
- Additional recommendations for existing vaccines: HPV , intranasal influenza vaccine
- New versions of existing vaccines: HPV
- Discontinuation of vaccine: intranasal influenza vaccine
Vaccines For Adults Increasing Opportunities For Health
Historically, vaccines were deemed to be only for children. However, vaccines for adults are becoming increasingly common and necessary. Most adults think only of the tetanus booster recommended every 10 years and even then, many adults only get the vaccine if they injure themselves. In 2005, the Tdap vaccine was licensed as an improved version of the typical tetanus booster, Td. The newer version also contains a component to protect against pertussis . All adults, especially those who are going to be around young infants, should get the Tdap vaccine. Adults often unwittingly pass pertussis to young infants for whom the disease can be fatal. In 2012, the CDC recommended that pregnant women get a dose of Tdap during each pregnancy between 27 and 36 weeks gestation. In 2019, the CDC recommended that Tdap or Td vaccine could be used for booster dosing every 10 years.
Influenza vaccines, available since the 1940s, are now recommended for most adults. Vaccines like MMR and chickenpox are recommended for adults who have not had the diseases, and vaccines including hepatitis A, hepatitis B, pneumococcus, and meningococcus are recommended for sub-groups of the adult population. The HPV vaccine became available in 2006. In 2018, the license was expanded to include people up to 45 years of age.
The first formal adult immunization schedule was published in 2002 and is updated annually.
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What Are The Possible Reactions After The Pcv 13 Vaccine
Vaccines are very safe. It is much safer to get the vaccine than to get pneumococcal disease.
Common reactions to the vaccine may include soreness, redness and swelling where the vaccine was given. Some may also have fever, drowsiness, crankiness, loss of appetite, headache, muscle or joint ache, vomiting, diarrhea or a rash. These reactions are mild and generally last 1 to 2 days.
*Ibuprofen should not be given to children under 6 months of age without first speaking to your health care provider.
For more information on Reye Syndrome, see HealthLinkBC File #84 Reye Syndrome.
It is important to stay in the clinic for 15 minutes after getting any vaccine because there is an extremely rare possibility, less than 1 in a million, of a life-threatening allergic reaction called anaphylaxis. This may include hives, difficulty breathing, or swelling of the throat, tongue or lips. Should this reaction occur, your health care provider is prepared to treat it. Emergency treatment includes administration of epinephrine and transfer by ambulance to the nearest emergency department. If symptoms develop after you leave the clinic, call 9-1-1 or the local emergency number.
It is important to always report serious or unexpected reactions to your health care provider.
Measles Mumps Rubella And Varicella Vaccine
The Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care recently introduced a new measles, mumps, rubella and varicella vaccine to the Publicly Funded Immunization Schedules for Ontario.
Immunization against measles, mumps and rubella is required by law for all children attending school in Ontario, unless exempted. Immunization against varicella is also required for children born in 2010 or later.
What is measles?
Measles can be a serious infection. It causes high fever, cough, rash, runny nose and watery eyes. Measles lasts for one to two weeks. Ear infections or pneumonia can happen in one out of every 10 children with measles. Measles can also be complicated by encephalitis, an infection of the brain, in about one out of every 1,000 children with measles. This may cause brain damage and developmental delays. Measles can also make a pregnant woman have a miscarriage or give birth prematurely.
Measles spreads from person to person very easily and quickly. People can get measles from an infected person coughing or sneezing around them or simply talking to them.
What is mumps?
Mumps can cause very painful, swollen testicles in about one out of four teenage boys or adult men, and painful infection of the ovaries in one out of 20 women. Mumps infection during the first three months of pregnancy may increase the risk of miscarriage. Mumps can cause deafness in some people.
What is rubella ?
What is varicella ?
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What If My Child Is Afraid Of Getting Shots
Most people, including adults, dont like getting shots. Dr. Lowe advises that parents be straightforward with their children, along with providing emotional support while shots are being given.
Hold their hand, look them in the eyes and tell them this will hurt a little but just for a short time and its important to keep you healthy, she said. Tell them you know they are brave and they will believe that, too. Please, never talk about shots as though they were punishment. Ive had parents tell kids, jokingly, Be good for the doctor or youll get a shot. Please dont do that.
How Do I Get My Childs Immunization Records
With the widespread use of electronic health records, its easier to keep track of your childrens immunizations records.
At MultiCare, parents can get that information on their child through logging into MyChart, and they can opt to receive automatic text reminders of when vaccinations are due, Dr. Lowe says.
Parents are also given a printout of their childs vaccination records each time they receive their shots.
Of course, people move and change health care providers all the time. Parents should always keep immunization records on file at home. Contact your childs doctor, nurse or clinic for complete records. If you cant get a complete immunization history from your provider, you can most likely get records from the Washington State Immunization Information System contact the Office of Immunizations and Child Profile at 360-236-3595 or 1-866-397-0337.
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What Are The Symptoms
Pneumococcal pneumonia causes:
- Fever or chills
In babies, meningitis may cause poor eating and drinking, low alertness, or vomiting.
Pneumococcal disease causes up to half of middle ear infections . Symptoms are ear pain a red, swollen ear drum or sometimes, fever or sleepiness.
Blood infection from pneumococcal disease can cause fever, chills, or low alertness.
Tetanus And Diphtheria Vaccine
Td is a two-in-one vaccine. It protects people against tetanus and diphtheria. The National Advisory Committee on Immunization strongly recommends that all Canadians receive a primary immunizing course of tetanus toxoid in childhood followed by routine booster doses every 10 years.
The Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care recently introduced one lifetime dose of the pertussis vaccine for adults to the Publicly Funded Immunization Schedules for Ontario. All adults 19 to 64 years of age, who have never received the Tdap vaccine in adolescence, are now eligible to receive one lifetime dose of the vaccine. This lifetime dose replaces one of the Td booster doses given every 10 years.
Parents, grandparents or other adult household contacts of newborns, infants and young children as well as health care workers are considered a priority to receive the Tdap vaccine.
What is tetanus?
Tetanus or lockjaw is a serious disease that can happen if dirt with the tetanus germ gets into a cut in the skin. Tetanus germs are found everywhere, usually in soil, dust and manure. It does not spread from person to person. Tetanus causes cramping of the muscles in the neck, arms, leg and stomach, and painful convulsions which can be severe enough to break bones. Even with early treatment, tetanus kills two out of every 10 people who get it.
What is diphtheria?
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What Vaccinations Does My Child Need For School
The average 11- to 12-year-old should receive these immunizations before school:
- Human Papillomavirus
- A yearly flu shot*
- Any missing shots from the list above or not received as babies, such as Hepatitis A vaccine
*The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends a yearly flu vaccine for everyone 6 months and older.
The COVID-19 pandemic put a lot of families behind on routine health care appointments last year including vaccines for kids. So its extra important to check to see what your child might need before the start of this school year.
And remember, even if you are planning to continue virtual learning for your child, the Washington State Department of Health states that all students must have all their required vaccines to start school including students attending school online.
Vaccine requirements can change, so its important to keep up to date: visit doh.wa.gov and tpchd.org for more information.
Pcv Vaccine Mandates For Child Care
|Return to State Mandates on Immunization main page|
|An empty box in this table indicates a “NO” answer|
|PCV Mandate for childcare entry||Date in effect|
|If you have updated information concerning this table, please call 647-9009 or email This table was compiled by the Immunization Action Coalition using information provided by state health departments.|
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Who Should Get The Pcv 13 Vaccine
The PCV 13 vaccine is given to babies as a series of 3 doses. The first dose is given at 2 months of age, the second at 4 months, and the third at 12 months. The vaccine is given at the same time as other childhood immunizations.
|PCV 13 Vaccine||Childs Age at Immunization|
|3rd dose||12 months|
An extra dose of vaccine is given at 6 months of age to children who have:
- No spleen, or a spleen that is not working properly
- Sickle-cell disease
- An immune system weakened by disease or medical treatment
- Chronic liver disease, including cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis B or hepatitis C
- Chronic kidney, heart or lung disease
- An islet cell or solid organ transplant, or a cochlear implant, or are waiting for one
- Had a stem cell transplant
- A chronic neurological condition that makes it hard to clear fluids from the mouth or throat
- Diabetes, cystic fibrosis or a chronic cerebrospinal fluid leak
At 2 years of age, a child with any of the above medical conditions should also receive a dose of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, which protects against more types of pneumococcal bacteria. For more information, see HealthLinkBC File #62b Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine.
Some people 5 years of age and older with certain medical conditions are at high risk of pneumococcal disease. The PCV13 vaccine is provided free to:
It is important to keep a record of all immunizations received.
Annual Updates To The Immunization Schedule 1995 To 2010
As more vaccines became available, an annual update to the schedule was important because of changes that providers needed to know, such as detailed information about who should receive each vaccine, age of receipt, number of doses, time between doses, or use of combination vaccines. New vaccines were also added.
Important changes to the schedule between 1995 and 2010 included:
- New vaccines: Varicella , rotavirus hepatitis A pneumococcal vaccine
- Additional recommendations for existing vaccines: influenza hepatitis A
- New versions of existing vaccines: acellular pertussis vaccine intranasal influenza
- Discontinuation of vaccine: Oral polio vaccine
2000 | Recommended Vaccines
* Given in combination as DTaP** Given in combination as MMR
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What Are The Benefits To Vaccinating My Child
Vaccination can protect infants, children, and teenagers from harmful diseases.
Some of these can be very serious and may lead to hospitalization or death, especially in infants and young children.
Some of the vaccine-preventable diseases cause deaths in children every year these are diseases that are still around, said Gracy. The vaccines that we have can prevent a child from getting sick and from needing hospitalization.
The number of children and adults who get sick or die from vaccine-preventable diseases has decreased greatly since doctors started vaccinating Americans, according to the
All states and the District of Columbia require students to meet minimum vaccination requirements in order to attend public schools. These vary from state to state.
ProCon.org reports that as of July 23, 2018, all 50 states and D.C. require the following vaccinations:
- diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis
- measles and rubella
In addition, 49 states require the mumps vaccination, and 43 states and D.C. require the hepatitis B vaccination.
Some states also require hepatitis A, flu, Haemophilus influenzae type B , meningitis, or pneumococcal vaccinations.
To find out which vaccinations your child needs for school, you can check your states department of health website, the CDCs , or call your childs school directly.
Even if you have older children, you need to be aware of the vaccination schedules.
School health programs and local health departments are another option as well.
What Are The Possible Side Effects Of Pcv And Ppsv Vaccines
Kids may have redness, tenderness, or swelling where the shot was given. A child also might have a fever after getting the shot. There is a very small chance of an allergic reaction with any vaccine.
The pneumococcal vaccines contain only a small piece of the germ and so cannot cause pneumococcal disease.
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Do College Students Need Vaccinations
Teenagers and younger adults going to college or university should check with their school to see which vaccinations are required prior to enrollment.
Meningitis is one of the most important ones, said Gracy, because you have situations where kids are in dorms and theyre in enclosed spaces.
This life-threatening infection is more common in college-age students, but can be prevented with full vaccination.
Older students may also need a tetanus booster or the annual flu shot. They may also need the HPV vaccine if they didnt start when they were younger or havent had all the doses.
Most states allow parents to opt out of vaccinations for their child due to medical or religious reasons.
The CDC tracks vaccination exemptions allowed by states.
The American Academy of Pediatrics finds that nonmedical exemptions to school-required immunizations are inappropriate for individual, public health, and ethical reasons and advocates for their elimination.
Gracy said that as doctors, we know that people come from different backgrounds, and have different concerns or reasons for making the choices that they do. So we really try to work with families and respect that.
Doctors will often talk to parents to find out their reasons for opting out of having their child vaccinated. This includes making sure parents are basing their decision on
State School And Childcare Vaccination Laws
All states require children to be vaccinated against certain communicable diseases as a condition for school attendance. In most instances, state school vaccination laws expressly apply to both public schools and private schools with identical immunization and exemption provisions. All states also establish vaccination requirements for children as a condition for child care attendance. These requirements often mirror the requirements for public school children and are often located in the same school vaccination provisions. The Public Health Law Program provides selected resources for public health practitioners and their legal counsel on state school vaccination laws.
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Who Should Not Get The Pcv 13 Vaccine
Speak with your health care provider if you or your child has had a life-threatening reaction to a previous dose of pneumococcal vaccine, or to any component of the vaccine.
There is no need to delay getting immunized because of a cold or other mild illness. However, if you have concerns, speak with your health care provider.
Diphtheria Tetanus Pertussis Polio Haemophilus Influenzae Type B Vaccine
DTaP-IPV-Hib vaccine given at 2 months, 4 months, 6 months and 18 months
DTaP-IPV-Hib vaccine is a combined vaccine that protects children against five diseases diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio and serious diseases like meningitis caused by haemophilus influenzae type b.
Immunization against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and polio is required by law for all children attending school in Ontario, unless exempted.
What is diphtheria?
Diphtheria is a serious disease of the nose, throat and skin. It causes sore throat, fever and chills. It can be complicated by breathing problems, heart failure and nerve damage. Diphtheria kills about one out of every 10 people who get the disease. It is most often passed to others through coughing and sneezing.
What is tetanus?
Tetanus or lockjaw is a serious disease that can happen if dirt with tetanus germ gets into a cut in the skin. Tetanus germs are found everywhere, usually in soil, dust and manure. It does not spread from person to person. Tetanus causes cramping of the muscles in the neck, arms, leg and stomach and painful convulsions which can be severe enough to break bones. Even with early treatment, tetanus kills two out of every 10 people who get it.
What is pertussis?
What is polio?
What is haemophilus influenzae type b disease?
Children under five years are more likely to get Hib disease. Children who attend childcare centres are even more likely to catch it. The Hib germ spreads to others through coughing and sneezing.
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