What Is Vaccine Shedding
Vaccine shedding is when an individual releases, or sheds, the components of a vaccine either inside or outside of their body.
This can only happen with a certain type of vaccine called a live-attenuated vaccine. Some examples of live-attenuated vaccines that are commonly given in the United States include the:
- rotavirus vaccine
When To Get The Flu Shot
Flu season typically runs from late fall to early spring.
Flu shots are now available for all Ontarians. You should get a flu shot as soon as possible because it takes two weeks to take effect.
The National Advisory Committee on Immunization now recommends that COVID-19 vaccines may be given at the same time as the flu vaccine.
Talk to your doctor or pharmacy to learn more.
Flu Jab: Eligible Groups In Uk Set To Be ‘expanded’ Reveals Expert
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The flu jab is the very best way to protect yourself against seasonal flu. But each winter the virus changes, meaning scientists have to prepare different types of flu vaccine in anticipation of the new flu season. None of these types of flu jab contain live viruses, however.
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Who Can Have An Nhs Flu Vaccine From A Pharmacy
You can get a free NHS flu vaccine from a pharmacy if:
- you are 50 and over
- you have certain medical conditions
- you are pregnant
- you are a frontline adult social care worker who cannot get a vaccination from your employer
The pharmacy will tell you how and when you can book your vaccination.
Considerations For Getting A Covid
Its safe for your health care provider to administer a COVID-19 vaccine at the same time as other vaccines. If youre 12 years of age or older, you may get the flu shot at the same time as a COVID-19 vaccine. You may also get it any time before or after you receive the flu shot.
For children aged 5 to 11, the National Advisory Council on Immunization recommends a 14-day interval between a COVID-19 vaccine and other vaccines. This is to help better monitor for possible side effects from COVID-19 vaccines. Provinces and territories will decide on an interval for this age group as part of their vaccination programs.
Talk to a health care provider or consult your provincial or territorial public health authority for the latest guidance.
Learn more about:
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Iv2 Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine
LAIV contains standardized quantities of FFU of live attenuated influenza virus reassortants. The virus strains in LAIV are cold-adapted and temperature sensitive, so they replicate in the nasal mucosa rather than the lower respiratory tract, and they are attenuated, so they do not produce ILI. There have been no reported or documented cases, and no theoretical or scientific basis to suggest transmission of vaccine virus would occur to the individual administering LAIV. As a live replicating whole virus formulation administered intranasally, it elicits mucosal immunity, which may more closely mimic natural infection.
Vaccine currently authorized for use:
- FluMist® Quadrivalent
Efficacy and effectiveness
After careful review of the available Canadian and international LAIV VE data over many influenza seasons, NACI concluded that the current evidence is consistent with LAIV providing comparable protection against influenza to that afforded by IIV and does not support a recommendation for the preferential use of LAIV in children 2-17 years of age.
Refer to the Statement on Seasonal Influenza Vaccine for 2018-2019 for detailed information supporting this recommendation.
LAIV4 has shown non-inferiority based on immunogenicity compared to LAIV3 in both children and adults. The immune response to the B strain found only in the quadrivalent formulation was better in children who received the quadrivalent vaccine Footnote 158, Footnote 159, Footnote 160.
Ii7 Vaccine Safety And Adverse Events
Post-marketing surveillance of influenza vaccines in Canada has shown that seasonal influenza vaccines have a safe and stable profile. In addition to routine surveillance, every year during the seasonal influenza vaccination campaigns, PHAC and the Federal/Provincial/Territorial Vaccine Vigilance Working Group of the Canadian Immunization Committee conduct weekly expedited surveillance of AEFIs for current influenza vaccines in order to identify vaccine safety signals in a timely manner. Refer to the Canadian Adverse Events Following Immunization Surveillance System web page for more information on post-marketing surveillance and AEFIs in Canada.
All influenza vaccines currently authorized for use in Canada are considered safe for use in people with latex allergies. The multi-dose vial formulations of inactivated influenza vaccine that are authorized for use in Canada contain minute quantities of thimerosal, which is used as a preservativeFootnote 15,Footnote 16 to keep the product sterile. Large cohort studies of administrative health databases have found no association between childhood vaccination with thimerosal-containing vaccines and neurodevelopmental outcomes, including autistic-spectrum disordersFootnote 17. All single dose formulations of IIV and LAIV are thimerosal-free. Refer to Vaccine Safety in Part 2 of the CIG for additional information.
Common adverse events
Less common and serious or severe adverse events
Other reported adverse events and conditions
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Transporting Storing And Handling Vaccines
Transport according to National Vaccine Storage Guidelines: Strive for 5.160 Store at +2°C to +8°C. Do not freeze. Protect from light.
Discard influenza vaccines appropriately when they reach their expiry date. This is to avoid accidentally using a product with the incorrect formulation the following year.
Annual Changes To Influenza Vaccines
Influenza vaccines can change from year to year with regard to:
- which vaccines are registered by the Therapeutic Goods Administration
- the indicated ages for each vaccine
Always check annual seasonal influenza statements published by the Australian Technical Advisory Group on Immunisation on health.gov.au website and consult the product information for each vaccine.
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Is It Ok To Get The Flu Vaccine More Than Once In The Same Flu Season
Studies have not shown there is any benefit for most adults getting more than one dose of vaccine in the same flu season. However, its recommended that some people get 2 doses of the flu vaccine in one season:
- children under 9 years old who have not ever been vaccinated against the flu
- people who are having flu vaccination for the first time after a stem cell transplant or organ transplant
- pregnant women, who may be vaccinated with the next seasons influenza vaccine if it becomes available in the latter part of their pregnancy, even if they had the previous seasons vaccine
- overseas travellers who are going to the northern hemisphere winter
Myth #: You Can Be So Healthy That You Dont Need The Vaccine
Taege says its a myth that people who are normally healthy dont need to bother getting a vaccine.
You can believe you are too healthy to get the flu all you want, but then that changes once you end up getting the flu by not getting vaccinated, he said. Even young people can get severe influenza.
Taege says its true that a younger healthier person doesnt have as high a risk as seniors or young children, but that even a person in their prime health can get sick.
The more people who get the vaccine, the more chance that we can avoid an epidemic, Taege said. Its called herd immunity: The more vaccinated means less chance for widespread influenza.
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Ii Canadian Immunization Guide Chapter On Influenza: Clinical Information For Vaccine Providers
The Canadian Immunization Guide is written primarily for health care providers but it is also used by policy makers, program planners, and the general public. The CIG has been a trusted, reader-friendly summary of the vaccine statements provided by NACI since 1979.
The information in this section replaces the influenza chapter of the CIG and is adapted for inclusion in the NACI Statement on Seasonal Influenza Vaccine. With a new NACI Statement on Seasonal Influenza Vaccine required each year, readers will have quick access to the information that they require within one document, whether it is the relevant influenza vaccine information written primarily for frontline vaccine providers as is found in this section, or the more detailed technical information that is found in the rest of this statement, commencing in Section III.
Who Should Not Get The Nasal Flu Vaccine
- have had a severe allergic reaction to a previous dose of the flu vaccine or any of its ingredients
- have severe asthma or if they have been wheezy or needed their inhaler more than usual in the 3 days before the vaccination
- are taking medicines called salicylates, which include aspirin
- have taken influenza antiviral medication within the previous 48 hours
- have a severely weakened immune system because of certain medical conditions or treatments
- are living with someone who has a severely weakened immune system – for example, a person who has to live in insolation in the months following a bone marrow transplant
- have a condition which means they have a leak of cerebrospinal fluid – the fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord
- have severe neutropoenia , except for those with primary autoimmune neutropenia
- are on combination checkpoint inhibitors, for example ipilumumab plus nivolumab, which are used to treat cancer
- are pregnant
- have a cranial cerebrospinal fluid leak
Your child may not be able to have the nasal flu vaccine if they have had a cochlear implant. Ask your child’s hearing specialist if your child can have the nasal flu vaccine.
Get specialist advice if your child needs regular oral steroids or they have previously needed ICU care for asthma.
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Which Children Need Flu Vaccination
All children from 6 months of age can benefit from flu vaccination. By vaccinating your child, especially if they go to an early learning centre or daycare, you can protect them and your family/whnau. Flu vaccination is especially important for children with certain long-term health conditions. This is because these children are most likely to develop complications from the flu, such as chest infections. If your child does have a long-term condition, make sure they have their flu vaccination every year before winter starts.
Can I Get The Flu Vaccine If I Have A Latex Allergy
Influenza vaccines used in Australia dont contain latex and are safe for people with a latex allergy or sensitivity. While the product information for Fluarix Tetra and Fluad Quad state that some presentations of the vaccine cannot be considered latex-free, these presentations are actually not supplied in Australia.
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Does The Flu Shot Contains Live Virusor Not
“Many years ago, when we first started getting flu shots, they were live attenuated virus vaccines,” Michael Knight, MD, a primary care physician and assistant professor of medicine at George Washington University Medical Faculty Associates in Washington, DC, tells Health.“So if the patient was pregnant or had a weakened immune system, we couldn’t give that to them,” he says.
But that’s no longer the case. Today’s flu shots are inactivated, meaning the virusesor viral parts–in this type of vaccine can’t possibly infect anyone because they’re not alive. These are the shots that the majority of adults receive each season.
“The flu shots you get do not have a live virus that could cause infection,” says Dr. Knight.
There’s one exception: a nasal mist flu vaccine is made with live, “attenuated” viruses, says the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . The viruses weakened but not killed. Still, they cannot cause influenza, says CDC.
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Those At Increased Risk From The Effects Of Flu
Flu can affect anyone, but if you have a long-term health condition, the effects of flu can make it worse even if the condition is well managed and you normally feel well. You should have the free flu vaccine if you are:
or have a long-term condition such as:
- a heart problem
- a chest complaint or serious breathing difficulties, including bronchitis, emphysema or some people with asthma
- a kidney disease
- lowered immunity due to disease or treatment
- liver disease
- had a stroke or a transient ischaemic attack
- a neurological condition, such as multiple sclerosis or cerebral palsy
- a learning disability
- a problem with your spleen, such as sickle cell disease, or you have had your spleen removed
- you are seriously overweight
This list of conditions isnt definitive. Its always an issue of clinical judgement. Your GP can assess you to take into account the risk of flu making any underlying illness you may have worse, as well as your risk of serious illness from flu itself.
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Flu Vaccine And Covid
The nasal spray flu vaccine does not protect your child from COVID-19.
Children aged 12 years and older can get the COVID-19 vaccineat the same time as the flu vaccine.
As a precaution, children aged 5 to 11 years should wait at least 2 weeks between getting their COVID-19 vaccine and the flu vaccine.
Can I Have The Flu Vaccine If I Take Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors
Immune checkpoint inhibitors are a type of medicine used to treat some cancers, including metastatic melanoma, renal clear cell carcinoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, non-small celllung cancer and other solid organ tumours. Checkpoint inhibitors include ipilimumab, nivolumab and pembrolizumab.
People taking checkpoint inhibitors may have a higher risk of immune-related side effects following influenza vaccination. Talk to your oncologist about the risks and benefits of the flu shot.
For more information on the flu vaccine, go to the Department of Health website or call the National Immunisation Hotline on 1800 671 811.
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Why Do I Need To Get Vaccinated Every Year
You need to get the flu vaccine every year because protection from the previous vaccination becomes less effective over time. Each year the influenza viruses can change. The strains in the vaccine usually change each year in response to the changing virus pattern. Read more about vaccination against influenza.
Which Vaccines Do Shed
Its technically possible for any live-attenuated vaccine to shed. But in most instances, documented cases of this are rare.
The oral polio vaccine is responsible for the most harmful infections related to vaccine shedding. The live-attenuated virus used in this vaccine can be shed from the body in feces.
In very rare cases, the virus used in the OPV can mutate and become harmful, potentially leading to paralysis. In countries that still use the OPV, this is estimated to occur in 2 to 4 out of every million live births each year.
Since the year 2000, the OPV is no longer licensed or available in the United States. Now, all polio vaccines given in the United States are inactivated vaccines.
Other live-attenuated vaccines for which shedding has been documented include the:
- Flu nasal spray vaccine: Shedding of the virus used in this vaccine is common, particularly in younger individuals, according to the . While transmission of these viruses can occur, its rare and not typically associated with symptoms.
- Chickenpox vaccine: According to the , there have been reports of only 11 healthy vaccinated individuals worldwide spreading the chickenpox vaccine virus to 13 unvaccinated people.
- Rotavirus vaccine: Rotavirus vaccine virus can be shed in feces for days after vaccination. An older in twins found that the vaccine virus could be transmitted to unvaccinated individuals, but wasnt associated with symptoms.
- MMR vaccine: The rubella part of the MMR vaccine
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What Are The Side Effects Of Influenza Vaccine
Like all medicines, the flu vaccine can cause side effects, although not everyone gets them. Often side effects improve as your body gets used to the new medicine.
Everyone 6 Months And Older Should Get The Flu Shot
The flu shot is your best defence against the flu. The flu shot is recommended for everyone 6 months of age and older.
It can save lives by:
- protecting you, if you’re exposed to the virus
- preventing you from getting very sick
- protecting people close to you:
- because you’re less likely to spread the virus
- who are at higher risk of serious flu complications if they get the flu
The flu shot wont protect you against COVID-19.
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What Is Influenza Nasal Vaccine And How Does It Work
FluMist is a nasal vaccine that protects against infection with the influenza virus or the “flu.” FluMist contains live influenza virus that has been weakened so that it causes minimal or no symptoms. When FluMist is inhaled, the body responds to the weakened viruses in FluMist by developing antibodies that fight influenza viruses. These antibodies protect against later infections by the naturally-occurring influenza virus.
FluMist is effective only against the strains of influenza virus that are included in it, and the strains of virus change from year to year. FluMist has no effect on the flu once infection has begun. FluMist should be given shortly before the flu season begins to allow time for antibodies to be produced and for protection throughout the entire flu season.
FluMist and FluMist Quadrivalent are similar except for the addition of one additional virus strain to Flumist Quadrivalent. FluMist is a trivalent vaccine because it has three flu virus strains and FluMist Quadrivalent has four virus strains .
The FDA approved FluMist in June 2003 and FluMist Quadrivalent in February 2012.