Tuesday, June 6, 2023

Is The Hpv Vaccine Effective After Exposure

Question: How Long Does The Effectiveness Of The Hpv Vaccine Last Is Repeated Vaccination Required

HPV Vaccine: It’s Effective

Answer: Studies have shown that the vaccine protects against HPV infection for at least 10 years. Additionally, there is no evidence of weakened protection over time. After 10 years, the HPV vaccines have been found to have high efficacy up to 90% for prevention of HPV infection. Therefore repeated vaccination is not generally advised.

Question: How Can Hpv Infection Be Treated

Answer: Recently, there is no definite treatment for HPV infection. In fact, many women have HPV infection that usually clears up spontaneously without treatment. However, prevention of HPV infection remains essential. Recommendations are as follows:

  • Seeking for an immediate medical assistance e.g. Pap smear test and HPV test when any abnormality is suspected or detected. If pre-cancerous changes are found, appropriate treatments can be given in timely manner before cancer develops.
  • Vaccination against HPV
  • Modification of sexual behaviors to reduce risk of HPV exposure e.g. refraining from having had multiple sexual partners
  • What Are Hpv Vaccines

    HPV vaccines protect against infection with human papillomaviruses . HPV is a group of more than 200 related viruses, of which more than 40 are spread through direct sexual contact. Among these, two HPV types cause genital warts, and about a dozen HPV types can cause certain types of cancercervical, anal, oropharyngeal, penile, vulvar, and vaginal.

    Three vaccines that prevent infection with disease-causing HPV have been licensed in the United States: Gardasil, Gardasil 9, and Cervarix. Gardasil 9 has, since 2016, been the only HPV vaccine used in the United States. It prevents infection with the following nine HPV types:

    • HPV types 6 and 11, which cause 90% of genital warts
    • HPV types 16 and 18, two high-risk HPVs that cause about 70% of cervical cancers and an even higher percentage of some of the other HPV-caused cancers
    • HPV types 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58, high-risk HPVs that account for an additional 10% to 20% of cervical cancers

    Cervarix prevents infection with types 16 and 18, and Gardasil prevents infection with types 6, 11, 16, and 18. Both vaccines are still used in some other countries.

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    Who Should Get Hpv Vaccination

    The Centers for Disease Control and Preventions Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices develops recommendations regarding all vaccination in the United States, including HPV vaccination. The current ACIP recommendations for HPV vaccination are :

    • Children and adults ages 9 through 26 years. HPV vaccination is routinely recommended at age 11 or 12 years vaccination can be started at age 9 years. HPV vaccination is recommended for all persons through age 26 years who were not adequately vaccinated earlier.
    • Adults ages 27 through 45 years. Although the HPV vaccine is Food and Drug Administration approved to be given through age 45 years, HPV vaccination is not recommended for all adults ages 27 through 45 years. Instead, ACIP recommends that clinicians consider discussing with their patients in this age group who were not adequately vaccinated earlier whether HPV vaccination is right for them. HPV vaccination in this age range provides less benefit because more people have already been exposed to the virus.
    • Persons who are pregnant. HPV vaccination should be delayed until after pregnancy, but pregnancy testing is not required before vaccination. There is no evidence that vaccination will affect a pregnancy or harm a fetus.

    Hpv Testing And Treatment

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    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has a helpful resource for understanding Pap and HPV tests.

    What tests can a woman have related to HPV?

    Two tests for women are available:

    • Pap test A Pap test is done by scraping some cells from the cervix and examining them microscopically. A normal result means your cells looked as expected an abnormal result means that the cells appeared to have undergone some changes. This does not mean you have cervical cancer. In some cases the cell changes are minor and will return to normal when tested in the future. In other cases the changes are more dramatic and need to be monitored more closely.
    • HPV test The HPV test determines if the human papillomavirus is present in the cervix.

    Find out if you qualify for free or reduced cost screening through the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program and where near you offers the program.

    Can HPV tests replace Pap tests?

    No, HPV tests should not replace routine Pap tests for two reasons:

  • The tests are not measuring the same thing. Pap tests detect changes in the cells of the cervix that could lead to cancer, whereas HPV tests detect human papillomavirus DNA in the cells of the cervix. A positive HPV test could be the result of a recent infection or a chronic infection.
  • Is there a test to determine if I have HPV?

    When a person is tested for STDs is HPV testing included?

    I got all necessary doses of the HPV vaccine. Do I still need to get Pap tests?

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    How Effective Is The Hpv Vaccine In Preventing Hpv

    When doses are given at the recommended ages and at the appropriate intervals, it has been shown to prevent 90% of cancer-causing HPV. Research has also shown that fewer teens and young adults are getting genital warts. The number of cervical precancers are decreasing since HPV vaccines have been in use.

    The Vaccine Is Best For Children But Adults Can Get It Too

    The ideal age for HPV vaccination is 11 to 12, but it can be given to everyone age 9 through 26. If you are older than 26, have not been vaccinated, and are at risk of a new HPV infection, you and your ob-gyn can talk about whether you need the HPV vaccine. The vaccine is approved for people through age 45.

    Its ideal to be vaccinated when you are receiving your normal vaccinations during childhood and adolescence. So most of the shots are given by a pediatrician or family doctor. But ob-gyns and other health care professionals also can give adults catch-up shots if you were not vaccinated earlier.

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    Are There Hpv Vaccine Side Effects

    Research shows that the vaccine is safe. The most common side effect is temporary pain and redness where you get the shot.

    One of the reasons the HPV vaccine is controversial is because it prevents a sexually transmitted infection, which leads some people to believe its inappropriate for children. But, the thing is, the vaccine works best if you get it long before you have sex. So its a good idea to get it when youre young so you wont have to worry about getting certain kinds of cancer later in life.

    Studies show that the HPV vaccine doesnt lead to people having more sex or sex at a younger age. So giving kids the HPV vaccine doesnt encourage them to have sex. All it does is help protect them from genital warts and cancer in adulthood.

    How Can I Spot The Symptoms Of Hpv

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    The symptoms depend on the specific strain of HPV. If you contract one of the cervical cancer-causing strains of HPV, “you don’t usually get any symptoms until really advanced,” Dr. Askew told POPSUGAR. “You can have bleeding after intercourse, but there’s not a lot of differences.”

    With other types of HPV, common symptoms may include bumps or lesions developing on the skin around the vagina or anus. “How big they get and how many someone develops are more dependent on their immune system and how aggressive the strain of virus they got is,” Dr. Askew explained. While these are the things you’re most likely to notice, you may not have any symptoms at all this is why it’s so important to keep up with routine Pap smears and regular STD testing.

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    Boosters Revaccination And Series Completion

    The durability of the immune response of the HPV vaccine is being monitored in long-term studies, and currently there is no indication for a booster vaccine 24. The vaccine series does not need to be restarted in the case of a delay in administration of the second or third dose, regardless of the amount of time of the delay. Further, revaccination with the 9-valent HPV vaccine in individuals who previously completed the three-dose series with the quadrivalent HPV vaccine or the bivalent HPV vaccine is not a routine recommendation. The bivalent and quadrivalent vaccines have been shown to be extremely effective at preventing HPV-related disease 2025.

    If obstetriciangynecologists or other health care professionals do not know or do not have the same HPV vaccine product previously administered, or are in settings that are transitioning to the 9-valent HPV vaccine, any available HPV vaccine product may be used to continue or complete the series for women for protection against HPV genotypes 16 and 18 the 9-valent HPV vaccine or the quadrivalent HPV vaccine may be used to continue or complete the series for men 26.

    Why Should The Hpv Vaccine Be Given To Pre

    The vaccine work best at this age. Research shows that younger people have a better immune response to the vaccine than those in their late teens and early 20s. And, the vaccines will prevent the covered types of HPV only if they are given before exposure to the virus.

    This is also an age when other vaccinations are given, and when children are likely to still be getting regular medical check-ups.

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    What Research Is Being Done To Improve Cervical Cancer Screening

    Several new tests are currently in development that can improve the evaluation of HPV-positive women. One test that is undergoing regulatory evaluation but is not yet clinically available is based on detection of two proteins that indicate an active HPV infectionp16 and Ki-67. P16/Ki-67 dual staining was found to be more accurate than Pap testing at predicting whether an HPV-positive woman would go on to develop cervical precancer within 5 years. If positive for p16/Ki-67, she may be referred for colposcopy and biopsy.

    How Long Does The Hpv Vaccine Protect For

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    Studies have shown that the vaccine protects against HPV infection for at least 10 years, although experts expect protection to last for much longer.

    But because the HPV vaccine does not protect against all types of HPV that can cause cervical cancer, it’s important that all women who receive the HPV vaccine also have regular cervical screening once they reach the age of 25.

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    What Are The Risks And Side Effects Of The Hpv Vaccine

    In clinical trials and in real-world use, the HPV vaccine appears to be very safe. More than 40 million doses of the vaccine — mostly Gardasil, which was approved in 2006 — have been given in the U.S. Gardasil 9 was approved in 2014 and is now the only HPV vaccine available in the U.S.

    From 2006 to 2014, there were about 25,000 reports to the government of HPV vaccine side effects. Over 90% of these were classified as nonserious. The most common side effects of the HPV vaccine are minor:

    • About one in 10 people will have a mild fever after the injection.
    • About one person in 30 will get itching at the injection site.
    • About one in 60 people will experience a moderate fever.

    These symptoms go away quickly without treatment. Other mild-to-moderate side effects resulting from the HPV vaccine include:

    Is Hpv Testing Needed Before Getting The Vaccine

    No. In fact, testing is not recommended because it cannot show if the HPV vaccine will be effective or not. A positive HPV test result doesnt always tell you which types of HPV you have. And even if you are infected with one type of HPV, the vaccine could still prevent other types of HPV infection. A negative test result cannot tell you if youve had HPV in the past.

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    Questions About Hpv Vaccine Safety

    I dont want to get the HPV vaccine for my child because I have heard that all of the safety studies were completed by the vaccine manufacturer. Is this true?

    Vaccine safety is studied by many, many groups not just those who manufacture vaccines. The FDA reviews all data associated with studies completed by vaccine manufacturers as well as visiting manufacturing sites and continuing to monitor the vaccine as long as it is being made. Additionally, the CDC has systems in place to monitor vaccine safety, including:

    • Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System which allows anyone to report side effects, allowing CDC scientists to watch for trends.
    • Vaccine Safety Datalink is a collaboration with eight large healthcare organizations from various parts of the United States. Health records are monitored for vaccine receipt and illnesses to study vaccine safety.
    • Clinical Immunization Safety Assessment Project is a national group of vaccine experts from the CDC, seven medical research centers, and other experts who conduct research around specific vaccine safety concerns, provide consultations for individual healthcare providers on specific patients, and review adverse event data. Vaccine manufacturers do not have a role in these studies.

    Can the HPV vaccine cause cancer?

    No. Because the HPV vaccine is made using only a single protein from each type of the virus, it cant cause HPV infection, and, therefore, it cant cause cervical cancer or other cancers.

    What Are The Different Types Of Hpv And What Do They Do

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    There are more than 100 different types of HPV, and around 40 that affect the genital area.

    HPV is very common and can be caught through any kind of sexual contact with another person who already has it.

    Most people will get an HPV infection at some point in their lives and their bodies will get rid of it naturally without treatment.

    But some people infected with a high-risk type of HPV will not be able to clear it.

    Over time, this can cause abnormal tissue growth as well as other changes, which can lead to cancer if not treated.

    High-risk types of HPV are linked to different types of cancer, including:

    Infection with other types of HPV may cause:

    • genital warts small growths or skin changes on or around the genital or anal area they’re the most common viral sexually transmitted infection in the UK
    • skin warts and verrucas not on the genital area
    • warts on the voice box or vocal cords

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    Questions About Who Should Get Hpv Vaccine

    Who should get the HPV vaccine and how many doses?

    The HPV vaccine is recommended for adolescents between 9 and 12 years of age, and all teenagers and adults between 13 and 26 years of age who did not get the vaccine when they were younger. Individuals between 27 and 45 years of age can also discuss vaccination with their healthcare provider and receive the vaccine if they decide it can protect them from HPV infection.

    • Younger than 15 years old: Two doses separated by 6 months
    • 15 years and older: Three doses of HPV vaccine with the second dose given one to two months after the first, and the third dose given six to 12 months after the first

    If I have received the first dose of HPV vaccine, is it safe to be intimate? Am I protected from HPV?

    People who have received one dose of the HPV vaccine may have some protection, but the additional dose or doses offer additional protection. Further, if you or your partner were already infected with a type of HPV, the vaccine will not prevent transmission of that HPV type.

    I think I had the HPV vaccine about six years ago, but I am not certain. Should I get the shot? And if I do, but I was vaccinated before, will anything happen?

    I had the HPV vaccine but have since given birth to a child. Do I need the HPV vaccine again?

    No, people who have been vaccinated against HPV do not need to be revaccinated after giving birth.

    Questions And Answers For The 9

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    HPV stands for human papillomavirus. HPV infection is the most common sexually transmitted infection. There are a large number of discovered HPV strains that lead to different diseases. Some HPV infections cause abnormal skin or mucous membrane growths . More dangerously, some HPV strains are major factors that contribute to cervical cancer and other reproductive cancers. Protection against these viruses, the HPV vaccine is highly recommended. Not only to prevent HPV infections, but the HPV vaccine aims to reduce disease severity if the disease inevitably develops. Further development of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine that protects against 4 HPV types, the 9-valent HPV vaccine targets 9 HPV strains that most commonly cause cervical cancer and genital warts. It also protects against HPV types that potentially lead to some cancers of the vulva, vagina, anus and oropharynx. Most frequently asked questions and their answers below greatly guide women to have a better understanding towards the HPV vaccine.

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    How Long After Receiving The Hpv Vaccine Does It Take For The Vaccine To Work

    The immune system takes one to two weeks to generate immunity to vaccines or infections. In the case of HPV vaccine, the first dose generates a primary immune response, so people will have some immunity, but protection can vary from one person to another. The last dose is important because it enhances the memory immune response. A person will have the greatest protection beginning about one to two weeks after receiving their last dose of the vaccine.

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