What If There Is A Severe Reaction
An allergic reaction could occur after the vaccinated person leaves the clinic. If you see signs of a severe allergic reaction , call 9-1-1 and get the person to the nearest hospital.
For other signs that concern you, call your health care provider.
Adverse reactions should be reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System . Your health care provider will usually file this report, or you can do it yourself. Visit the VAERS website at or call . VAERS is only for reporting reactions, and VAERS does not give medical advice.
Is It Too Late To Get Vaccinated
The answer to this question isnt so clear-cut. If you have an unvaccinated teen headed off to college, there is still time for them to get their vaccines. Your child may also need another shot if they had the vaccine as a preteen. Meningitis vaccines are thought to only last for about five years, according to the Center for Young Womens Health.
Adults can also get the meningitis vaccine if their doctors recommend it. Certain situations can warrant the use of meningitis vaccinations. Examples include spleen removal, going to military camp, or traveling overseas.
What Should I Discuss With My Healthcare Provider Before Receiving This Vaccine
You should not receive a meningococcal conjugate vaccine if you have ever had an allergic reaction to a meningococcal or a diphtheria vaccine.
If you have any of these other conditions, your vaccine may need to be postponed or not given at all:
- a history of premature birth
- any condition that weakens your immune system or
- a condition for which you are receiving steroids, chemotherapy, or radiation treatments.
You can still receive a vaccine if you have a minor cold. In the case of a more severe illness with a fever or any type of infection, wait until you get better before receiving this vaccine.
Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or breastfeeding.
Your doctor should determine whether you need this vaccine during pregnancy. If you are pregnant, your name may be listed on a pregnancy registry. This is to track the outcome of the pregnancy and to evaluate any effects of this vaccine on the baby.
The Menactra brand of this vaccine should not be given to anyone younger than 9 months or older than 55 years of age. The Menveo brand should not be given to anyone younger than 2 months or older than 65 years of age.
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People Without A Spleen Or Whose Spleen Does Not Work Properly
If you do not have a spleen, or your spleen does not work properly, or you have a weakened immune system then it is likely to be recommended to you that you receive the MenB and the MenACWY vaccines. The timing of your vaccines will depend on your age. Your doctor will be able to advise you in more detail regarding this.
Problems That Could Happen After Getting Any Injected Vaccine
- People sometimes faint after medical procedures, including vaccination. Sitting or lying down for about 15 minutes can help prevent fainting, and injuries caused by a fall. Tell the provider if you or your child feel dizzy, have vision changes, or have ringing in the ears.
- As with any medicine, there is a very remote chance of a vaccine causing a severe allergic reaction, other serious injury, or death.
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Who Needs A Meningococcal Vaccine
The CDC recommends a meningococcal vaccine for:
- All children ages 11-18 or certain younger high-risk children
- Anyone who has been exposed to meningitis during an outbreak
- Anyone traveling to or living where meningitis is common, such as in sub-Saharan Africa
- Military recruits
- People with certain immune system disorders or a damaged or missing spleen
How Common Is Meningococcal Disease
Meningococcal disease is becoming much less common. Over the past 20 years, the overall incidence of meningococcal disease in the US has declined 10-fold. Twenty years ago in Massachusetts there were 80-100 cases of meningococcal disease per year. In contrast, for the past decade the average is approximately 12 cases per year. Declining rates of meningococcal disease may be due in part to the introduction of meningococcal vaccines as well as other factors such as the decline in cigarette smoking, which may impact susceptibility to this disease.
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Types And Composition Of Meningococcal Vaccines
Of the 5 meningococcal vaccines available in the United States: 3 are conjugate vaccines and 2 are recombinant protein vaccines. Meningococcal vaccines also vary by the number of serogroups they provide protection against. Both recombinant protein vaccines are monovalent vaccines. This means the Food and Drug Administration licensed them to provide protection against 1 serogroup . In contrast, the conjugate vaccines provide protection against 4 serogroups , making them quadrivalent vaccines.
Concerns About Immunisation Side Effects
If a side effect following immunisation is unexpected, persistent or severe, or if you are worried about yourself or your childs condition after an immunisation, see your doctor or immunisation nurse as soon as possible or go directly to a hospital.
It is important to seek medical advice if you are unwell, as this may be due to other illness rather than because of the vaccination.
In Victoria you can report immunisation side effects to SAEFVIC, the vaccine safety and central reporting service on Tel. 1300 882 924 #1. Ask your immunisation provider how to report adverse events in other states or territories.
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Meningococcal Disease And Vaccines
Meningococcal disease is caused by the bacteria Neisseria meningitidis. There are 13 known sub-types and of these, 5 are currently vaccine preventable .
Serogroups B, C, W and Y account for the highest number of cases of invasive meningococcal disease in Australia. In the first 6-months of 2019, just over half of meningococcal cases reported were due to serogroup B , 28% were due to serogroup W , 15% of cases were due to serogroup Y , and 6% were due to serogroup C .
Children < 2-years of age have the highest incidence of meningococcal disease. There is another peak of disease among adolescents and young adults aged 15-24 years. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people have a much greater burden of disease than non-Indigenous people.
People with meningococcal disease can become extremely unwell very quickly. IMD can cause meningitis , septicaemia as well as other infections like pneumonia , arthritis and conjunctivitis . Mortality can be as high as 5-10% and permanent lifelong complications can occur in 10-20% of those who survive. Disease is transmitted via respiratory droplets .
MVEC strongly encourages the immunisation of anyone wishing to be protected against meningococcal disease.
How Well It Works
The Men-C-C meningococcal vaccine works well. It protects about 97% of infants for one year after they get the vaccine and drops to 70% protection after one year. Booster shots of this vaccine are given to keep the protection level high. The Men-C-ACYW meningococcal vaccine works well and protects about 85% of people from meningococcal disease. The level of protection goes down over a period of years. Not enough information is available to say how long the 4CMenB vaccine protection lasts.
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What Are The Possible Side Effects Of This Vaccine
Get emergency medical help if you have signs of an allergic reaction:hives dizziness, weakness fast heartbeats difficult breathing swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.
Keep track of any and all side effects you have after receiving this vaccine. When you receive a booster dose, you will need to tell the doctor if the previous shot caused any side effects.
You should not receive a booster vaccine if you had a life-threatening allergic reaction after the first shot.
Becoming infected with meningococcal disease and developing meningitis is much more dangerous to your health than receiving this vaccine. However, like any medicine, this vaccine can cause side effects but the risk of serious side effects is extremely low.
You may feel faint after receiving this vaccine. Some people have had seizure like reactions after receiving this vaccine. Your doctor may want you to remain under observation during the first 15 minutes after the injection.
- severe weakness or unusual feeling in your arms and legs
- low fever, not feeling well or
- fussiness, irritability.
This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report vaccine side effects to the US Department of Health and Human Services at 1 800 822 7967.
Are Both Meningococcal Vaccines Equally Effective
The MCV4, MPSV4 and MenB vaccines are about 85-90% effective in preventing meningococcal disease. There are actually several types of N meningitidis — the bacterium that causes meningococcal disease, five of which are common in the U.S. These vaccines together protect against all five of these strains.
MCV4 has not been available long enough to compare the long-term effectiveness of the two vaccines. But most experts think that MCV4 provides better, longer-lasting protection.
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Shouldnt Meningococcal B Vaccine Be Required
CDCs Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices has reviewed the available data regarding serogroup B meningococcal disease and the vaccines. At the current time, there is no routine recommendation and no statewide requirement for meningococcal B vaccination before going to college . As noted previously, adolescents and young adults may be vaccinated with a serogroup B meningococcal vaccine, preferably at 16 through 18 years of age, to provide short term protection against most strains of serogroup B meningococcal disease. This would be a decision between a healthcare provider and a patient. These policies may change as new information becomes available.
What Are The Risks From Meningococcal Vaccine
Most people have mild side effects from the vaccine, such as redness or pain where the shot was given. A vaccine, like any medicine, may cause serious problems, such as severe allergic reactions. This risk is extremely small. Getting the meningococcal vaccine is much safer than getting the disease.
You can learn more on the Vaccine Information Statements for meningococcal ACWY and meningococcal B.
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Who Should Not Get A Meningococcal Vaccine
Your preteen or teen shouldn’t get the meningococcal vaccine if they:
- Has had a severe, life-threatening allergic reaction to a meningococcal vaccine before or to any vaccine component
- Is moderately or severely ill
- Has ever had Guillain-Barre syndrome
Pregnant women can get the meningococcal vaccine, but it’s only recommended for those with certain immune problems or those likely to be exposed to meningitis. With the newer MCV4 and MenB vaccines, there hasn’t been as much study in pregnant women compared to the MPSV4 vaccine.
Vaccines For Meningococcal Disease
There are a number of vaccines available which protect against different types of meningococcal disease. There is no one vaccine that can protect against all of the types of meningococcal disease. Different vaccines are required to protect against the most common types of meningococcal disease one to protect against meningococcal group A,C,W & Y disease, and another vaccine to protect against meningococcal group B disease. There is also a separate vaccine available to protect against meningococcal group C disease.
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Who Should Get The Meningococcal Vaccines
All children ages 11 through 12 years should receive meningococcal vaccine followed by a booster dose at age 16 years. Vaccination is also recommended for all adolescents ages 13 through 18 years who did not receive a dose at age 11-12 years.
Individuals ages 2 months and older who have certain conditions that weaken their immune system should receive meningococcal vaccine, including teens who are HIV positive. These persons should also receive booster shots every three to five years depending on their age. Talk to your health care provider if your preteen or teen has a condition that makes it harder for their body to fight off infection.
The MenB vaccine may also be given at age 16 years along with the MenACWY booster dose. MenB vaccine is also recommended for children age 10 years and older with certain high-risk conditions. The number of doses needed depends on the product used and if your child has a high-risk condition. Talk to your health care provider about this additional vaccine.
Common And Local Adverse Events
Conjugate meningococcal vaccines
Injection site reactions occur in up to 59% of vaccinees. Fever is reported in up to 5% of recipients and systemic reactions, such as headache and malaise, are reported in up to 60% of recipients.
Mild reactions, including injection site reactions , occur in up to 50% of vaccine recipients. Irritability occurs in up to 80% of infants and fever in up to 9% when other vaccines were administered. Headaches and malaise occur in up to 10% of older children and adults. These reactions last no more than a few days.
Serogroup B Meningococcal vaccines
Solicited local and systemic reactions have been commonly reported in clinical trials and include injection site tenderness, induration, sleepiness and irritability. Higher rates of fever have been observed with simultaneous administration of 4CMenB vaccine and routine infant vaccines therefore, routine prophylactic administration of acetaminophen or separating 4CMenB vaccination from routine vaccination schedule has been proposed for preventing fever in infants and children up to three years of age.
Solicited local and systemic reactions have been commonly reported in clinical trials and include injection site tenderness, induration and irritability.
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Quadrivalent Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccines
In 2005, the first quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine conjugated to diphtheria toxin was licensed by the US Food and Drug Administration. A second MenACWY vaccine conjugated to CRM-197 was licensed in 2010 and Nemenrix by GSK was licensed in 2012. In pre-licensure clinical studies, all these vaccines were found to be safe and immunogenic. In the United States these vaccines are licensed for the age 254 years, with studies evaluating a multiple dose series in infants and toddlers ongoing.
Is It Possible To Get The Vaccine And Still Get Meningitis
Because the vaccines do not protect against all causes of meningitis, it is still possible that someone could receive the vaccine and still get meningitis from a different strain not protected by the vaccine. But the risk of contracting meningococcal meningitis is significantly lower after the vaccine.
There are other causes of meningitis that are preventable. Vaccines like the Hib vaccine and the pneumococcal vaccine are also very effective at protecting against other causes of meningitis and should be included as part of a routine childhood vaccination schedule. Check with your doctor and your children’s doctor to make sure that you and your family are protected against meningitis, as well as other serious illnesses.
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Meningococcal B Recombinant Vaccine
There is an increased risk of fever and medically attended fever-related events, such as febrile seizures, associated with 4CMenB in some children age under 2 years. These events peaked at six hours post-vaccination and generally subsided by day 3. Prophylaxic paracetamol is recommended 30 minutes prior and six-hourly for up to 48 hours following vaccination for children aged under 2 years. Ibuprofen may be given as an alternative to paracetamol. Some infants will still develop a fever and/or injection-site pain even though they have received paracetamol doses.
In clinical trials, some infants and young children also experienced injection-site tenderness and irritability. Adolescents and adults may experience localised pain, nausea, myalgia, malaise, mild fever and headache.
Most Health Insurance Plans Pay For Menb Vaccination For Teens And Young Adults
Most health plans must cover CDC-recommended vaccines with no out-of-pocket costs if an in-network healthcare provider administers the vaccine. Check with your insurance provider for details on whether there is any cost to you for this vaccine.
The Vaccines for Children, or VFC, program provides vaccines for children 18 years old and younger who are
- Not insured
- American Indian or Alaska Native
Parents can find a VFC provider by contacting their local health department. VFC will cover the cost of MenB vaccination for those
- 16 through 18 years old
- 10 through 18 years old at increased risk due to a medical condition
- 10 through 18 years old identified as being at increased risk due to a serogroup B meningococcal disease outbreak
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What Are The Side Effects From The Meningococcal Vaccines
With any vaccine, there is the potential of a severe allergic reaction within a few minutes to a few hours after the shot. But the likelihood that the meningococcal vaccines would cause a severe reaction is extremely slight.
About one out of every two people who get the shot experience mild reactions such as redness or a mild pain where the shot was given. Those usually go away in one to two days. A small percentage of people develop a mild fever.
There have been reports that a few people have been diagnosed with Guillain-Barre syndrome after receiving MCV4. But experts say it occurs so rarely that it’s not possible to tell if it’s related to the vaccine or coincidental.
Rare Side Effects Of Meningococcal Immunisation
There is a very small risk of a serious allergic reaction to any vaccine. This is why you are advised to stay at the clinic or medical surgery for at least 15 minutes following immunisation in case further treatment is required.
If any other reactions are severe and persistent, or if you are worried, contact your doctor for further information.
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Table : Recommended Menacwy Vaccine Schedule For Healthy Individuals Travellers And Laboratory Personnel
|Vaccine Brand¥||Course commenced at age 6-weeks to 5-months of age||Course commenced at 6 to 8- months||Course commenced at 9 to 11-months of age||Course commenced at 12 to 23-months of age||Course commenced at 2-years of age|
|Nimenrix®||2 doses + 1 booster^# dose||1 dose + 1 booster^# dose||1 dose + 1 booster^# dose||1 dose#|
|2 doses + 1 booster^# dose||1 dose + 1 booster^ dose||1 dose + 1 booster^ dose||2 doses||1 dose|
¥completing the course with the same vaccine brand is preferred but may not always be practical. The NIP funded 12-month dose of Nimenrix® may be used as the booster dose for those who have commenced the course < 12-months of age.there is no registered upper age limit for use of Menveo® or Nimenrix®^booster dose is given at 12 months of age/8 weeks since previous dose #a single dose of Nimenrix® is funded on the NIP at 12-months of age and for year 10 students and adolescents aged 15-19 years of age who missed receiving the vaccine at school