Sunday, June 4, 2023

Is There A Vaccine For Whooping Cough

When Do I Need To Get This Vaccine And How Often

Whooping cough vaccine becomes less effective over time, study says

“We vaccinate our children against whooping cough, of course, and that has been successful. But we’ve learned that once people become young adults, the immunity wanes a little, so now outbreaks are happening in various places around the country. There is a relatively new vaccine that adds whooping cough to the familiar diphtheria and tetanus shot. Next time you get this shot, it will likely be Tdap, which stands for tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis. That will protect patients and help prevent them from transmitting the disease to others.”

Why Should Pregnant Women Get Vaccinated During Each Pregnancy

Women should be vaccinated during each pregnancy because the mother passes some protection to the baby before he or she is born, and because protection from Tdap is most effective within the first year after receiving the vaccine. Whooping cough can be serious for infants, and most get it from parents, siblings, or caregivers. Getting the mother vaccinated at each pregnancy provides the best protection for each baby.

How Effective Is The Whooping Cough Vaccine

The whooping cough vaccine is highly effective when people get all the recommended doses. In children, DTaP protects:

  • About 98 out of 100 children for at least a year after the fifth shot.
  • About 7 out of 10 children for five years after the fifth shot.

In adults, Tdap protects:

  • About 7 in 10 people for the first year after the shot.
  • About 4 in 10 people for four years after the shot.

When pregnant women get Tdap, the vaccine protects:

  • More than 3 out of 4 babies from getting whooping cough in the first 2 months of life.
  • About 9 out of 10 babies from getting severe whooping cough infections that require hospitalization.

A note from Cleveland Clinic

Pertussis vaccines protect children, teens and adults from whooping cough. Whooping cough is a respiratory disease that causes uncontrollable coughing fits followed by a whoop sound. In babies, whooping cough can lead to severe complications. All children, adults and pregnant women should get the whooping cough vaccine. Young children receive the vaccine as a series of five shots before age 7. Starting around age 11 to 12, teens and adults receive a booster pertussis vaccine every 10 years.

Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 06/25/2021.


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Should I Be Concerned About Whooping Cough

Whooping cough is a highly infectious, serious illness that can lead to pneumonia and brain damage, particularly in young babies. Most babies with whooping cough will need hospital treatment, and when whooping cough is very severe they may die.

Research from the vaccination programme in England shows that vaccinating pregnant women against whooping cough has been highly effective in protecting young babies until they can receive their own vaccinations from 8 weeks of age.

In keeping with usual disease patterns, which see cases increasing every 3 to 4 years in England, whooping cough cases have fallen in all age groups since 2012. The greatest fall has been in young babies targeted by the pregnancy vaccination programme.

Cases of whooping cough in older age groups are still high compared to pre-2012 levels. The number of cases was particularly high in 2016, in line with the typical 3- to 4-yearly peak in disease rates.

Babies can be infected by people with whooping cough in these older age groups, so it is still important for pregnant women to be vaccinated to protect their babies.

Will My Doctor Remind Me To Get Vaccinated If I Dont Have A Primary Care Doctor Where Can I Get Vaccinated

Two students diagnosed with whooping cough at Colerain High School

Its always important to be proactive when it comes to your health and well-being. Dont wait for a reminder from your doctor.

Its a good idea to ask your healthcare provider if youre up-to-date on your vaccinations at every visit.

If you dont have a primary care doctor, Tdap and other recommended vaccines are offered by many doctors, pharmacies, health centers, health departments, and travel clinics.

You can use the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services online vaccine finder to locate a nearby provider.

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Are The Dtap And Tdap Vaccines Safe

  • The DTaP and Tdap vaccines are very safe and effective at preventing disease.
  • Some people may have mild side-effects from the vaccine, such as redness, pain or swelling from the shot, mild fever or vomiting, but serious side-effects are very rare.
  • For children serious side effects may include fever over 105o F, crying for more than 3 hours, and seizure.
  • As with any medication, there is a small risk of a severe allergic reaction to a vaccine. This is estimated to occur in less than 1 person per million doses.

The Good And The Bad: The Whooping Cough Vaccine

We’re learning this week that there’s good news and bad news when it comes to the effectiveness of the whooping cough vaccine. Two new Pediatrics studies show we still have a lot to learn about how we protect babies and kids when it comes to pertussis.

First, the good news: traditionally we tell parents that the first shots we give during infancy aren’t fully protective for infants but rather the beginning of creating immunity against the diseases they prevent. However, a study conducted by researchers at the CDC looked back at cases of infants with pertussis from 1991-2008 and they found evidence that babies who received their whooping cough shot as early as they could, at the age of 6 weeks, were less likely to be hospitalized and/or die from the infection. Wonderful news! The first evidence out there that even that first shot, when given as early as possible, helps protect very young infants who are most at risk from whooping cough . New parents can increase protection, even during outbreaks like we’re having right now, by getting their babies immunized on-time and as early as possible.

The not so good news: the effectiveness of the Tdap shot given to young teens doesn’t always provide long-lasting protection and may wane significantly in the years after the 11-year-old booster dose is given. New research out found after one year, nearly 3/4 of teens are still protected from the booster, but by four years after the shot only about a 1/3 of them are.

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How Do Medical Professionals Diagnose Whooping Cough

The best way to diagnose whooping cough is by confirming the presence of the specific disease-causing bacteria Bordetella pertussis in mucus taken from the nose and throat.

  • Because the growth of the bacteria is inhibited by cotton, swabs made from special material, either calcium alginate or Dacron, must be used in obtaining the sample. Studies have shown that cultures are more likely to be positive if medical professionals collect the sample during the first stage of the illness or early in the second. The likelihood for isolating the organism declines with any delay in specimen collection beyond the first three weeks of illness. A culture for Bordetella pertussis is usually negative after five days of treatment with antibiotics.
  • Other laboratory methods used to diagnose pertussis infection such as serologic testing and PCR are available in certain labs. Neither method is more specific than culture isolation of the organism.
  • A health care provider may perform a complete blood count .

Dtap Tdap And Td Vaccines

Study: Whooping cough vaccine losing effectiveness

The DTaP and Tdap vaccines both protect against three bacterial infections: diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis, whereas the Td vaccine only protects against diphtheria and tetanus. In addition, the vaccines vary in terms of who should receive them and the quantities of vaccine proteins they contain:

  • DTaP: The DTaP vaccine is given to infants and young children in a series of five shots at 2 months, 4 months, 6 months, 15 to 18 months, and again at 4 to 6 years of age.
  • Tdap: The Tdap vaccine is different from the DTaP vaccine because it contains lesser quantities of diphtheria and pertussis proteins. For this reason, Tdap is much less likely than DTaP to cause side effects such as pain, redness and tenderness in adolescents and adults. The Tdap vaccine is recommended for most people 11 years and older who have not previously received it. People due for a tetanus booster and those with a wound that warrants tetanus vaccination can get Tdap or Td vaccine.
  • Td: The Td vaccine is the one people commonly think of when they think of getting their tetanus booster. Like Tdap, it contains lesser quantities of diphtheria protein to reduce the occurrence of side effects in adults. Adults should get a dose of Tdap or Td every 10 years as well as if they have a wound that warrants tetanus vaccination.

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Does Medicare Cover The Vaccine

Medicare Part D covers the cost of the adult vaccine for adults aged 65 and older. Since it’s a prescription drug benefit, coverage depends on the use of that benefit so far during the year. Call 1-800-633-4227 with questions about Medicare. Health care workers with questions should contact their patients’ Part D plan for Part D vaccine information.

Why Should I Get Vaccinated If I Don’t Have Close Contact With Babies

While you may not have direct contact with babies, you may be around them in public places such as the grocery store or the library. Babies often catch whooping cough from an adult or family member who may not even know they have the disease. Babies who get whooping cough often have to be hospitalized and could die.

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Do Adults Need To Be Vaccinated Against Whooping Cough

Yes. Its important that people of all ages receive vaccination and regular booster shots for whooping cough.

Whooping cough is the result of a serious bacterial infection. Its easily transmitted from person to person through coughing or sneezing, and it can lead to serious respiratory issues.

Its essential to prevent its transmission through vaccination.

Whooping cough is most commonly observed in babies and young kids. It causes coughing spells that make it hard for them to eat, drink, or breathe regularly. Coughing spells can sometimes last so long that babies may turn blue because they cant catch their breath.

Adults and teens are also at risk of infection. They typically have a runny nose, low-grade fever, and a cough thats often worse at night. The condition can persist for weeks or months.

Symptoms may vary with age, but infection almost always involves a cough. People sometimes make a whoop sound as they struggle to take deep breaths after coughing, which is why its known as whooping cough.

But its important to note that not everyone who has whooping cough makes the whoop sound.

The only way to know for sure if you have whooping cough is to see your healthcare provider.

Do I Need The Whooping Cough Vaccine

No evidence of further spread of diphtheria in Singapore: MOH

In the United States, vaccination against whooping cough is recommended for people of all age groups. This include babies, children, teens, adults, and pregnant people.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends two vaccines to protect against whooping cough:

  • Diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis for babies and children under age 7
  • Tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis for older children and adults

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Is The Whooping Cough Vaccine Required For Healthcare Workers

All healthcare workers should get one dose of Tdap vaccine. This helps protect the workers and their patients. This is especially true if the health care worker will be working with babies and pregnant women. There is no state law that requires healthcare workers to get the whooping cough vaccine, but some health care organizations have policies that require staff to be vaccinated. Check with your employer about your workplace vaccination policies.

How Many People Need To Be Immunized To Reach Community Immunity

Typically, more than 90 percent of a population must be vaccinated against a disease to produce general protection for the population. Since whooping cough vaccines don’t last a lifetime, and because it spreads so easily, we can’t rely on community immunity to protect us from this disease. Making sure you and those around you are up to date on whooping cough vaccine is your best chance to protect yourself and your family from this serious disease.

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How Is Pertussis Spread

  • Pertussis is spread by someone with the disease when they cough or sneeze. The bacteria that cause pertussis then get into the air in tiny droplets that can spread to anyone close by.
  • People who have not been vaccinated, especially newborns too young to receive the vaccine, are most likely to be infected.
  • Adolescents and young adults are the most likely sources for many of the pertussis infections that happen nowadays.

Symptoms And Causative Agent

Learn about pertussis vaccines from Dr. Panagis Galiatsatos

Pertussis, also known as whooping cough, is an extremely contagious disease caused by the Bordetella pertussis bacterium. These bacteria produce toxins that paralyze parts of respiratory cells, leading to inflammation in the respiratory tract.

The incubation period for pertussis is generally between 7-10 days, but can last more than a month. After symptoms first appear, the disease can take anywhere from weeks to months to fully run its course.

Initial symptoms include runny nose, sneezing, and a mild cough, which may seem like a typical cold. A mild fever also generally occurs. However, the cough slowly becomes more severe. Eventually, the patient experiences bouts of rapid coughing, followed by the whooping sound that gives the disease its common name as they try to inhale. While the coughing fit is occurring, the patient may turn blue.

While symptoms may be less severe for adults, pertussis can be extremely dangerous for infants and young children.

Between bouts of coughing, the person typically does not appear ill.

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Should You Get Vaccinated While Pregnant

Pregnant people should get vaccinated between 27 and 36 weeks of pregnancy. This allows time for a person to make protective antibodies, which they can pass along to their baby. These antibodies offer protection until the baby can get their own vaccine. In addition, pregnant people who are vaccinated are less likely to get whooping cough themselves. Therefore, theyre less likely to pass whooping cough to their baby. A Tdap vaccine is recommended for each pregnancy, regardless of how many times a person has received a vaccine.

Is A Booster Shot Needed After The Dtap Shots Are Completed

Everyone — including adults — from age 11 up should receive a booster vaccine, called Tdap. It’s a combined tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis booster vaccine.

If you are pregnant, you should also get the vaccine, preferably between weeks 27 and 36. You need to get the vaccine each time you are pregnant.

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When Should I Seek Medical Care For Whooping Cough

When to call the doctor

  • If you suspect you or your child has whooping cough
  • If your child has an exposure to someone with whooping cough, regardless of whether the child has received immunization shots
  • If your child has a fever that cannot be controlled with over-the-counter medication
  • If your child is unable to keep solids and liquids down

When to go to the hospital

  • If your child stops breathing, call 911 emergency services and begin CPR.
  • If your child turns blue during a coughing spell
  • Go to a hospital’s emergency department if someone with whooping cough shows these symptoms:
  • Inability to tolerate liquids
  • Uncontrolled fever even with anti-fever medications
  • Signs of respiratory distress including rapid breathing and turning blue
  • Signs of dehydration, including weight loss, dry mucous membranes, or decreased urine output

Are There More Cases Of Whooping Cough Than What’s Reported

Pregnant Hongkongers urged to get whooping cough vaccine as number of ...

There are always more cases of whooping cough than what’s reported. Only about one out of every 10 cases gets reported to public health because:

  • Sometimes whooping cough is diagnosed as something else.
  • Some people have whooping cough without knowing it, so they may not see a doctor and it could go undiagnosed and unreported.

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If I Had The Dtp Vaccine As A Child Do I Need The Booster Vaccine For Pertussis

Yes. Adults who have not previously gotten the Tdap vaccine should receive a single dose. Pregnant women should get the Tdap vaccine between 27 and 36 weeks gestation during each pregnancy because pertussis can be fatal to young infants. Although any time during this window is fine, public health personnel suggest earlier rather than later during the window for maximum protection for the baby.

The Tdap vaccine is also recommended for all adolescents 11 or 12 years old.

What Are The Side Effects Of The Whooping Cough Vaccine

You may have some mild side effects such as swelling, redness or tenderness where the vaccine is injected in your upper arm, just as you would with any vaccine. These only last a few days. Other side effects can include fever, irritation at the injection site, swelling of the vaccinated arm, loss of appetite, irritability and headache. Serious side effects are extremely rare.

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Available Vaccines And Vaccination Campaigns

Immunization against pertussis is available for children via the combination DTaP vaccine. The DTaP vaccination replaced the previously used DTP shot, which protected against the same three diseases, but used a whole-cell preparation in the pertussis componentthat is, it contained inactivated, but complete, Bordetella pertussis bacteria. For the DTaP combination vaccine, the whole-cell preparation was removed aP stands for acellular pertussis. This vaccine provides protection against the disease by using only pieces of the pertussis bacteria, which results in fewer side effects than the whole-cell preparation.

A similar combination vaccine called Tdap offers booster protection against tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis for adolescents and adults in certain situations.

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