What Are The Advantages Of Getting The Hpv Vaccine
The biggest advantage is reducing your risk for cancers caused by HPV infection. HPV is so common that around 80% of people in the United States will encounter it at some point in their lives. There is no way to know which infection can lead to cancer. Vaccinating against HPV is the best protection available at this time.
Questions About Hpv Vaccine Safety
I dont want to get the HPV vaccine for my child because I have heard that all of the safety studies were completed by the vaccine manufacturer. Is this true?
Vaccine safety is studied by many, many groups not just those who manufacture vaccines. The FDA reviews all data associated with studies completed by vaccine manufacturers as well as visiting manufacturing sites and continuing to monitor the vaccine as long as it is being made. Additionally, the CDC has systems in place to monitor vaccine safety, including:
- Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System which allows anyone to report side effects, allowing CDC scientists to watch for trends.
- Vaccine Safety Datalink is a collaboration with eight large healthcare organizations from various parts of the United States. Health records are monitored for vaccine receipt and illnesses to study vaccine safety.
- Clinical Immunization Safety Assessment Project is a national group of vaccine experts from the CDC, seven medical research centers, and other experts who conduct research around specific vaccine safety concerns, provide consultations for individual healthcare providers on specific patients, and review adverse event data. Vaccine manufacturers do not have a role in these studies.
Can the HPV vaccine cause cancer?
No. Because the HPV vaccine is made using only a single protein from each type of the virus, it cant cause HPV infection, and, therefore, it cant cause cervical cancer or other cancers.
What Research Is Being Done On Strategies To Prevent Hpv Infection
If a single dose of HPV vaccine were effective, that would be an important advance. A large observational study using national data from women across Australia found that one dose of HPV vaccine was as effective as two or three doses in preventing high-grade cervical lesions . An analysis of data from a community-based clinical trial of Cervarix in Costa Rica, found that even one dose of the vaccine caused the body to produce approximately nine times more antibodies against HPV than the body produces in response to a natural HPV infection, and those antibody levels persisted for 11 years . In addition, the rates of HPV infection remained low for at least 10 years .
Two NCI-led clinical trials have been launched in Costa Rica to confirm and extend these findings. The ESCUDDO study, a randomized double-blind controlled trial involving 20,000 girls ages 1216 years, is testing whether one dose of either Cervarix or Gardasil 9 is as effective as two doses at preventing persistent cervical infection with HPV. PRIMAVERA-ESCUDDO, a non-randomized open-label trial, will provide earlier and complementary results to ESCUDDO about the immunogenicity of one dose of Cervarix in girls ages 914 years compared with three doses of Gardasil in women ages 1825 years.
Koutsky LA, Ault KA, Wheeler CM, et al. A controlled trial of a human papillomavirus type 16 vaccine. New England Journal of Medicine 2002 347:16451651.
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How Many Shots Are There For The Hpv Vaccine
The vaccine is given in a series. The number of shots you need varies depending on the age you are at your first dose.
- Anyone getting the vaccine prior to age 15 needs two doses of the HPV vaccine to be fully protected. They should be given six to twelve months apart.
- If you are 15 through 26 years old, you need three doses. You will need a second dose one to two months after your first dose. Then you will need a third dose six months after the first dose.
Hpv Vaccination Is Preventing Cancer
HPV infections and cervical precancers have dropped since 2006, when HPV vaccines were first used in the United States.
- Among teen girls, infections with HPV types that cause most HPV cancers and genital warts have dropped 88 percent.
- Among young adult women, infections with HPV types that cause most HPV cancers and genital warts have dropped 81 percent.
- Among vaccinated women, the percentage of cervical precancers caused by the HPV types most often linked to cervical cancer has dropped by 40 percent.
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Recommendations For People Over 26
Although the HPV vaccine is approved for people up to 45, the CDC only offers a provisional recommendation for vaccination of women and men over 26.
According to the CDC’s Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices , HPV vaccination is less likely to offer benefit at this point in life given that most adults over 26 will already have been infected with HPV.
For this reason, clinicians can administer the vaccine to patients over 26 but should advise them of the limitations of vaccination. People who have had no or very few sexual partners stand the best chance of reaping the benefits of vaccination.
In contrast to the CDC recommendations, the ACS guidelines do not encourage HPV vaccination after 26, as it is unlikely to provide protection from cancer.
In addition, there has been a global shortage of HPV vaccine that is expected to continue for several years. Offering the vaccine to those who are most likely to benefit from it is a strategic way to ensure that enough is available moving forward.
HPV Doctor Discussion Guide
Get our printable guide for your next healthcare provider’s appointment to help you ask the right questions.
How Is The Hpv Vaccine Given
The HPV vaccine is given as 2 injections into the upper arm spaced at least 6 months apart.
It’s important to have both doses of the vaccine to be properly protected.
If you missed the HPV vaccine offered in school Year 8, you can get it for free up until your 25th birthday.
But if you get your 1st vaccine dose at the age of 15 or over, you’ll need to have 3 injections.
Men who have sex with men , and trans men and trans women who are eligible for the vaccine, will need 3 doses of the vaccine .
If you need 3 doses of the vaccine:
- the 2nd dose should be given at least 1 month after the 1st dose
- the 3rd dose should be given at least 3 months after the 2nd dose
It’s important to have all 3 vaccine doses to be properly protected.
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Why Is The Hpv Vaccine Given At Such A Young Age
HPV infections can be spread by any skin-to-skin contact and are usually found on the fingers, hands, mouth and genitals.
This means the virus can be spread during any kind of sexual activity, including touching.
The HPV vaccine works best if girls and boys get it before they come into contact with HPV .
So getting the vaccine when recommended will help protect them during their teenage years and beyond.
Most unvaccinated people will be infected with some type of HPV at some time in their life.
The virus does not usually do any harm because the person’s immune system clears the infection.
But sometimes the infection stays in the body for many years, and then it may start to cause damage.
How Long Will The Vaccine Prevent Hpv Infection
How long a vaccine will protect people is never known when the vaccine is first introduced. Current research shows that the vaccine is effective, and theres no sign that the protection decreases with time. Research will continue to look at how long protection against HPV lasts, and if booster shots will be needed.
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Where Can I Get The Hpv Vaccine
Getting the vaccine on the NHS
Girls and boys will be offered their free vaccine in school. People under the age of 25 who miss this opportunity can contact their GP surgery about getting one for free on the NHS.
MSM under the age of 45 can visit a sexual health clinic or an HIV clinic to get a free HPV vaccine.
Getting the vaccine privately
If you dont qualify for a free HPV vaccine you can get one privately using a service like LloydsPharmacy Online Doctor.
Order your vaccine through us, and once our in-house doctors have approved it, youll be able to visit your nearest LloydsPharmacy store to get your injections.
What Do The Vaccines Protect Against
Gardasil® provides protection against four HPV types: two that cause approximately 70 per cent of all cervical cancers and two that cause approximately 90 per cent of all anogenital warts in males and females . Gardasil®9 prevents up to an additional 14% of anogenital cancers caused by the additional five HPV types included in the vaccine.
Cervarix® provides protection against the two HPV types that cause approximately 70 per cent of all cervical cancers .
The HPV vaccines will not have an impact on an existing infection or any of the outcomes of an existing HPV infection, such as anogenital warts. The vaccines are preventative against infection with the virus types for which they are indicated. There is currently no vaccine that will give protection against all HPV types.
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What Are The Benefits Of The Hpv Vaccines
In women who have never been infected with HPV, the vaccines prevent almost 100% of cases of cervical cancer caused by the HPV types covered by the vaccines.
The HPV9 vaccine also prevents about:
- 78% of cases of anal cancers in men caused by the two main types of HPV
- 90% to 100% of cases of genital warts in men and women caused by 2 other types of HPV
Side Effects Of The Vaccine Against Hpv
Immunisation against HPV is effective and safe, although all medication can have unwanted sideeffects. Common side effects following immunisation are usually mild and temporary . Specific treatment is not usually required.Side effects may include:
- localised pain, redness and swelling at the injection site
- low-grade temperature
- a burning sensation
at the injection site for one to two days. Paracetamol might be required to ease the discomfort.
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The Hpv Vaccine: Access And Use In The Us
The human papillomavirus vaccine is the first and only vaccination that helps protect individuals from getting many different types of cancer that are associated with different HPV strains. The vaccine protects young people against infection from certain strains of HPV, the most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States. Since HPV vaccines were first introduced in the U.S. in 2006 there have been changes in the range of protection they offer and the dosing regimen. The vaccines were originally recommended only for girls and young women and were subsequently broadened to include boys and young men. This factsheet discusses HPV and related cancers, use of the HPV vaccines for both females and males, and insurance coverage and access to the vaccines.
The Health Risks Of Hpv
HPV causes almost all cervical cancers but is also linked to cancer of the throat, oral cavity, penis, anus, vagina or vulva. More research is needed to define the extent of these linkages.
Anogenital warts, although rarely associated with cancer, are still a significant burden for those affected often leading to physical, emotional and social problems. They can be effectively treated by applying prescribed medication either in a doctor’s office or by you at home. Other medical treatments include cryotherapy , an electric current, or a laser or surgical removal of the warts but these methods do not always eliminate HPV infection. Even with treatment, warts can recur.
HPV does not appear to affect a woman’s ability to become pregnant. Although considered rare, the baby may be at risk of getting an HPV infection in the throat. A C-section delivery is not routinely recommended, unless there is a significant obstruction or other risks.
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Are There Other Ways To Prevent Cervical Cancer
Regular cervical cancer screening and follow-up can prevent most cases of cervical cancer. The Pap test can detect cell changes in the cervix before they turn into cancer. The HPV test looks for the virus that can cause these cell changes. Screening can detect most, but not all, cervical cancers at an early, treatable stage. Most women diagnosed with cervical cancer in the U.S. have either never been screened, or have not been screened in the last 5 years.
What Are Hpv Vaccines
HPV vaccines protect against infection with human papillomaviruses . HPV is a group of more than 200 related viruses, of which more than 40 are spread through direct sexual contact. Among these, two HPV types cause genital warts, and about a dozen HPV types can cause certain types of cancercervical, anal, oropharyngeal, penile, vulvar, and vaginal.
Three vaccines that prevent infection with disease-causing HPV have been licensed in the United States: Gardasil, Gardasil 9, and Cervarix. Gardasil 9 has, since 2016, been the only HPV vaccine used in the United States. It prevents infection with the following nine HPV types:
- HPV types 6 and 11, which cause 90% of genital warts
- HPV types 16 and 18, two high-risk HPVs that cause about 70% of cervical cancers and an even higher percentage of some of the other HPV-caused cancers
- HPV types 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58, high-risk HPVs that account for an additional 10% to 20% of cervical cancers
Cervarix prevents infection with types 16 and 18, and Gardasil prevents infection with types 6, 11, 16, and 18. Both vaccines are still used in some other countries.
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At What Age Should People Get The Hpv Vaccine
The CDC says the HPV vaccine is recommended for children, teenagers, and adults ages 926. The earlier someone gets the vaccine, the better, says Dr. Perkins, who recommends children are vaccinated before the ages of 12 for the most protection.
“This is because younger adolescents produce very good immune responses to the vaccine, so they only need two doses to be fully protected,” says Dr. Perkins. She also points out that almost no child has been exposed to HPV at this age, and since vaccines offer prevention, not treatment, the HPV vaccine will be less effective if someone has already been exposed to the virus.
When younger children receive the vaccine, they will also need fewer doses: The CDC says children ages 914 only need two doses given six to 12 months apart. Anyone over the age of 15 or those who are immunocompromised, however, will need three total doses, given over the course of six months, to make up for a lessened immune response.
Does Health Insurance Pay For The Hpv Vaccines
Insurance plans will probably cover the HPV vaccine cost if it is given according to national guidelines. But check with your insurance plan to be sure.
The vaccines are included in the federal Vaccines for Children program. This program covers vaccine costs for children and teens who dont have insurance. The VFC program provides free vaccines to children and teens younger than 19 years of age, who are either Medicaid-eligible, American Indian or Alaska Native, or uninsured.
The VFC program also allows children and teens to get VFC vaccines through federally qualified health centers or rural health centers. For more on the VFC program or to find the VFC contact where you live, visit www.cdc.gov/vaccines/programs/vfc/contacts-state.html, or call 1-800-232-4636.
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How Has The Hpv Vaccination Programme Changed
In July 2018, it was announced that the HPV vaccine would be extended to boys aged 12 to 13 years in England.
This decision was based on advice from the Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation , the independent body that advises UK health departments on immunisation.
Since the 2019 to 2020 school year, both 12- to 13-year-old boys and girls in school Year 8 have been eligible for the HPV vaccine.
The HPV vaccination programme has been extended to prevent more boys and girls getting HPV-related cancers, such as head and neck cancers and anal and genital cancers.
A catch-up programme for older boys is not necessary as evidence suggests they’re already benefiting greatly from the indirect protection that’s built up from 10 years of the girls’ HPV vaccination programme.
What Are The Possible Side Effects Of The Hpv Vaccine
The most common side effects are pain, redness, or swelling near where the shot was given. Other common side effects are a fever, nausea , headache, and feeling tired.
Some pre-teens and teens may faint after getting any vaccine, including the HPV vaccine. It’s a good idea to have your child sit or lie down while getting the shot and for 15 minutes afterward.
Keep in mind that the benefits of the HPV vaccine far outweigh the risk of side effects.
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Hpv Testing And Treatment
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has a helpful resource for understanding Pap and HPV tests.
What tests can a woman have related to HPV?
Two tests for women are available:
- Pap test A Pap test is done by scraping some cells from the cervix and examining them microscopically. A normal result means your cells looked as expected an abnormal result means that the cells appeared to have undergone some changes. This does not mean you have cervical cancer. In some cases the cell changes are minor and will return to normal when tested in the future. In other cases the changes are more dramatic and need to be monitored more closely.
- HPV test The HPV test determines if the human papillomavirus is present in the cervix.
Find out if you qualify for free or reduced cost screening through the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program and where near you offers the program.
Can HPV tests replace Pap tests?
No, HPV tests should not replace routine Pap tests for two reasons:
Is there a test to determine if I have HPV?
When a person is tested for STDs is HPV testing included?
I got all necessary doses of the HPV vaccine. Do I still need to get Pap tests?