Vaccines For Meningococcal Disease
There are a number of vaccines available which protect against different types of meningococcal disease. There is no one vaccine that can protect against all of the types of meningococcal disease. Different vaccines are required to protect against the most common types of meningococcal disease one to protect against meningococcal group A,C,W & Y disease, and another vaccine to protect against meningococcal group B disease. There is also a separate vaccine available to protect against meningococcal group C disease.
Cdc Does Not Routinely Recommend Menb Vaccination For All Adolescents
Vaccine providers may choose to administer a MenB vaccine to adolescents and young adults 16 through 23 years of age. The preferred age at which to administer the vaccine is 16 through 18 years old.
Together, clinicians and patients or their parents can determine if MenB vaccination is appropriate for them. Clinicians, parents, teens, and young adults may want to consider the following when making this decision:
What Are The Signs And Symptoms Of Meningitis In Children
A baby or young child with meningitis may:
- have a high fever, with cold hands and feet
- vomit and refuse to feed
- feel agitated and not want to be picked up
- become drowsy, floppy and unresponsive
- grunt or breathe rapidly
- have an unusual high-pitched or moaning cry
- have pale, blotchy skin, and a red rash that doesn’t fade when a glass is rolled over it
- have a tense, bulging soft spot on their head
- have a stiff neck and dislike bright lights
- have convulsions or seizures
The above symptoms can appear in any order, and some may not appear at all.
The rash can be harder to see on dark skin, in which case check for spots on paler areas like the palms of the hands, soles of the feet, on the tummy, inside the eyelids and on the roof of the mouth.
However, don’t wait for a rash to develop. If your child is unwell and getting worse, seek medical help immediately.
Source: NHS Choices
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Meningococcal B Vaccine: Frequently Asked Questions
In June 2015, the U. S. Advisory Committee on Immunizations Practices provided a category B recommendation for both Men B vaccines, making the vaccine appropriate for individual clinical decision-making:
A serogroup B meningococcal vaccine series may be administered to adolescents and young adults 16 through 23 years of age to provide short term protection against most strains of serogroup B meningococcal disease. The preferred age for Men B vaccination is 16 through 18 years of age.3,4
This is not a category A or âroutineâ recommendation, so many health care providers and patients have questions about the vaccine. Below is a list of frequently asked questions that may assist with decision-making:
Should low risk patients aged 16 to 23 be advised to get one of the new Men B vaccines? There is no clear answer to that question. Persons aged 16 to 23 are at an increased risk of contracting meningococcal infections. However, the incidence of Men B disease is low and seems to be getting lower. There is limited information about the clinical efficacy and safety of the vaccines. This is one of the reasons the ACIP gave this recommendation a B rather than an A rating.3,4
Will immunizing populations decrease carriage of the meningococcal B bacteria? So far, limited studies have not shown a decrease of asymptomatic carriage in immunized populations. More studies are planned.4
Where can I get more information? More information is available at the CDC/ACIP website.
Are Free Or Low
Yes, if you dont have insurance or your insurance does not cover the cost of the meningococcal vaccines, you may be able to find free or low-cost meningococcal shots.
- Talk to your doctor or clinic to see if they participate in the Minnesota Vaccines for Children Program. If the person in need of vaccination is 18 years old or younger, they may be eligible for no-cost vaccines. However, there may be an administration fee of up to $21.22 per shot.
- Talk to your city or county health department. They may be able to provide low-cost meningococcal shots.
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Before Taking This Medicine
You may not be able to receive Menactra if you’ve ever had an allergic reaction to a meningococcal, diphtheria, or tetanus vaccine.
Menactra may need to be postponed or not given at all if you have:
a severe illness with a fever or any type of infection
a weak immune system caused by disease or by using certain medicine
a history of Guillain-Barré syndrome or
a history of premature birth.
You can still receive a vaccine if you’ve a minor cold.
Your doctor should determine whether you need Menactra during pregnancy or while breastfeeding.
Cdc Recommends Meningococcal Vaccination For People Identified As Being At Increased Risk During Outbreaks
CDC supports state and local health departments in investigating outbreaks and implementing outbreak control measures. During a serogroup A, C, W, or Y meningococcal disease outbreak, CDC recommends MenACWY vaccination for people at increased risk because of the outbreak. During a serogroup B meningococcal disease outbreak, CDC recommends MenB vaccination for people at increased risk because of the outbreak. People who have previously received MenACWY or MenB vaccine and become at increased risk because of an outbreak may be recommended to receive a booster dose depending on how long it has been since they previously received the vaccine.
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What Are The Possible Side Effects Of Meningococcal Vaccines
Some of the most common side effects are swelling, redness, and pain at the site of the injection, along with headache, fever, or tiredness. Serious problems, such as allergic reactions, are rare.
The meningococcal vaccines contains only a small piece of the germ, so it can’t cause meningococcal disease.
How Common Is Menb Disease
MenB is now the cause of most cases of meningococcal disease in Scotland. There were 73 cases in Scotland in 2014. For 61 of these, it was possible to tell which type of infection caused them. Of the 61 cases, 42 were caused by type B .
Although this infection isn’t common, its very important to remember that MenB is extremely serious and can lead to permanent disability and death. The meningococcal bacteria can also cause local outbreaks in nurseries, schools and universities.
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Are Both Meningococcal Vaccines Equally Effective
The MCV4, MPSV4 and MenB vaccines are about 85-90% effective in preventing meningococcal disease. There are actually several types of N meningitidis — the bacterium that causes meningococcal disease, five of which are common in the U.S. These vaccines together protect against all five of these strains.
MCV4 has not been available long enough to compare the long-term effectiveness of the two vaccines. But most experts think that MCV4 provides better, longer-lasting protection.
Common And Local Adverse Events
Conjugate meningococcal vaccines
Injection site reactions occur in up to 59% of vaccinees. Fever is reported in up to 5% of recipients and systemic reactions, such as headache and malaise, are reported in up to 60% of recipients.
Mild reactions, including injection site reactions , occur in up to 50% of vaccine recipients. Irritability occurs in up to 80% of infants and fever in up to 9% when other vaccines were administered. Headaches and malaise occur in up to 10% of older children and adults. These reactions last no more than a few days.
Serogroup B Meningococcal vaccines
Solicited local and systemic reactions have been commonly reported in clinical trials and include injection site tenderness, induration, sleepiness and irritability. Higher rates of fever have been observed with simultaneous administration of 4CMenB vaccine and routine infant vaccines therefore, routine prophylactic administration of acetaminophen or separating 4CMenB vaccination from routine vaccination schedule has been proposed for preventing fever in infants and children up to three years of age.
Solicited local and systemic reactions have been commonly reported in clinical trials and include injection site tenderness, induration and irritability.
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Preteens And Teens Are At Increased Risk For Meningococcal Disease An Uncommon But Serious Illness
Meningococcal disease can be devastating and oftenand unexpectedlystrikes otherwise healthy people. Although meningococcal disease is uncommon, teens and young adults 16 through 23 years old are at increased risk. Meningococcal bacteria can cause severe, even deadly, infections like
- Bacteremia or septicemia
About 1 in 5 people who survive their meningococcal infection have permanent disabilities.
Menacwy Vaccination Of Younger Children And Adults At Increased Risk
In certain situations, younger children and adults should receive MenACWY vaccines. Some people are at increased risk for serogroup A, C, W, or Y meningococcal disease due to
- Having certain medical conditions
Those who remain at increased risk need regular booster doses.
- For children under the age of 7 years, administer a booster dose 3 years after completion of the primary series and every 5 years thereafter.
- For children 7 years old or older and adults, administer a booster dose 5 years after completion of the primary series and every 5 years thereafter.
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How Can I Protect My Child
There are three kinds of meningococcal vaccine available in Canada. Each vaccine provides different protection:
- Meningococcal C vaccine is usually given to babies and young children. It protects against type C of the meningococcus germ, which used to be very common before this vaccine was available.
- MCV-4 protects against 4 types of the meningococcal germ . This vaccine is usually only given to people at higher risk of getting meningococcal disease . In some provinces it is given to all teenagers.
- Meningococcal B vaccine protects children against type B. This vaccine is not given routinely but is usually given to children at higher risk of getting meningococcal disease.
Your doctor will know which vaccine is best for your child, and at what age.
Who Should Get The Meningococcal Vaccines
All children ages 11 through 12 years should receive meningococcal vaccine followed by a booster dose at age 16 years. Vaccination is also recommended for all adolescents ages 13 through 18 years who did not receive a dose at age 11-12 years.
Individuals ages 2 months and older who have certain conditions that weaken their immune system should receive meningococcal vaccine, including teens who are HIV positive. These persons should also receive booster shots every three to five years depending on their age. Talk to your health care provider if your preteen or teen has a condition that makes it harder for their body to fight off infection.
The MenB vaccine may also be given at age 16 years along with the MenACWY booster dose. MenB vaccine is also recommended for children age 10 years and older with certain high-risk conditions. The number of doses needed depends on the product used and if your child has a high-risk condition. Talk to your health care provider about this additional vaccine.
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At What Age Should You Get The Vaccine
In the U.S. two types of meningococcal vaccines are currently offered. The most common type is typically given to tweens aged 11-12 the other isnt routinely offered and is mostly for teenagers aged 16-18.
Meningococcal conjugate vaccine
MenACWY is the main vaccine that people think about when they think of the meningitis vaccine. It protects against meningococcal bacteria A, C, W, and Y, as the name implies. The vaccine is necessary for all kids over the age 11, and in some cases, much younger if children are at an increased risk of contracting the disease.
- Kids 11-12 years old should get their first shot followed by a booster shot at age 16. Teens who get the shot after age 16 dont require a booster shot.
- Younger children, ages 2 months to 10 years, may need to get the vaccine if theyre at a higher risk. This includes if they live near an outbreak, are traveling to a country with an ongoing outbreak, or if they have certain disorders that can compromise their immune system, such as sickle cell anemia or HIV.
- Adults who are immunocompromised, living near an outbreak, or in the military are also recommended to get the vaccine.
Meningococcal B vaccine
- Teenagers age 16 through 18 who are recommended by their clinician
- Kids age 10 and older who have a damaged or missing spleen
- Kids age 10 and older with persistent complement component deficiency
- Kids age 10 and older living in an outbreak area
- Microbiologists who work in a lab with the bacteria
Menb Vaccines Require Multiple Doses
Both MenB vaccine products require more than 1 dose for maximum protection. Adolescents must receive the same vaccine product for all doses.
- Bexsero:® Administer 2 doses. Administer the second dose at least 1 month after the first dose.
- Trumenba:® Administer 2 or 3 doses.
- Administer 2 doses to healthy adolescents who are not at increased risk for serogroup B meningococcal disease. Administer the second dose 6 months after the first dose.
- Administer 3 doses to adolescents who are at increased risk for meningococcal disease. This includes during outbreaks of serogroup B meningococcal disease. Administer the second dose 1 to 2 months after the first dose. Administer the third dose 6 months after the first dose.
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What Are The Different Types Of Vaccines For Meningitis B
In the United States, two types of meningitis B vaccines are Food and Drug Administration -approved Bexsero and Trumenba.
To receive FDA approval, both vaccines had to undergo clinical trials showing their safety and effectiveness. Both vaccines work in a similar way but use different proteins to stimulate your immune response.
Bexsero is produced by GlaxoSmithKline. Its administered in two 0.5 milligram doses, 1 month apart.
Before approval, safety data was reviewed from 3,139 subjects in clinical trials in the United States, Canada, Australia, Chile, the United Kingdom, Poland, Switzerland, Germany, and Italy. Additional safety information was collected from 15,351 people who received Centers for Disease Control and Prevention sponsored vaccines at universities.
Trumenba is produced by Pfizer and is administered in two to three doses. For the three-dose schedule, the second dose is administered 1 to 2 months after the first, and the third vaccine is given 6 months after the first dose. For the two dose schedule, the second dose is given at 6 months after the first.
Before the FDA approved Tremenba, reviewers examined
People who have the highest chance of getting meningitis B include:
In the U.S. meningitis B vaccine isnt available yet for infants younger than 1 year old but is administered in the United Kingdom as part of the National Health Service vaccination schedule.
Im Not A College Student Do I Still Need This Vaccine
The meningitis vaccine âis also a good idea for travelers who go to certain parts of sub-Saharan Africa, the so-called meningitis belt,â Schaffner says. Itâs also recommended for anyone with a damaged spleen, people whose spleen has been removed, people with terminal complement component deficiency , anyone who might have been exposed to meningitis during an outbreak, and microbiologists who routinely work with meningococcal bacteria.
William Schaffner, MD, president, National Foundation for Infectious Diseases professor, chairman, department of preventive medicine, professor of medicine, division of infectious diseases, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine.
CDC: âMeningococcal Vaccines: What You Need to Know.â
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Meningococcal B Vaccine For Children Less Than Two Years Of Age
Fever is common in children aged two or under two years of age when meningococcal B vaccine is given.
It is recommended to use paracetamol 30 minutes before every dose of meningococcal B vaccine given to children under two years of age or as soon as practicable. Follow this with two more doses of paracetamol given 6 hours apart, even if the children do not have a fever.
This is to:
- reduce the chance of fever occurring
- reduce the severity of fever that does occur.
Be sure to give the paracetamol dose that is written on the bottle according to your child’s weight.
Cdc Does Not Routinely Recommend A Menb Vaccine For All Teens And Young Adults However All Teens May Get Vaccinated Preferably At 16 To 18 Years Old
Serogroup B meningococcal disease is relatively rare. Outbreaks have occurred at several U.S. colleges during the past decade. CDCs current recommendation gives people access to MenB vaccines to help prevent this uncommon, but serious illness. However, doctors and parents should discuss the risk of the disease and weigh the risks and benefits of vaccination. Available data suggest these vaccines are safe and provide protection, but that protection decreases fairly quickly after vaccination.
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Who Needs To Get Vaccinated For Meningitis
Its especially important for you to keep all of your meningitis vaccinations up-to-date if you fall into a high-risk category for getting the disease. High-risk categories include:
- Certain Ages. Infants less than one-year-old and young adults between the ages of 16 and 21 are the most likely to develop meningitis. Its most important to have all boosters and available vaccinations at these ages.
- Crowded Settings. Large group settings like college campuses are where outbreaks of meningitis are the most common. Get your vaccines up-to-date before entering into these settings for extended periods of time.
- Certain underlying conditions. Some underlying medical conditions can increase your chance of getting meningitis. These include HIV and other conditions that weaken your immune system. Not having a spleen also places you at higher risk.
- Work that involves meningitis-causing agents. Microbiologists and any other researchers that regularly come into contact with the bacteria and viruses that cause meningitis are consistently at risk.
- Travel to certain areas. Some areas in the world like sub-Saharan Africa have higher rates of meningitis and the pathogens that cause it. Check with your doctor before traveling to new parts of the world.