Meningococcal B Vaccine For Children Less Than Two Years Of Age
Fever is common in children aged two or under two years of age when meningococcal B vaccine is given.
It is recommended to use paracetamol 30 minutes before every dose of meningococcal B vaccine given to children under two years of age or as soon as practicable. Follow this with two more doses of paracetamol given 6 hours apart, even if the children do not have a fever.
This is to:
- reduce the chance of fever occurring
- reduce the severity of fever that does occur.
Be sure to give the paracetamol dose that is written on the bottle according to your child’s weight.
Tetanus Diphtheria And Pertussis Vaccination
- Adolescents age 1112 years: 1 dose Tdap
- Pregnancy: 1 dose Tdap during each pregnancy, preferably during the early part of gestational weeks 2736
- Tdap may be administered regardless of the interval since the last tetanus- and diphtheria-toxoid-containing vaccine.
- Adolescents age 1318 years who have not received Tdap: 1 dose Tdap, then Td or Tdap booster every 10 years
- Persons age 718 years not fully vaccinated* with DTaP: 1 dose Tdap as part of the catch-up series if additional doses are needed, use Td or Tdap.
- Tdap administered at age 710 years
- Children age 79 years who receive Tdap should receive the routine Tdap dose at age 1112 years.
- Children age 10 years who receive Tdap do not need the routine Tdap dose at age 1112 years.
*Fully vaccinated = 5 valid doses of DTaP OR 4 valid doses of DTaP if dose 4 was administered at age 4 years or older.
Are The Vaccines Safe
Yes. Vaccines for childhood diseases are very safe. Sometimes, a vaccine will cause mild side effects like a sore arm/leg or low fever. A bad side effect is not likely to happen. Childhood diseases are a greater health risk to children than the vaccines. Ask your healthcare provider to tell you about risks and side effects.
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Vaccine Safety And Eligibility
Health Canada has approved the Pfizer-BioNTech Comirnaty mRNA vaccine for children ages 5 to 11. All COVID-19 vaccines for adults and children follow the same review and approval process.
Like all COVID-19 vaccines in Canada, vaccines for children are free, safe and effective. When you get your child vaccinated, you protect them from severe illness from COVID-19 and reduce the spread of infection in your community.
Meningococcal Vaccine For Teens
Experts recommend the meningococcal conjugate vaccine for children when they are age 11 or 12. Teens who have not yet had this shot also need it. That’s especially the case if they are at risk for getting meningitis or have a weakened immune system. Your child should then have a booster shot at age 16, or 5 years after the first vaccine. If your child gets the first shot at age 16 or older, a booster dose is not needed.
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Measles Mumps Rubella And Varicella Vaccine
The Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care recently introduced a new measles, mumps, rubella and varicella vaccine to the Publicly Funded Immunization Schedules for Ontario.
Immunization against measles, mumps and rubella is required by law for all children attending school in Ontario, unless exempted. Immunization against varicella is also required for children born in 2010 or later.
What is measles?
Measles can be a serious infection. It causes high fever, cough, rash, runny nose and watery eyes. Measles lasts for one to two weeks. Ear infections or pneumonia can happen in one out of every 10 children with measles. Measles can also be complicated by encephalitis, an infection of the brain, in about one out of every 1,000 children with measles. This may cause brain damage and developmental delays. Measles can also make a pregnant woman have a miscarriage or give birth prematurely.
Measles spreads from person to person very easily and quickly. People can get measles from an infected person coughing or sneezing around them or simply talking to them.
What is mumps?
Mumps can cause very painful, swollen testicles in about one out of four teenage boys or adult men, and painful infection of the ovaries in one out of 20 women. Mumps infection during the first three months of pregnancy may increase the risk of miscarriage. Mumps can cause deafness in some people.
What is rubella ?
What is varicella ?
How Common Is Meningococcal Disease
Meningococcal disease is becoming much less common. Over the past 20 years, the overall incidence of meningococcal disease in the US has declined 10-fold. Twenty years ago in Massachusetts there were 80-100 cases of meningococcal disease per year. In contrast, for the past decade the average is approximately 12 cases per year. Declining rates of meningococcal disease may be due in part to the introduction of meningococcal vaccines as well as other factors such as the decline in cigarette smoking, which may impact susceptibility to this disease.
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When Should A Child Not Be Vaccinated
In a few cases, it’s better to wait to get a vaccine. Some children who are very sick should not get a vaccine at all. Reasons that you should wait or not get a vaccine may include:
- Being sick with something more serious than a cold.
- Having a bad reaction after the first dose of a vaccine.
- Having a convulsion that is thought to be caused by a vaccine.
What To Do If You Move
If you move to another province or territory, your child’s vaccination schedule may change. Once you have moved, contact your new health care provider or local public health office. They will tell you which vaccines may be needed in that province or territory.
Remember to take your child’s vaccination record to the appointment with you.
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Concerns About Immunisation Side Effects
If a side effect following immunisation is unexpected, persistent or severe, or if you are worried about yourself or your childs condition after an immunisation, see your doctor or immunisation nurse as soon as possible or go directly to a hospital.
It is important to seek medical advice if you are unwell, as this may be due to other illness rather than because of the vaccination.
In Victoria you can report immunisation side effects to SAEFVIC, the vaccine safety and central reporting service on Tel. 1300 882 924 #1. Ask your immunisation provider how to report adverse events in other states or territories.
What Are The Risks From Meningococcal Vaccine
Most people have mild side effects from the vaccine, such as redness or pain where the shot was given. A vaccine, like any medicine, may cause serious problems, such as severe allergic reactions. This risk is extremely small. Getting the meningococcal vaccine is much safer than getting the disease.
You can learn more on the Vaccine Information Statements for meningococcal ACWY and meningococcal B.
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Preventing Meningitis In Babies
Vaccines can prevent many, but not all, kinds of meningitis if theyre given as recommended by the CDC . None are 100 percent effective, so even babies that are vaccinated can get meningitis.
Note that although theres a meningitis vaccine, its for one specific type of bacterial meningitis called meningococcal meningitis. Its generally recommended for older children and teens in the United States. Its not used in babies.
In some countries such as the United Kingdom, babies often do receive a meningitis vaccine.
Treatment Of Meningitis In Babies
The treatment for meningitis depends on the cause. Babies with some types of viral meningitis get better without any treatment.
However, always take your baby to the doctor as soon as possible any time you suspect meningitis. You cant be sure whats causing it until your doctor does some tests because the symptoms are similar to other conditions.
When needed, treatment has to start as soon as possible for a good outcome.
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If Your Child Is Missing A Vaccine
Life can get busy and you may not be able to make every vaccination appointment for your child. Your child may also have missed vaccines from your health care provider or their school because of the COVID-19 pandemic.
It is important to call your health care provider or local public health authority if your child missed receiving any vaccines. They can help your child get back on track with the recommended vaccination schedule. This will help to protect your child from many vaccine-preventable diseases.
Provincial And Territorial Routine And Catch
This table summarizes the current routine vaccination schedule for infants and children in all provinces and territories across Canada. Changes to this schedule are updated regularly in collaboration with the Canadian Nursing Coalition for Immunization and the Canadian Immunization Committee Schedules for each province or territory are available. Additional information is available on Canada.ca/vaccines.
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What To Bring To Your Appointment
For your appointment, you should bring:
- your booking confirmation code or email
- your Ontario health card, if you have one
- a letter from your school, medical provider or faith leader, if you dont have an Ontario health card
- your immunization record, if available, to keep track of your COVID-19covid 19 vaccine
- an allergy form, if you have a suspected allergy to the Pfizer vaccine or any of its ingredients or have had a previous allergic reaction to a vaccine
- a mask
- a support person, if needed
What Is Meningococcal Disease
Meningococcal disease is a serious illness caused by a bacterium. It can cause meningitis, which is an infection of the brain and spinal cord, and it can also cause blood infections. The infection can cause death or lifelong disability.
About 375 people get the disease each year, and about 10 to 15 out of 100 people infected with meningococcal disease die. Of those who survive, up to one out of five will have permanent disabilities, such as deafness, brain damage, loss of limbs, or seizures.
A person with meningococcal disease may become seriously ill very quickly. Antibiotics can treat meningococcal infections, but often cant be given soon enough to help.
Anyone can get meningococcal disease, but it is most common in infants less than 1 year of age. Teens are less likely to be infected than infants, but disease levels increase in adolescence starting around age 11, and peak around age 19 years.
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Should I Consider Getting My Child Vaccinated For Covid
Yes. Experts, including those at Johns Hopkins, believe that there are many benefits:
The vaccine helps prevent kids from getting COVID-19: Although COVID-19 in children is sometimes milder than in adults, some kids infected with the coronavirus can get severe lung infections, become very sick and require hospitalization. This is especially important to remember in light of the delta variant, which is more contagious than other coronavirus variants. The current vaccines are still effective in preventing severe illness from the delta variant of the virus, Sick-Samuels notes. Children can also have complications such as multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children that may require intensive care or long-lasting symptoms that affect their health and well-being. The virus can cause death in children, although this is rarer than for adults.
The vaccine helps prevent or reduce the spread of COVID-19: Like adults, children also can transmit the coronavirus to others if theyre infected, even when they have no symptoms. Getting the COVID-19 vaccine can protect the child and others, reducing the chance that they transmit the virus to others, including family members and friends who may be more susceptible to severe consequences of the infection.
If this happens some of the people so infected will become quite sick themselves or further spread the virus to others who will become very sick, and maybe even die all because of a preventable infection.
What About Scheduling Vaccine Appointments For Children Over 5 And Adults
Vaccine.gov has an interactive list of locations nationwide offering COVID-19 vaccines from Pfizer-BioNTech and from Moderna and Johnson & Johnson . Adults can schedule a vaccine or booster appointment with their primary care physician or at a medical center. For kids ages 6 months to 11 years old, a pediatrician or childrens hospital is a good starting place.
Local and national pharmacies including CVS, Walmart Pharmacy, Rite Aid and Walgreens are all distributing COVID-19 vaccines and boosters. Check with your pharmacy for its process for making an appointment and the age groups it is vaccinating.
CVS and some Target locations with CVS pharmacies are distributing vaccines by appointment only, but you can schedule them online.
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What Share Of The Population Has Been Fully Vaccinated Against Covid
The following chart shows the share of the total population that has been fully vaccinated against COVID-19. This represents the share that have received all doses prescribed by the vaccination protocol. If a person receives the first dose of a 2-dose vaccine, this metric stays the same. If they receive the second dose, the metric goes up by 1.
This data is only available for countries which report the breakdown of doses administered by first and second doses.
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Why Should My Kid Get Vaccinated If Theyre Not Likely To Get Very Sick
Children are less likely to get very sick, but serious cases can and do occur, even in health children.
Since 2020, 442 children ages 0-4 years old have died from COVID-19. COVID remains a top 10 leading cause of death for kids. During the most recent Omicron surge, hospitalization due to COVID disease among kids < 5 years of age here higher than in any other child age group. In fact, hospitalizations were higher than what weve seen in previous flu peaks. Of toddlers hospitalized, 25% were sick enough to need care in the ICU. Around half of children with severe illness have no underlying medical conditions.
Hospitalizations arent the only risk, though. Kids can get long COVID, complications from the virus that still arent well understood and can last for months or longer after initial symptoms have subsided.
We also know that our littlest kids are less able to use the layering measures to help keep them safe, such as masking and distancing.
Getting kids vaccinated also is an important component of bringing the pandemic under control.
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Meningococcal C Conjugate Vaccine
NeisVac-C is a meningococcal conjugate vaccine to protect against meningococcal group C only.
This can be used to protect babies under the age of 9 months. Babies who are less than 9 months of age need three doses to be protected. Children over 9 months of age and adults should be given the ACWY vaccine, Menactra.
The NeisVac-C vaccine is funded for children aged under 9 months with a medical condition that increases their risk of invasive meningococcal disease AND is listed on the Pharmaceutical Schedule. Refer to the Immunisation Handbookfor more details.
NeisVac-C is also available as a purchased vaccine through your family doctor. The cost is approximately $98 per dose.
For more advice on vaccines and their availability, talk to your family doctor, call the free Immunisation Advisory Centre helpline 0800 IMMUNE , or see the Immunisation Handbook.
Do Vaccines Have Side Effects
Some vaccines may cause mild, temporary side effects. This includes fever, soreness or a lump where the vaccine shot was given. Your family doctor will talk to you about possible side effects with certain vaccines.
Talk to your doctor if you have any questions about whether your child should receive a vaccine.
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High Risk Groups For Meningococcal Disease
Other people are not funded under the National Immunisation Program and will require a prescription to purchase the meningococcal vaccines. If you are in one of the following high-risk groups, speak to your doctor about which vaccines you should have, the number of doses required and how long protection will last:
- infants and young children, particularly those aged less than two years
- adolescents aged 15 to 19 years
- people who have close household contact with those who have meningococcal disease and who have not been immunised
- people who smoke and are aged 15 to 24 years
- people who are travelling to places, such as sub-Saharan Africa, that have epidemics caused by serogroups A, C, W and Y
- pilgrims to the annual Hajj in Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabian authorities require a valid certificate of vaccination to enter the country
- people who work in a laboratory and who handle meningococcal bacteria
- people with HIV
- people who have had a haematopoietic stem cell transplant.
Why Children Are Vaccinated At Such A Young Age
Children are vaccinated at a very young age because this is when they are most vulnerable to diseases. At this point their immune system is not developed enough to be able to fight serious infections.
The vaccination schedule is based on infants’ ability to create an immune response. Vaccines are given to protect them against 14 serious diseases at a time when they are most at risk.
Medical experts do not advise delaying or spreading out the recommended vaccines. This does not provide any added benefit to your child.
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Who Is At Risk For Meningitis
- While anyone can get meningococcal disease, infants, children, teens and young adults are at increased risk and are the groups most commonly diagnosed with meningitis. Learn more about the meningitis vaccine for infants, children, teens and young adults.
- Large groups of people in community settings are at increased risk. This is why recommendations and requirements for meningococcal vaccine focus on teens and young adults who are more likely to be exposed in college, school or camp settings. Learn more about the meningitis vaccine for college students.
- People with certain medical conditions and weakened immune systems are often at increased risk of meningococcal disease. Learn more about the meningitis vaccine for those with certain medical conditions.
- Travelers to certain parts of the world are at increased risk, especially those traveling to the meningitis belt in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly during the dry season. Learn more about the meningitis vaccine for travelers.