Sunday, September 17, 2023

What Are All The Childhood Vaccines

Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Given At 2 Months 4 Months And 12 Months

Pediatrician Tolu Adebanjo: Why Children Need All Recommended Vaccines

The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine protects children against invasive pneumococcal infections such as pneumonia, bacteraemia and meningitis .

What is invasive pneumococcal disease ?

IPD is an infection caused by a type of bacteria called streptococcus pneumoniae . This type of bacteria can cause any of the following:

  • pneumonia
  • bacteraemia
  • meningitis

Pneumococcal infection is also a frequent cause of ear infections .

Pneumonia, bacteraemia and meningitis can sometimes cause death or long lasting complications such as deafness, especially in people with a high-risk medical condition.

Sometimes antibiotics do not work against the pneumococcal infection . Antibiotic resistance occurs when drugs, used to treat the infection, are no longer effective in killing or stopping the growth of particular microorganisms, such as pneumococcal bacteria. When there is antibiotic resistance, it is more difficult to treat the infection.

Aboriginal And Torres Strait Islander Children

As well as the routine childhood vaccinations, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children can have the following extra free vaccines:

  • additional doses of pneumococcal vaccine
  • meningococcal B vaccine
  • hepatitis A vaccine for children living in WA, NT, SA and Qld.
  • annual influenza vaccine each year from 6 months

Find more information: Immunisations for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people

What Is Herd Immunity

If enough people in your community are immunized against a certain disease, you can reach something called herd immunity. When this happens, diseases cant spread easily from person to person because most people are immune. This provides a layer of protection against the disease even for those who cannot be vaccinated, such as infants.

Herd immunity also prevents outbreaks by making it difficult for the disease to spread. The disease will become more and more rare, sometimes even disappearing entirely from the community.

Also Check: Does Cvs Do Tetanus Shots

What Share Of The Population Has Been Fully Vaccinated Against Covid

The following chart shows the share of the total population that has been fully vaccinated against COVID-19. This represents the share that have received all doses prescribed by the vaccination protocol. If a person receives the first dose of a 2-dose vaccine, this metric stays the same. If they receive the second dose, the metric goes up by 1.

This data is only available for countries which report the breakdown of doses administered by first and second doses.

Tetanus Diphtheria And Pertussis Vaccination

Childhood Vaccines: What They Are and Why Your Child Needs Them

Routine vaccination

  • Adolescents age 1112 years: 1 dose Tdap
  • Pregnancy: 1 dose Tdap during each pregnancy, preferably during the early part of gestational weeks 2736
  • Tdap may be administered regardless of the interval since the last tetanus- and diphtheria-toxoid-containing vaccine.

Catch-up vaccination

  • Adolescents age 1318 years who have not received Tdap: 1 dose Tdap, then Td or Tdap booster every 10 years
  • Persons age 718 years not fully vaccinated* with DTaP: 1 dose Tdap as part of the catch-up series if additional doses are needed, use Td or Tdap.
  • Tdap administered at age 710 years
  • Children age 79 years who receive Tdap should receive the routine Tdap dose at age 1112 years.
  • Children age 10 years who receive Tdap do not need the routine Tdap dose at age 1112 years.
  • DTaP inadvertently administered on or after age 7 years:
  • Children age 79 years: DTaP may count as part of catch-up series. Administer routine Tdap dose at age 1112 years.
  • Children age 1018 years: Count dose of DTaP as the adolescent Tdap booster.
  • For other catch-up guidance, see Table 2.
  • Special situations

    *Fully vaccinated = 5 valid doses of DTaP OR 4 valid doses of DTaP if dose 4 was administered at age 4 years or older.

    Read Also: Does Cvs Offer Tetanus Shots

    Side Effects After Immunisation

    Immunisations are effective and safe, although all medication can have unwanted side effects. Some children may experience a reaction to a vaccine. In virtually all cases, immunisation side effects are not as serious as the symptoms a child would experience if they were to contract the disease.

    The mild side effects can include a mild fever and pain at the injection site. For specific information about side effects from different doses of vaccine, ask your doctor or healthcare professional.

    The meningococcal B vaccine, Bexsero, commonly causes a fever in children aged less than two years. Paracetamol must be given in the 30 minutes before vaccination or as soon as practicable after vaccination for children less than two years. This should be followed by two more doses given six hours apart regardless of whether the child has a fever.

    Are The Vaccines Safe

    Yes. Vaccines for childhood diseases are very safe. Sometimes, a vaccine will cause mild side effects like a sore arm/leg or low fever. A bad side effect is not likely to happen. Childhood diseases are a greater health risk to children than the vaccines. Ask your healthcare provider to tell you about risks and side effects.

    Recommended Reading: Cvs Pharmacy Tdap Vaccine Cost

    A Parent’s Guide To Vaccination

    Vaccination is the best way to protect your child’s health

    Parents are responsible for the well-being of their children, including protecting them from illness caused by diseases that are vaccine-preventable. Learn about vaccination and why it is important to your child’s health.

    Parents agree that feeding and sleeping schedules are important to help keep children healthy. The same goes for childhood vaccinations. Vaccinating your children is the best way to keep them safe from many serious and potentially deadly diseases. You can help protect your children by getting them vaccinated on time and keeping their shots up to date.

    Rotavirus Vaccine Given At 2 And 4 Months

    Childhood vaccinations at polyclinics, CHAS GPs to be subsidised

    What is rotavirus?

    Rotavirus is a common infection that causes vomiting and diarrhea in infants and children. Rotavirus is very contagious, spreading easily from children who are already infected to other infants, children and sometimes adults. Most children are infected with rotavirus at least once by five years of age. Serious but rare symptoms commonly seen in children less than two years of age include severe diarrhea, leading to hospitalization.

    Rotavirus infection is a major cause of visits to health care providers and hospital stays for infants and children under five years of age in Ontario. Deaths in Ontario due to rotavirus are rare.

    Some immunizations are required for children to attend school in Ontario. Please see the school immunization checklist for more information.

    You May Like: Tdap Shot At Cvs

    Doses For Immunocompromised Individuals

    Individuals with certain immunocompromising conditions should receive 3 doses followed by a fourth dose to provide stronger protection because their immune systems respond differently to vaccines than other people without these conditions.

    Eligible immunocompromising conditions

  • Recipients of chimeric antigen receptor -T-cell therapy
  • Individuals with moderate to severe primary immunodeficiency
  • Individuals with advanced untreated HIV infection or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
  • Recipients of immunosuppressive therapies inhibitors and other biologic agents)
  • Transplant recipients, including solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplants
  • Individuals with chronic kidney disease receiving regular dialysis
  • Recipients of active cancer treatment , excluding those receiving only hormonal therapy, radiation therapy or surgery
  • Individuals taking certain medications for autoimmune diseases including rituximab, ocrelizumab, ofatumumab and methotrexate
  • Third dose for immunocompromised 5+

    • Eligibility: Albertans 5 and older with eligible immunocompromising conditions.
    • When to book: Recommended to wait 28 days between the first and second dose, and 8 weeks between the second and third dose.
    • How to book: Call 811 or book online .

    Fourth dose for immunocompromised 12+

    • Eligibility: Albertans 12 and older with eligible immunocompromising conditions.
    • When to book: Must wait at least 5 months after third dose.
    • How to book: Call 811 or book online .

    Routine Vaccines For Children

    The National Immunisation Program provides the routine childhood immunisations recommended for all children in Australia, free of charge.

    This helps to protect them from the most serious childhood infections, some of which may threaten their lives. Some children may need extra vaccines. Speak to your doctor about your childs specific needs.

    Routine childhood immunisations help to protect your child against:

    2 months

    Don’t Miss: How Much Does Shingles Vaccine Cost At Cvs

    Is The Vaccine Safer Than Getting The Real Disease

    Yes. Your child’s natural immune system has no problem handling the weak or dead germs in a vaccine. Your child may have a mild fever or a sore arm after vaccination but these side effects only last a few days and should not disrupt daily activities.

    However, if an unvaccinated child catches the real disease, the result can be serious, or even fatal. This is because active germs multiply quickly, and your child’s immune system is not prepared to defend itself.

    What If My Child Has Already Had One Of The Vaccine

    Which Vaccinations Should My Child Receive?

    You should still immunise your child against these diseases, even if they have had them. It is important to be protected against all the diseases the vaccine covers, even if the child has caught one of the diseases before. This is very important as children under two years do not get enough natural immunity following illness with haemophilus influenzae, meningococcal or pneumococcal disease.

    Don’t Miss: Can You Get Tdap At Cvs

    When Should My Child Get Immunized

    Children should get immunized during their first two years of life. Your child may need several doses of the vaccines to be fully protected. For example, healthcare providers recommend that children receive their first dose of MMR vaccination at 12 months of age or older and a second dose prior to elementary school entry . Children can get the vaccines at regularly scheduled well visits.

    Recommended age at which the vaccines should be received and type of vaccine*

    • Birth
  • DTaP – Diphtheria, Tetanus, Acellular Pertussis
  • IVP – Inactivated Polio vaccine
  • HIB – Haemophilus influenza Type B
  • Rotavirus vaccine
  • 4 to 6 years of age
  • Vaccine
  • 11 years of age to adult
  • Vaccine
  • Meningococcal vaccine
  • HPV
  • *Certain vaccines can be given within a range of ages. This chart represents one recommended schedule. Your child’s pediatrician may follow different guidelines. Please consult with your child’s pediatrician for specific recommendations.

    **The influenza vaccine is given annually. The initial dose can be given as early as 6 months of age.

    Vaccine Effectiveness Against Omicron

  • Current evidence indicates that vaccine protection against the Omicron variant of concern is generally lower than it was against previous variants of concern, although protection against severe outcomes remains strong.
  • Vaccine protection decreases over time, but still protects against severe outcomes and to a lesser extent against infection.
  • Since vaccines continue to prevent infection to some extent, the chances of transmitting infection to others is reduced.
  • Protection is greatly improved with a booster dose.
  • Vaccine
    55% effective at protecting against infection at least 2 weeks after the 2nd dose.

    59% effective at protecting against infection at least 2 weeks after the 3rd dose.

    75% effective at preventing hospitalization at least 2 weeks after the 2nd dose.

    92% effective at preventing hospitalization at least 2 weeks after the 3rd dose.

    Pfizer BioNTech 5 to 11 Two doses are 47% effective at preventing Omicron infection. Two doses are 74% effective at preventing hospitalization due to Delta or Omicron.

    Duration of protection

    Studies regarding how long vaccines offer protection against severe outcomes of COVID-19 are ongoing and current evidence shows COVID-19 vaccines offer effective protection for at least 6 months.

    Read Also: Tdap Shots Cvs

    Why You Should Vaccinate

    Infectious diseases can spread among children and adolescents at school who are not vaccinated. As a parent, you can keep your kids healthy with routine health care and vaccines. Make sure your school-age children are up-to-date with their vaccinations.

    Infection from certain diseases can kill or seriously harm your child. Vaccines use weakened or killed virus or bacteria to trigger your childs natural immune response to provide long-term protection against a disease . It is like a rehearsal for the immune system, so your child is prepared if they are exposed to the “real” disease.

    Vaccinations are safe

    Vaccinations do not cause autism.

    Scientific studies and reviews continue to show no relationship between vaccines and autism.

    Some people wont develop immunity to a disease after being vaccinated, but the vaccine itself cannot infect someone. If a vaccinated individual does contract a disease which they were vaccinated against, their illness will be less severe.

    If People Hardly Ever Get These Diseases Why Does My Child Need To Be Vaccinated

    Can the MMR childhood vaccine help against COVID?

    Diseases that were once common in childhood are now rare in Canada because of vaccines. But they still exist. Even one case of measles can spread quickly when people are not vaccinated. You can still catch measles one hour after an infected person has left the same room. It is not easy to tell who is carrying the germ, or if your child has been exposed.

    Many vaccine-preventable diseases have no treatment or cure. In some cases, children can die from complications of a disease.

    The best protection is to keep vaccinating.

    To better explain the importance of vaccination, here is an analogy: It’s just like when we started bailing out a boat that had a slow leak the boat was full of water . We have been bailing fast and hard, and now the boat is almost dry. If we stop bailing the water will continue to come in as there is still a leak .

    Read Also: Tdap Vaccine Cvs

    What If My Child Is Ill

    There are very few medical reasons to delay immunisation. Babies and children with minor coughs and colds, or those on antibiotics, can be immunised safely and effectively. However, if your child has a high temperature, the immunisation should be put off until your child is better. If you are worried about whether your child is fit to be immunised, talk it over with the doctor or nurse before putting off the immunisation.

    What if my child was premature, had a low birth weight or had jaundice? In general, premature babies should be immunised as normal. It is important that premature babies are protected because they are more vulnerable to certain infections. If your child had a very low birth weight, you should discuss their immunisation needs with your paediatrician. Babies who had jaundice after being born and those who are being breast fed should be immunised as normal.

    What If My Child Has Asthma Eczema Or Hay Fever

    Children with asthma, eczema, hay fever and allergies should be immunised, even if they have a severe allergy to eggs , swelling of the mouth or throat, difficulty breathing, wheezing, low blood pressure and shock).

    Children taking steroids by inhaler or in a low-dose steroid cream should be immunised as normal. If you have any doubts, talk to the doctor or nurse giving the immunisation.

    Don’t Miss: How Much Is The Tdap Vaccine At Cvs

    Do Some Children Also Need Other Vaccines

    Yes. Children who have had their spleens removed or have cystic fibrosis, an immune deficiency, chronic heart, lung, liver or kidney disease, sickle cell disease or diseases such as diabetes are more vulnerable to some infections. If your child has any long-term illness, ask your doctor if they need to be immunised against diseases like flu or hepatitis A. If you are travelling to another country, remember to find out if your child needs any special vaccines.

    What Share Of The Population Has Been Partly Or Fully Vaccinated Against Covid

    New Scientific Study: Children Falling Behind on Measles Vaccinations ...

    The following charts show the breakdown of vaccinations by those that have been partly or fully vaccinated. A person is considered partly vaccinated if they have received only one dose of a 2-dose vaccine protocol. A person is considered fully vaccinated if they have received a single-dose vaccine or both doses of a two-dose vaccine.

    This data is only available for countries which report the breakdown of doses administered by first and second doses.

    Read Also: Cvs Whooping Cough Vaccine

    Why Do I Need To Vaccinate My Child

    Babies are born with immune systems that can fight most germs, but there are some serious diseases they can’t handle. That’s why they need vaccines to strengthen their immune system.

    These diseases once killed or harmed many infants, children, and adults. But now with vaccines, your child can get immunity from these diseases without having to get sick. And for a few vaccines, getting vaccinated can actually give you a better immune response than getting the disease would.

    Vaccinating your child also protects others. Normally, germs can travel quickly through a community and make a lot of people sick. If enough people get sick, it can lead to an outbreak. But when enough people are vaccinated against a certain disease, it’s harder for that disease to spread to others. This means that the entire community is less likely to get the disease.

    Community immunity is especially important for the people who can’t get certain vaccines. For example, they may not be able to get a vaccine because they have weakened immune systems. Others may be allergic to certain vaccine ingredients. And newborn babies are too young to get some vaccines. Community immunity can help to protect them all.

    What Is The Mmr Vaccine

    The MMR vaccine protects against the measles, mumps, and rubella . Its given as 2 shots when your child is 1 year old and again when they are 4- to 6 years old.

    The measles cause fever, rash, cough, runny nose, and watery eyes. It can also cause ear infections and pneumonia. Measles can also lead to more serious problems, such as brain swelling and even death.

    The mumps cause fever, headache, and painful swelling of one or both of the major saliva glands. Mumps can lead to meningitis and, very rarely, to brain swelling. Rarely, it can cause the testicles of boys or men to swell, which can make them unable to have children.

    Rubella is also called the German measles. It causes a slight fever, a rash and swelling of the glands in the neck. Rubella can also cause brain swelling or a problem with bleeding.

    If a pregnant woman catches rubella, it can cause her to lose her baby or have a baby who is blind or deaf, or has trouble learning.

    Some people have suggested that the MMR vaccine causes autism. However, research has shown that there is no link between autism and childhood vaccinations.

    Also Check: Cvs Tdap Booster

    Popular Articles
    Related news