Sunday, June 4, 2023

What Are The Childhood Vaccines

Childhood Vaccines: What They Are And Why Your Child Needs Them

Kids and COVID-19 Vaccine: Doctor Answers Your Questions

A vaccine is a preventive treatment for certain medical diseases. These are diseases that are caused by infections and spread from person-to-person. Vaccines contain a weakened version of the infection or versions that resemble it. Most vaccines are given in childhood. Childhood vaccines help your childs body build up a protection against the disease if or when they are exposed to it.

Vaccines are important. They not only help keep your child healthy, they help all children by limiting the spread of disease and possibly eliminating serious childhood diseases.

There Is No Evidence For Lasting Adverse Effects From Immunization

The possibility that immunizations could cause lasting health problems has been extensively studied to ensure that children are safe. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the National Academies of Science and others have both made careful evaluations of evidence over the years. No supporting evidence has yet been found to link immunizations with health conditions or disorders in later life, including asthma, autism and diabetes.

Provincial And Territorial Routine And Catch

This table summarizes the current routine vaccination schedule for infants and children in all provinces and territories across Canada. Changes to this schedule are updated regularly in collaboration with the Canadian Nursing Coalition for Immunization and the Canadian Immunization Committee Schedules for each province or territory are available. Additional information is available on

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Haemophilus B Conjugate Vaccine

  • Brand Names: ActHIB, Hiberix, PedvaxHIB
  • What it’s for: Prevents Haemophilus influenzae type b invasive disease. Before the availability of Hib vaccines, Hib disease was the leading cause of bacterial meningitis among children under 5 years of age in the United States. Meningitis is an infection of the tissue covering the brain and spinal cord, which can lead to lasting brain damage and deafness. Hib disease can also cause pneumonia, severe swelling in the throat, infections of the blood, joints, bones, and tissue covering of the heart, as well as death. Both ActHIB and PedvaxHIB are approved for infants and children beginning at 2 months. ActHIB can be given through 5 years of age and PedvaxHIB can be given through 71 months of age Hiberix is approved for children 6 weeks through the age of 4 .
  • Common side effects may include: Fussiness, sleepiness, and soreness, swelling and redness at the injection site.
  • Tell your healthcare provider beforehand if: The child is moderately or severely ill, or has ever had an allergic reaction to a previous dose of Hib vaccine.

Why We Need Vaccines

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Vaccines have successfully lowered the rates of disease in countries with strong vaccination programs.

Some of the diseases that vaccines prevent have no treatment or cure. These diseases can cause:

  • severe illness
  • disability
  • death

Even with improved living conditions and modern hygiene, vaccines are still very important to prevent infections that could make your child very sick.

Some diseases are now rarely seen in Canada because of long-term high rates of vaccination in the population, including:

However, these diseases still exist in some countries, so people who live in them or travel to them may become infected. They can introduce and spread these diseases when they return to Canada. High rates of vaccination against these diseases help to prevent further spread and outbreaks.

The best way to protect your children’s health is to prevent these diseases in the first place by keeping their vaccinations up to date. Some examples include:


Measles is still a leading cause of death in children worldwide, with 89,780 cases in 2016. One person with measles can infect 12 to 18 people who haven’t had the vaccine.

Measles is a very contagious disease. You can catch it by walking into a room that an infected person sneezed in an hour before you entered.

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Develop Vaccine Education Materials Using Health Literacy Best Practices

Parents that are on the vaccine-hesitancy scale often request science-based vaccine messaging in plain language that avoids medical jargon. Vaccine education materials should therefore go through an evaluation process before being released to the public. This does not mean that materials need to be dumbed down rather, materials need to be evaluated to ensure the content, word choice and style, use of numbers, organization, layout and design, and use of visual aids is appropriate for the target audience.

Tetanus Toxoid Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid And Acellular Pertussis Vaccine Adsorbed

  • Brand Names: Adacel and Boostrix
  • What it’s for: Booster shot for kids at 10 or 11 years of age to prevent the bacterial infections diphtheria, tetanus , and pertussis . In addition, Boostrix is approved for all individuals 10 years of age and older, . Adacel is approved for use in people ages 10 through 64 years.
  • Common side effects may include: Pain, redness and swelling at the injection site, headache, and tiredness.
  • Tell your healthcare provider beforehand if: The child is moderately or severely ill, has had swelling of the brain within 7 days after a previous dose of pertussis vaccine, or any allergic reaction to any vaccine that protects against diphtheria, tetanus or pertussis diseases.

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Getting Your Child Immunised

Before your child starts school, they usually get their vaccinations at your doctor’s surgery or local health clinic. The Child Health system or the doctors surgery usually sends you the invitation to make a vaccination appointment.

Your child can get some vaccinations in school. The school will contact you before they give your child a vaccine.

If you have any questions, ask your health visitor, doctor, school nurse or a practice nurse in the doctor’s surgery.

How The Vaccines Are Studied And Tested For Children And Youth

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The mRNA COVID-19 vaccines were tested in youth through clinical trials that compared the safety and effectiveness of the vaccine to a placebo. They also compared safety and effectiveness across different age groups. These studies:

  • confirm the vaccines are safe for use in youth aged 12 to 17
  • determine what doses are most effective for different age groups

In phase 3 clinical trials, the mRNA COVID-19 vaccines were very effective at preventing COVID-19 with symptoms in youth aged 12 to 17.

Learn more about:

Although children and youth are less likely to get really sick from COVID-19, they can still:

  • get sick from COVID-19
  • be infected and not have any symptoms
  • spread COVID-19 to others
  • experience longer-term effects if they do get infected

Children and youth with certain underlying medical conditions may have a higher risk for severe illness from COVID-19.

COVID-19 vaccines help the body fight off the virus. Once fully vaccinated, people who get infected with COVID-19 will likely have no symptoms or mild symptoms. Like adults, youth are well protected against severe illness 14 days after their second dose. Those who have already had COVID-19 may still get vaccinated to protect themselves from getting it again.

Millions of people aged 12 to 17 have received COVID-19 vaccines in Canada. High rates of vaccination coverage across the country is key to:

Learn more about:

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The Schedule From 2011 To Present

Annual updates to both the childhood and adult immunization schedules offer guidance to healthcare providers in the form of new recommendations, changes to existing recommendations, or clarifications to assist with interpretation of the schedule in certain circumstances. The schedules are reviewed by committees of experts from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the American Academy of Family Physicians.

Important changes to the schedule:

  • New vaccines: meningococcal serogroup B vaccine
  • Additional recommendations for existing vaccines: HPV , intranasal influenza vaccine
  • Discontinuation of vaccine: intranasal influenza vaccine

2020 | Recommended Vaccines

* Given in combination as DTaP** Given in combination as MMR

Final Tips On Immunizations

Keep this information in mind to help your childs immunizations go more smoothly:

  • Common side effects of immunizations include swelling at the site of the injection, soreness, and fever. Discuss these side effects with your doctor and ask what symptoms deserve an office call.

  • Ask your doctor’s office if it participates in an immunization registry. This is a source you can go to if your immunization records get lost.

  • Ask your doctor’s office if it has an immunization reminder or recall system. This type of system will call to remind you when immunizations are due and will warn you if an immunization has been missed.

  • Always bring your immunizations record with you to all of your child’s office visits and make sure the doctor signs and dates every immunization.

Vaccines are some of the safest and most effective medicines we have, and they have made many dangerous childhood diseases rare today.

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If Youve Already Had Covid

If you or your child had COVID-19covid 19, you should still get the vaccine. It will help protect you from getting sick again and from the more contagious Delta variants.

If you are recovering from COVID-19covid 19, you should wait to get the vaccine until you:

  • have no symptoms
  • are no longer in self-isolation

Measles Mumps And Rubella Vaccine

Routine Vaccination During the COVID
  • Brand Name: M-M-R II
  • What it’s for: Prevents measles, mumps, and rubella in those 12 months of age and older. Measles is a respiratory disease that causes a skin rash all over the body, and fever, cough and runny nose. Measles can be severe, causing ear infections, pneumonia, seizures, and swelling of the brain. Mumps causes fever, headache, loss of appetite and the well-known sign of swollen cheeks and jaw which is from the swelling of the salivary glands. Rare complications include deafness, meningitis , and painful swelling of the testicles or ovaries. Rubella, also called German Measles, causes fever, a rash, and–mainly in women–can also cause arthritis. Rubella infection during pregnancy can lead to birth defects.
  • Common side effects may include: Fever, mild rash, fainting, headache, dizziness, irritability and burning/stinging, redness, swelling, and tenderness at the injection site.
  • Tell your healthcare provider beforehand if: The child is ill and has a fever or has ever had an allergic reaction to gelatin, the antibiotic neomycin, or a previous dose of the vaccine, has immune system problems, or cancer, or problems with the blood or lymph system.

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Meningococcal Serogroup B Vaccination

  • Adolescents not at increased risk age 1623 years based on shared clinical decision-making:
  • Bexsero: 2-dose series at least 1 month apart
  • Trumenba: 2-dose series at least 6 months apart if dose 2 is administered earlier than 6 months, administer a 3rd dose at least 4 months after dose 2.

Special situations

Anatomic or functional asplenia , persistent complement component deficiency, complement inhibitor use:

  • Bexsero: 2-dose series at least 1 month apart
  • Trumenba: 3-dose series at 0, 12, 6 months

Bexsero and Trumenba are not interchangeable the same product should be used for all doses in a series. For MenB booster dose recommendations for groups listed under Special situations and in an outbreak setting and additional meningococcal vaccination information, see .

Recommended Immunizations For Children Ages 4 To 6 Years Old

The shots recommended between ages 4 and 6 are often called kindergarten vaccines because kids are often required to be up to date on their immunizations to start attending elementary school. No new vaccines are introduced at this time, but oftentimes vaccines are given as combinations.

For example, DTap and IPV can be given in a single shot. MMR and varicella vaccines can also be combined into a single immunization. These vaccines are just as effective when given together, and it cuts down on the number of shots kids need.

An overview of immunizations for kids ages 4 to 6 years old

  • DTaP The fifth and final diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis vaccine is recommended when your child is between 4 and 6 years old.
  • IPV The fourth and final poliovirus vaccine is recommended when your child is between 4 and 6 years old.
  • MMR The second and final dose of the measles, mumps and rubella vaccine is also recommended when your child is between 4 and 6 years old.
  • Varicella The second and final dose of the chickenpox vaccine is also recommended when your child is between 4 and 6 years old.

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Start Early And Build Trust With Parents

Interventions should target parents early in pregnancy and target first-time mothers and parents, taking advantage of prenatal appointments and the first postnatal appointment. This is the time when parents are thinking about childhood immunizations the most and deciding whether to accept the recommended schedule, be selective about immunization, or outright refuse immunizations for their child.

If A Child Or Youth Does Not Have An Ontario Health Card

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Children, youth, and their families can still get the vaccine without an Ontario health card. You need to:

  • speak to your school, medical provider, or faith leader about providing a letter confirming the child or youths:
  • name
  • date of birth
  • address
  • contact your local public health unit to get a unique COVID ID
  • call the Provincial Vaccine Contact Centre at to book an appointment . It is available in more than 300 languages, seven days a week from 8 a.m. to 8 p.m.
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    Infant And Child Vaccines

    Immunizations help prevent the spread of diseases and help keep Montanans of all ages healthy. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends vaccines for infants, children, adolescents, and adults. This webpage contains information and resources for parents/guardians and healthcare providers about the recommended vaccines for infants and children through age six.

    What Is In Childhood Vaccines

    Vaccines are made with ingredients that make them safe and effective to protect your child from disease.

    Each vaccine contains a small amount of the disease germ or parts of the germ. Examples are the measles virus, pertussis bacteria, and tetanus toxoid. Vaccines do not cause disease because the germs are either dead or weakened and the toxoids are inactive. Vaccines help your childs immune system build protection against disease.

    Other ingredients in vaccines help keep them stable and prevent contamination of multi-dose vials by bacteria and fungi. Some vaccines have ingredients to boost the immune response to the vaccine.

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    Routinely Administered Vaccines For Children

    Some of the most commonly administered vaccines are briefly discussed below. A complete list of licensed vaccines in the United States and additional information, such as prescribing information and patient labeling are available at: .

    Haemophilus Influenzae Type B

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    Haemphilus Influenza Type B is caused by the bacteria Haemophilus influenzae. This can cause severe infection which occurs mostly in infants and children younger than 5 years old, can cause lifelong disability and can be fatal. There are 6 identified strains of this bacteria and other non-identifiable strains, the one most people are familiar with is Hib. Hib is also the only strain which this vaccine protects against.

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    If You Have Multiple Children They Each Need An Appointment

    You can take more than 1 child to get vaccinated at once. They each need to have their own appointment for the same day and same clinic, but the appointments don’t need to be at the same time. You can arrive at the clinic at any of the appointment times you booked, and all family members will be vaccinated at the same time.

    For example, if you have 2 children that you would like to get vaccinated after school on December 16:

    • Book 1 appointment for 3:30 pm on December 16
    • Book another appointment at any available time at the same clinic on December 16
    • Take both children to the appointment at 3:30 pm

    What Vaccines Should My Child Receive

    Your child should receive all the recommended vaccines. The timing for each shot may be slightly different depending on where you live. Here is what the Canadian Paediatric Society and the National Advisory Committee on Immunization currently recommend:

    • 5-in-1 or 6-in-1 vaccine , DPT-polio, or Hib vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio, and Hib disease, as well as hepatitis B if 6-in-1.
    • Rotavirus vaccine protects infants against rotavirus, the most common cause of serious diarrhea in babies and young children.
    • Pneumococcal vaccine protects against infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, including meningitis , pneumonia, and ear infections.
    • Meningococcal vaccine protects against diseases caused by the meningococcus bacteria, including meningitis and septicemia, a serious blood infection.
    • MMR vaccine protects against measles, mumps, and rubella.
    • Varicella vaccine protects against chickenpox, a very uncomfortable and sometimes serious infection.
    • Hepatitis B vaccine protects against hepatitis B, a serious infection of the liver.
    • dTap vaccine protects adolescents against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis .
    • HPV vaccine protects against the types of HPV that cause cervical cancer, some other cancers, and genital warts.

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    Are Vaccines Safe For Children

    Vaccines are safe. They must go through extensive safety testing and evaluation before they are approved in the United States.

    Some people worry that childhood vaccines could cause autism spectrum disorder . But many scientific studies have looked at this and have found no link between vaccines and autism.

    How Can I Minimize The Pain

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    Needles can hurt. To lessen the pain you can:

    • Apply a topical anesthetic an hour before getting the needle. You may have to confirm with your doctor what part of your childs body the shot will be given . Your pharmacist can help you find the cream.
    • Nurse your baby while they get the needle, or give your baby sugar water just before the shot.
    • Use distractions , suggest deep breathing, remain calm and physically comfort your child during the needle.

    Do not give your child ibuprofen or acetaminophen before or shortly after vaccination since it could have an impact on how well the vaccine works. Wait at least 6 hours post-vaccination for pain or fever relief.

    For tips on how to make vaccines as pain-free as possible:


  • In some provinces, children get a 5 in 1 vaccine and will receive hepatitis B as a separate vaccine, either in infancy or early adolescence.
  • In other provinces, children receive a 6 in 1 vaccine, which protects against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis , poliomyelitis , Haemophilus influenzae type b and hepatitis B. Your doctor will tell you which vaccine is used in your province or territory. Your child will need 2 or 3 doses depending on the vaccine. Doses are given at least 4 weeks apart.
  • In some jurisdictions, a dose is also given at 6 months. The booster may be given at 12 to 15 months of age.
  • In some jurisdictions, doses are also given earlier, starting at 2 months. Adolescents should get a booster dose of MCV-4 or MCV-C at about 12 years of age.
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