Who Should Get Meningococcal Vaccine And When
Two doses of MenACWY are routinely recommended for adolescents 11 through 18 years of age: the first dose at 11 or 12 years of age, with a booster dose at age 16.
Some adolescents, including those with HIV infection, should receive additional doses. Ask your healthcare provider for more information.
In addition to routine vaccination for adolescents, MenACWY vaccine is also recommended for certain groups of people:
- People at risk because of a serogroup A, C, W, or Y meningococcal disease outbreak
- People with HIV
- Anyone whose spleen is damaged or has been removed, including people with sickle cell disease
- Anyone with a rare immune system condition called “persistent complement component deficiency”
- Anyone taking a drug called eculizumab
- Microbiologists who routinely work with isolates of N. meningitidis
- Anyone traveling to, or living in, a part of the world where meningococcal disease is common, such as parts of Africa
- College freshmen living in dormitories
- U.S. military recruits
Some people need multiple doses for adequate protection. Ask your healthcare provider about the number and timing of doses, and the need for booster doses.
Types Of Meningitis Vaccines
The Food and Drug Administration has approved two types of meningitis vaccines. Both of these vaccines protect against bacterial meningitis, which is the most common type of meningitis.
They do not offer protection from viral meningitis, which is more common. The two types of vaccines differ based on what strains of bacteria they protect against.
Scientists Are Starting To Wonder Whether They Can Come Up With Something Better Than Those Accidental Adjuvants
One way MF59 is thought to work is by triggering the release of chemokines signalling chemicals by nearby cells, which then encourage other cells to produce yet more chemokines. Eventually, this cascade attracts immune cells, which ingest the vaccine including recognisable parts of the pathogen it protects against and transport the lot to the lymph nodes, which filter pathogens out of the body and help to identify infections.
The next generation
In the vaccine industry, people are very conservative, says Sun. So whenever they try to find an adjuvant for a new type of vaccine, most of the ones under investigation are the traditional ones, which we know are safe and effective.
However, scientists are starting to wonder whether they can come up with something better than those accidental adjuvants from the 1920s and 1950s, discovered before the structure of DNA was known, or man had set foot on the Moon, when computers either didnt exist or were the size of a house.
Vaccines could be made using parts of bacteria such as salmonella
This is particularly important, because of a tragic irony: people who are the most vulnerable to infections also tend to have the weakest responses to vaccines. For example, one flu vaccine was 58% effective at preventing hospitalisation in frail people over the age of 65, but 77.6% effective in those who were not.
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How Is Meningococcal Disease Spread And Who Is Most At Risk
Meningococcal disease is not as contagious as other illnesses, such as a cold or the flu. But it is spread by contact with infected respiratory and throat secretions. That can happen with coughing, kissing, or sneezing.
Because the risk increases with close or prolonged contact with an infected person, family members in the same household and caregivers are at an increased risk. For the same reason, so are college students who live in dormitories.
Haemophilus Influenzae Type B Vaccine
Before a vaccine became available for it, Haemophilus influenzae type b was the leading cause of bacterial meningitis. Hib is much less common today due to vaccinations.
Doctors usually administer the Hib vaccine at 2, 4, and 6 months of age. They will administer it again between the ages of 12 and 15 months.
The dosing regimen depends on the brand of vaccine an infant receives.
Doctors will give this vaccine either alone or as part of a combination vaccine.
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How Can I Learn More
- Ask your healthcare provider. He or she can give you the vaccine package insert or suggest other sources of information.
- Contact the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention : Call or visit CDC’s website at
Meningococcal Vaccine Information Statement. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Immunization Program. 8/24/2018.
Where Can You Get The Pneumonia Vaccine
Once you know one of the pneumonia vaccines is right for you or your family, you may wonder where to get it. These vaccines are commonly available at medical offices and hospitals, so you might be able to get one where you see your healthcare provider. If they do not have it, many pharmacies, including CVS and Walgreens locations, have the vaccine. Your local health department is also a good resource and often gives vaccinations.
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There Are Three Types Of Meningococcal Vaccines:
- The meningococcal C vaccine that protects against infection from one of the most common types of meningococcal bacteria, type C.
- The meningococcal quadrivalent vaccine that protects against 4 types of meningococcal bacteria: types A, C, Y and W-135.
- The meningococcal B vaccine that protects against infection by one of the most common types of meningococcal bacteria, type B.
The type of vaccine recommended depends on a person’s age and risk factors.
Can The Meningococcal Vaccine Cause Meningococcal Disease
The short answer is no. There are actually four meningococcal vaccines licensed in the U.S. None of the vaccines contains live bacteria.
The vaccines contain antigens — substances that trigger the body’s immune system and cause it to make antibodies. These antibodies then protect the body by attacking and killing the bacteria if it should invade your system.
The first vaccine — meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine or MPSV4 — was approved in 1978. It’s made with the antigens contained in the outer polysaccharide or sugar capsule that surrounds the bacterium.
The meningococcal conjugate vaccine or MCV4 was approved in 2005. It uses antigens taken from the polysaccharide capsule and then bound to a separate protein that targets the body’s immune cells. This makes it easier for the body’s immune system to see and recognize the antigens.
One type of MCV4, Menveo, is licensed for use in people ages 2 to 55. Another version, Menactra, is approved for those 9 months to 55 years old. MPSV4 is the only vaccine licensed for use in people over 55 as well as people 2 to 55. Both vaccines protect against four types of meningococcal disease.
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Advisory Committee On Immunization Practices Recommendations
Adolescents All adolescents 11-18 years of age without contraindications should receive two doses of meningococcal conjugate vaccine , routinely given at 11 or 12 years of age and a booster at 16 years of age. Adolescents who receive a first dose after their 16th birthday do not need a booster dose unless they become at increased risk for meningococcal disease. All Age Groups Vaccination to prevent meningococcal disease is also recommended for all persons starting at 9 months of age who are at increased risk for meningococcal disease . Serogroup B meningococcal vaccine is recommended for all persons starting at 10 years of age who are at increased risk for serogroup B meningococcal disease . Adolescents and young adults aged 1623 years may also receive this vaccine, even if they are not at increased risk .For More Information Immunization schedules:
Is It Possible To Get The Vaccine And Still Get Meningitis
Because the vaccines do not protect against all causes of meningitis, it is still possible that someone could receive the vaccine and still get meningitis from a different strain not protected by the vaccine. But the risk of contracting meningococcal meningitis is significantly lower after the vaccine.
There are other causes of meningitis that are preventable. Vaccines like the Hib vaccine and the pneumococcal vaccine are also very effective at protecting against other causes of meningitis and should be included as part of a routine childhood vaccination schedule. Check with your doctor and your children’s doctor to make sure that you and your family are protected against meningitis, as well as other serious illnesses.
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How Do Meningococcal Bacteria Spread
Meningococcal disease is caused by 13 different groups of meningococcal bacteria.
In the UK, the disease is almost always caused by 1 of 4 meningococcal groups commonly known as MenB, MenC, MenW or MenY. These can be prevented with vaccination.
MenA disease is rare in the UK, but it’s more common in other parts of the world. It can also be prevented by vaccination.
The meningococcal bacteria live in the back of the nose and throat in about 1 in 10 people without causing any symptoms or illness.
Older teenagers are most likely to carry and spread the meningococcal bacteria.
The bacteria are spread from person to person by prolonged close contact such as coughing, kissing or sneezing with someone who is carrying the bacteria.
Very occasionally, the meningococcal bacteria can cause serious illness, including meningitis and septicaemia, which can rapidly lead to sepsis.
Meningococcal infections can happen at any age, but babies, young children and teenagers are especially vulnerable.
Bexsero Meningitis B Vaccine Indication
Bexsero is an FDA-approved vaccine to prevent invasive disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B. Bexsero was approved for use in 2015 for individuals 10 through 25 years of age. Meningococcal B vaccine can help protect against meningococcal disease caused by serogroup B. A different meningococcal vaccine is available that can help protect against serogroups A, C, W, and Y says the U.S. CDC.
BEXSERO is contraindicated in cases of hypersensitivity, including severe allergic reaction, to any component of the vaccine or after a previous dose of BEXSERO.
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Qualitative And Quantitative Composition
Each 0.5 mL dose of vaccine contains:Active ingredients:Meningococcal polysaccharide* Group A: 4.0 mcg/dose Meningococcal polysaccharide* Group C: 4.0 mcg/dose Meningococcal polysaccharide* Group Y: 4.0 mcg/dose Meningococcal polysaccharide* Group W-135: 4.0 mcg/dose Diphtheria toxoid protein: Approximately 48 mcg/dose.*Each of the four polysaccharides is conjugated to diphtheria toxoid.Menactra is a sterile, clear to slightly turbid solution of Neisseria meningitidis purified capsular polysaccharides of groups A, C, Y and W-135, individually conjugated to a carrier protein. The protein is a purified Corynebacterium diphtheriae toxoid, formalin-detoxified. Each 0.5 mL dose of vaccine is formulated in sodium phosphate buffered isotonic sodium chloride solution. No preservative or adjuvant is added.There is no latex in any component of the vial.
How Much Does It Cost
For adults over age 65 who have Medicare Part B, both pneumococcal vaccines are completely covered at no cost, as long as they are given a year apart.
If you have private insurance or Medicaid, you should check with your individual plan to find out if the vaccines are covered. Usually, routinely recommended vaccinations, like the pneumococcal vaccines, are covered by insurance companies without any copays or coinsurance. This means you can often get the vaccines at little or no cost.
The Body’s Natural Response
A pathogen is a bacterium, virus, parasite or fungus that can cause disease within the body. Each pathogen is made up of several subparts, usually unique to that specific pathogen and the disease it causes. The subpart of a pathogen that causes the formation of antibodies is called an antigen. The antibodies produced in response to the pathogens antigen are an important part of the immune system. You can consider antibodies as the soldiers in your bodys defense system. Each antibody, or soldier, in our system is trained to recognize one specific antigen. We have thousands of different antibodies in our bodies. When the human body is exposed to an antigen for the first time, it takes time for the immune system to respond and produce antibodies specific to that antigen.
In the meantime, the person is susceptible to becoming ill.
This means that if the person is exposed to the dangerous pathogen in the future, their immune system will be able to respond immediately, protecting against disease.
Common And Local Adverse Events
Conjugate meningococcal vaccines
Injection site reactions occur in up to 59% of vaccinees. Fever is reported in up to 5% of recipients and systemic reactions, such as headache and malaise, are reported in up to 60% of recipients.
Mild reactions, including injection site reactions , occur in up to 50% of vaccine recipients. Irritability occurs in up to 80% of infants and fever in up to 9% when other vaccines were administered. Headaches and malaise occur in up to 10% of older children and adults. These reactions last no more than a few days.
Serogroup B Meningococcal vaccines
Solicited local and systemic reactions have been commonly reported in clinical trials and include injection site tenderness, induration, sleepiness and irritability. Higher rates of fever have been observed with simultaneous administration of 4CMenB vaccine and routine infant vaccines therefore, routine prophylactic administration of acetaminophen or separating 4CMenB vaccination from routine vaccination schedule has been proposed for preventing fever in infants and children up to three years of age.
Solicited local and systemic reactions have been commonly reported in clinical trials and include injection site tenderness, induration and irritability.
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Quantities Of Aluminum In Other Substances
- 0.04 milligrams per liter
Ponds, lakes, streams
- 104-208 mg/tablet
Given the quantities of aluminum we are exposed to on a daily basis, the quantity of aluminum in vaccines is miniscule. Aluminum-containing vaccines have been used for decades and have been given to more than 1 billion people without problem. In spring 2000, the National Vaccine Program Office reviewed aluminum exposure through vaccines and determined that no changes to vaccine recommendations were needed based on aluminum content. The Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety, part of the World Health Organization , has also reviewed studies and found no evidence of health risks that would require changes to vaccine policy.
Meningococcal Vaccine: Canadian Immunization Guide
For health professionals
Latest partial content update :
: The chapter has been updated to align with the National Advisory Committee on Immunization Statement : The Use of Bivalent Factor H Binding Protein Meningococcal Serogroup B Vaccine for the Prevention of Meningococcal B Disease.
MenB-fHBP vaccine may be considered as an option for use in individuals 10 years of age and older in situations when a serogroup B meningococcal vaccine should be offered:
MenB-fHBP vaccine may be considered as an option for individuals 1025 years of age who are not at higher risk of meningococcal disease than the general population, but who wish to reduce their risk of invasive serogroup B meningococcal disease.
Last complete chapter revision: May 2015
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Other Vaccines Against Meningococcal Disease
Several bacteria can cause meningitis and septicaemia, some of which can be prevented through vaccination.
The Hib/MenC vaccine is offered as part of the NHS vaccination programme to all babies after their 1st birthday.
The MenB vaccine is offered as part of the NHS childhood vaccination programme to all babies at 8 and 16 weeks, with a booster after their 1st birthday.
Page last reviewed: 2 April 2020 Next review due: 2 April 2023
Do The Pneumonia Vaccines Work
The pneumococcal vaccines are very effective at preventing pneumonia and other pneumococcal diseases in both adults and children. In one large study of over 84,000 adults aged 65 and older, those who received PCV13 were less likely to get pneumococcal pneumonia than were those who received a placebo shot. The vaccine protected about 45% of vaccinated people from getting pneumonia and about 75% from getting an invasive pneumococcal disease. Invasive pneumococcal disease is the most serious type and can be life-threatening.
PPSV23 is also effective and protects at least 50% of vaccinated, healthy adults from invasive pneumococcal infections.
In children, PCV13 has decreased the amount of invasive pneumococcal disease. According to the CDC, PCV13 prevented about 30,000 cases of invasive disease in the first 3 years it was available.
Getting the vaccine not only protects you from getting pneumonia and other types of pneumococcal disease, but also protects vulnerable people around you who cant get vaccinated.
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Natural Immunity And Disease Prevention
Vaccines help your immune system get ready to protect against a disease without making you sick.
You may become naturally immune after being exposed to a disease. However, the risks of severe complications or even death are much greater than the risks of a severe reaction after getting a vaccine.
For example, if your child gets meningitis naturally, they have a 1 in 10 chance of dying. Those that survive have a 1 in 5 chance of:
- loss of limbs
- brain damage
An infected person can also spread the disease to others in the community before they show symptoms. Groups at risk include:
- older adults
- those with underlying health conditions
What Is In This Leaflet
Read all of this leaflet carefully before you are vaccinated.
- Keep this leaflet. You may need to read it again.
- If you have any further questions, ask your doctor or pharmacist.
- This vaccine has been prescribed for you. Do not pass it on to others.
- If any of the side effects gets serious, or if you notice any side effects not listed in this leaflet, please tell your doctor or pharmacist.
In this leaflet:
- What Menactra vaccine is and what it is used for
- Before you are given Menactra vaccine
- How Menactra vaccine is given
- Possible side effects
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