Sunday, September 17, 2023

What Are Titers For Vaccines

Evaluation Of Newcastle Disease Antibody Titers In Backyard Poultry In Germany With A Vaccination Interval Of Twelve Weeks

Immunology6-How vaccines work. Antibody titer.
  • Roles Data curation, Formal analysis, Methodology, Writing original draft, Writing review & editing

    Affiliation Unit for Biomathematics and Data Processing, Veterinary Faculty, Justus-Liebig-University Gießen, Gießen, Germany

  • Roles Investigation, Writing review & editing

    Affiliation Clinic for Birds, Reptiles, Amphibians and Fish, Justus-Liebig-University Gießen, Gießen, Germany

  • Roles Investigation, Writing review & editing

    Affiliation Clinic for Birds, Reptiles, Amphibians and Fish, Justus-Liebig-University Gießen, Gießen, Germany

  • Roles Resources, Supervision, Writing review & editing

    Affiliation Clinic for Birds, Reptiles, Amphibians and Fish, Justus-Liebig-University Gießen, Gießen, Germany

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Who needs a titer?

Students in many healthcare programs and clinicians and reps often need to show proof their vaccines have effectively worked and they have immunity to the diseases they may be exposed to in student clinicals or work settings. We are a local business having been in Stafford since 2006 and have provided vaccines, TB testing, Drug testing and titer testing to thousands of individuals in that time. We are recognized by many vendor credentialing services like Castle Branch, Vendormate, Intellicentrics, symplr, Vendormate, Parallon, RepTrax and more.

There are many titers but, we perform Quantitative titers that display numerical values which is what the schools and employment places require. The results measure the presence and amount of antibodies in blood.

Most healthcare programs, colleges and universities require students to provide proof that they are up to date on their vaccinations before they can enroll. You may not be able to show proof due to unfortunate events like floods, fires, lost records, etc. So, then a titer is a low cost way and faster alternative to re-immunizing all over again and provides record of immunity.

If you never had the vaccine to prevent the disease nor had the disease itself you should not waste money on a titer for that disease but, vaccinate.

When do I get my results?

What do titers cost?

We accept payments via Paypal .

Do I have to pay more at the lab?No. The lab will simply draw your blood.

How do I get started?

How Should Titer Results Be Interpreted

Dr. Ford cautions practitioners that a positive result can have different meanings depending on the titer performed. Only positive antibody titers for canine distemper virus, parvovirus, adenovirus and feline panleukopenia can be interpreted as protection. Based on the current laws, a positive rabies antibody titer can only be interpreted as exposure to the vaccine. These results cannot be interpreted as an indication of protective immunity.

When a titer produces a negative result for canine distemper, parvovirus, adenovirus or feline panleukopenia, clinicians should not assume an adult patient with previous vaccination history is susceptible to the disease. Over time, antibody levels circulating in the blood will decrease in the absence of exposure, but the immune system possesses memory that can produce an immune response should it encounter the disease. A negative titer in a puppy undergoing its initial vaccine series indicates that the immune system has not yet responded to vaccinations or may be unable to respond.

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Despite Research Showing That Most Vaccines Have A Much Longer Duration Of Immunity Than Originally Thought Many Veterinarians And Their Clients Still Opt For Annual Boosters Find Out How To Break Free Of This Mold And Protect Your Dog Or Cat From Over

The harmful effects of over-vaccination in dogs and cats is not a new topic. And if youve ever had an animal who reacted badly to too many vaccines, then you know its a real issue. Yet many conventional veterinarians still believe what they originally learned about vaccines, and promote annual boosters. In fact, yearly vaccination remains the single most common reason for annual check-ups or wellness visits. This article looks at the vaccines your dog or cat really needs, and how to help protect him from the harmful effects of over-vaccination through titer testing and other alternatives to conventional vaccine protocols.

Hepatitis B Vaccine And Surface Antibody Titer Faqs

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PLEASE NOTE: This is program specific some programs require 3 Hepatitis B vaccines AND a positive Hepatitis B Surface Antibody titer while others will accept 3 vaccines OR a titer. Please read the information in your CastleBranch account carefully so that you know exactly what you need to meet your programs requirements. If you have any questions, please email and a team member will respond.

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How Often Should I Test Titers For Parvo And Distemper

Youre going to have to decide for yourself. Some vets recommend testing yearly, but this can be expensive. Others test every three years. Still others test five to seven years after vaccination.


Challenge tests show that successful vaccination against parvovirus gives most animals at least seven years of immunity. Distemper provides immunity for at least five to seven years.*

Dr. Ron Schultz, one of the most renowned pet vaccination experts in the country, believes that once a test yields strong titers, you need not test again.

In Dr. Jean Dodds article on vaccine reactions, she quotes Dr. Schultz on the value of testing titers: an animal with a positive test has sterilizing immunity and should be protected from infection. If that animal were vaccinated it would not respond with a significant increase in antibody titer, but may develop a hypersensitivity to vaccine components .

Vaccine Adjuvants Increase Risk Of Adverse Events

Adding adjuvants to vaccines is intended to accelerate, prolong or enhance antigen-specific immune responses, thereby promoting their immunogenicity. However, this increases the risk of autoimmune and inflammatory adverse events. All licensed canine rabies vaccines still contain adjuvants, and most have thimerosal or aluminum salts, whereas cats can receive a safer recombinant non-adjuvanted version. Importantly, killed inactivated vaccines containing adjuvants make up about 15% of the veterinary biologicals used, but have been associated with 85% of post-vaccination reactions.

Currently, particular attention is being focused on these heavy metal salts thimerosal and aluminum being used in human and animal vaccines. Aluminum and mercury have recently been found in the brains of autistic people, and from vaccine adjuvants that cross the blood-brain barrier after injection and then persist lifelong. Clearly, there is an urgent need to remove heavy metals, like aluminum and mercury, from all vaccines, but especially from those given to human and animal neonates and infants.

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Risk Of Reinfection In Unvaccinated Vs Vaccinated Individuals With A History Of Infection

In studies directly comparing risk of reinfection among previously infected individuals who were never vaccinated versus individuals who were vaccinated after infection, most, but not all, studies show a benefit of vaccination. One retrospective cohort study described risk of reinfection from December 2020May 2021 among 2,579 US-based healthcare users previously infected with SARS-CoV-2, about 47% of whom were vaccinated over the course of the study. Investigators did not detect any cases of reinfection, regardless of vaccination status during 5 months of observation and so could not detect a benefit of vaccination . In contrast, a case-control study conducted among 738 residents of Kentucky with reported infection during MarchDecember 2020 found that previously infected persons who were unvaccinated had 2.3 times greater odds of reinfection during MayJune 2021 than previously infected but vaccinated individuals . Both studies occurred before Delta became the dominant variant in the United States.

Should I Test My Puppy

MMR (Measles, Mumps and Rubella) and Varicella (Chicken Pox) titer and vaccine information

Yes! If so, when? Ideally, puppies should have had their last vaccination after 16 weeks of age then should be tested to see if further vaccination is necessary.

Theres an excellent discussion about testing puppies in the 2006 American Animal Hospital Association Canine Vaccine Task Force Report entitled What Are The Possible Applications of Serologic Testing? It reads, Such titer testing is the only way to ensure that a puppy has developed an immune response after vaccinating.

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How Do Vaccines Work

To better comprehend titer tests, it helps to first understand how vaccines work and what they do to help the human body fight disease.

Vaccines teach your immune system to fight viruses without ever needing to expose your body to said viruses. What happens is the vaccine is made of a weakened or dead version of the disease what medicine refers to as “antigens.” When you receive a vaccine, your body detects something foreign and releases antibodies to fight it.

Once your body no longer detects a threat, many of the antibodies break down but signs of them remain in your system, and your body remembers what that disease looks like.

Should you eventually be exposed to the illness and antigens you were vaccinated for, your body will remember and quickly kick into fighting mode to protect itself by producing antibodies to attack the antigens.

What Is A Titer

A Titer is a blood test that checks your immune status to vaccinations or diseases you may have received in the past. There are two types of immunity a person can have:

1. Active Immunity

  • The body’s immune system produces antibodies and cellular immunity which usually lasts for many years to a lifetime.
  • Develops from surviving infection or by vaccination
  • Every individual varies in response and production of antibodies

2. Passive Immunity

  • Immunity transferred from one to another
  • Develops from mother to infant or by blood product such as immune globulin
  • This immunity usually only offers temporary protection during a period of weeks to months

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Correlation Of Immune Response Metrics To Protection

Multiple correlate-of-protection studies have demonstrated that higher antibody titers are associated with decreased risk of subsequent symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. Data from both the phase 3 AZD1222 and mRNA-1273 vaccine efficacy trials demonstrated that quantitative titers of anti-S IgG, anti-RBD IgG, and pseudovirus and SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody tests all correlate with protection against symptomatic infection , with neutralizing antibodies having the strongest correlation in both of these studies .

When Should I Get Immunization Testing


Antibody titer testing to evaluate immune function or identify active or past infections are tailored to your specific circumstances. Your doctor is in the best position to review the potential benefits and downsides of testing in your situation. Talk with a doctor to determine whether antibody testing is right for you.

In some cases, antibody titer testing may be used to inform a schedule for vaccines. However, when vaccination status is unclear, doctors may recommend age-appropriate vaccinations without doing immunization testing.

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How Money Influences Vaccines

Some veterinarians express concern that the companies that make vaccines are most interested in moving their products, and in the process, pressure veterinarians to push vaccines even when they are not needed. And since money can be made on vaccines, some vets go along with it.

Veterinarians commonly make money off of vaccines because the cost is very minimal, so they mark up the cost of providing a vaccination, says Mahaney.

Some markup is to be expected of course, since administering the injections takes time and labor on behalf of the veterinarian or veterinary technician. For vets who are recommending, and providing, three or four vaccines in one session, a small profit can be made.

Such is the case with mobile vaccine clinics, says Mahaney, its a method of generating practice income without having high overhead.

But titer tests often end up costing owners more than vaccines. According to Denish, a distemper-parvo battery titer costs about $76, while the vaccine is about $24. Because there is always the chance that an already paid for titer will show that a vaccination is required anyway, many owners would just as soon opt solely for the vaccination, if only for financial reasons.

Can I Titer Test Immediately After Vaccination

To get an accurate test, you must wait at least 14 days after vaccination before testing.

What if your vet, groomer, spouse, best friend, kennel owner or day care proprietor says titer testing is voodoo science, that your dog needs continued vaccination even if testing indicates otherwise?

Know that vets out of school longer than 10 years received little or no immunology or vaccinology training in school they shouldnt be considered experts unless theyve devoted hundreds of hours to research and training. Others who want to influence you may have no training at all and may be acting out of fear.

Do your own research and advocate for your dog.


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Why Should Titers Be Performed

In Dr. Fords experience, the most common reason for practitioners to perform titers is at the request of an owner. The AAHA guidelines discuss 12 indications for titer testing and guide practitioners on how a positive or negative result should be used to guide patient management in each case. Dr. Ford highlighted several of these indications during his lecture.

Immune Response Kinetics Following Vaccination

MMR antibody titers in post-ASCT myeloma patients

Anti-S, anti-RBD and neutralizing antibodies remain detectable at least 68 months following vaccination . Neutralizing titers following vaccination with the mRNA-1273 vaccine are estimated to decay with a half-life of 68202 days, whereas binding anti-RBD antibodies decline with a half-life of 52109 days . These rates of antibody decay overlap with those reported for convalescent individuals , though at least one preprint study reported less rapid decay among people recovered from infection compared with those vaccinated with BNT162b2 . As with infection, the protective effect of vaccine-induced immunity is also supported by longer-term components of the humoral response, including memory B cells vaccine-induced CD4+ and CD8+ T cells continue to be relatively stable up to 68 months following vaccination .

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Adverse Reactions To Vaccines

Vaccines rarely produce illness because they are made either from tiny, replicated parts of the disease-causing microorganism or from germs that are dead or have been very much weakened. This helps the body to build immunity without making the recipient sick. To be sure, full immunity is not 100% certain for all vaccinated pets and some individuals can have allergic or other adverse reactions to vaccines, but on the whole, the benefits of appropriate vaccination far outweigh any risks.

According to Mahaney, while adverse reactions to vaccines are the exception, these events are more likely to occur when pets are already sick with immune mediated diseases or cancers or are taking drugs that suppress the immune system, such as with steroids or chemotherapy. Additionally, some smaller breeds, such as Chihuahuas, Pugs, and Yorkshire Terriers, are more predisposed to problems associated with vaccination.

Adverse reactions to vaccines can occur within minutes or hours after a dose is given, or can manifest over a longer period of time. Symptoms of an allergic reaction to a vaccine include hives, vomiting, diarrhea, low blood pressure, decreased appetite, lethargy, swelling, collapse, and rarely coma or death.

Assess Immunization Status In Adults

Titers can be used to determine whether a pet has protective immunity to canine distemper virus, parvovirus, adenovirus or feline panleukopenia. This can be helpful if the vaccination history of an adult dog is unknown or if the client requests a titer in lieu of vaccination. If the titers are positive, the pet does not need to be revaccinated. If a titer is negative, a booster is recommended, especially if the pet’s vaccine history is unknown.

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Immunologic Data On Vaccination Following Infection

There is clear evidence that neutralizing antibody and memory B cell response elicited by a single dose of mRNA vaccine following previous infection with SARS-CoV-2 results in an increased antibody titer that is approximately equivalent to a two-dose vaccine regimen in individuals who were not previously infected . In one study of healthcare workers vaccinated 711 months after infection with SARS-CoV-2, antibody titers measured 6 days following their first vaccination dose were twice as high as the antibody titers measured the month after their initial infection, and were able to neutralize wild-type, Alpha, and Beta variants, irrespective of vaccine type, number of doses, or pre-vaccination antibody titers .

Determine Whether Vaccination Is Necessary In Adult Patients With Comorbidities

Figure 1

At times, there may be contraindications to vaccinations, including a history of severe adverse vaccine reaction or immune-mediated disease, a chronic illness or a patient undergoing immunosuppressant therapies. In these cases, a titer can help guide patient management.

In cases in which a positive titer is obtained, the pet is protected and revaccination is not needed. When a negative titer is obtained, the pet may not be protected and the clinician and client should work together to make the best decision for the pet in light of the comorbidities present.

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Assess Immunization Status In Puppies

Dr. Ford repeatedly emphasized that just because we are vaccinating pets does not mean they are immunized against a disease. Immunization occurs after a pets immune system has mounted a response to the organism in the vaccine.

Research has shown that at 12 weeks of age, only 50% of puppies have been immunized against canine distemper virus and parvovirus. This lack of immunization is thought to be due to interference from maternal antibodies. The goal of a puppy booster series for modified-live vaccines is to administer at least one vaccine after maternal antibodies are no longer present, leading to the recommendation of vaccination through at least 16 weeks of age. However, at 16 weeks of age, Dr. Ford stated that 15% of puppies are still not immunized.

When an owner needs to know if immunization has been achieved, a titer could be performed two to four weeks after completion of the initial vaccine series. These cases could include especially valuable animals, those that will be traveling extensively, or those living in endemic disease areas. If titers are negative, an additional dose of the vaccine should be administered. An additional titer can be performed two to four weeks after this booster to assess immunity.

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