Wednesday, March 22, 2023

What Are Vaccines Good For

What Do We Know About Johnson & Johnson’s Adenovirus Covid

Which COVID-19 vaccine is better? (spoiler, theyâre all good)

In December 2021, the CDC stated a preference for one of the mRNA COVID-19 vaccines over Johnson & Johnsonâs single-dose adenovirus COVID-19 vaccine. The CDC made the decision because of growing evidence that Johnson & Johnsonâs vaccine increases the risk of blood clots. Although very rare, this problem can be serious and even lead to death.

The blood clots in question involve blood vessels in the brain, lungs, abdomen, and legs, and are accompanied by low levels of blood platelets. This combination is referred to as thrombosis and thrombocytopenia syndrome, or TTS, an abbreviation of the medical terms for the two conditions.

Since the FDA granted emergency use authorization for the Johnson & Johnson vaccine in late February 2021, nearly 17 million doses of the one-dose vaccine have been given. A total of 54 cases of TTS, including nine deaths, were reported in people who received the Johnson & Johnson vaccine through August 31, 2021. TTS has been seen in men and women across age ranges, but the highest risk was seen in women ages 30 to 49 years.

The Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccine will still be available in the US to people who cannot or do not want to get an mRNA vaccine. The vaccineâs label and fact sheet list symptoms of TTS, and urge anyone who experiences them after receiving the Johnson & Johnson vaccine to seek immediate medical attention.

The Johnson & Johnson vaccine can be safely refrigerated for months and frozen for even longer.

Path To Improved Health

Everyone needs vaccines. They are recommended for infants, children, teenagers, and adults. There are widely accepted immunization schedules available. They list what vaccines are needed, and at what age they should be given. Most vaccines are given to children. Its recommended they receive 14 different vaccines by their 6th birthday. Some of these come in a series of shots. Some vaccines are combined so they can be given together with fewer shots.

The American Academy of Family Physicians believes that immunization is essential to preventing the spread of contagious diseases. Vaccines are especially important for at-risk populations such as young children and older adults. The AAFP offers vaccination recommendations, immunization schedules, and information on disease-specific vaccines.

What Steps Are Taken To Help Make Sure The Covid

Safety is always a top priority as federal agencies work with vaccine manufacturers and independent scientific organizations to develop, study, authorize and approve new vaccines. Here are some of the steps taken for COVID-19 vaccines, as well as other vaccines:

Demographics of the COVID-19 Vaccine Trials

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Do I Still Have To Wear A Mask If I Get A Vaccine

The CDC continues to monitor the spread of COVID-19 and makes recommendations for wearing face masks, both for those who are fully vaccinated as well as people who are not fully vaccinated.

The CDC also recommends that masks and physical distancing be required when going to a doctors office, hospital or long-term care facility, including all Johns Hopkins hospitals, care centers and offices.

Johns Hopkins Medicines mask safety guidelines have not changed, and we still require everyone to wear masks inside all of our facilities.

Eradication Of Infectious Diseases

A potential coronavirus vaccine that won

Global disease eradication can be achieved for pathogens that are restricted to human reservoirs. For eradication of infectious diseases, high levels of population immunity are required globally, to ensure no ongoing transmission in our well-connected world . Furthermore, surveillance systems must be in place to monitor the decline in disease, with accurate and reliable diagnostic testing to monitor ongoing cases. At the time of writing, the only infectious disease that has been eradicated in humans by vaccination is smallpox. This disease had afflicted humans for millenia, with the earliest evidence found in Egyptian mummies from 1000 BC . Jenners successful development of the smallpox vaccine using vaccinia virus led to the ultimate eradication of the disease through ring vaccination as announced by the World Health Assembly in 1980 , which was an historic public health achievement. The second example of eradication was of the rinderpest virus in livestock, an infection that indirectly led to human loss of life through loss of agriculture leading to humanitarian crises through famine and poverty. Rinderpest virus infects cattle, buffalo and numerous other domestic species, with widespread disease affecting large parts of Africa and Europe in the 19th century . The Plowright tissue culture rinderpest vaccine, developed during the 1950s, was used for mass vaccination campaigns, alongside other public health measures, leading to eradication in 2011 .

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Can A Vaccine Cause My Baby To Get Sick

Vaccines are extremely safe and serious side effects are rare. Almost all sickness or discomfort after vaccination is minor and temporary, such as a soreness at the injection site or mild fever. These can often be controlled by taking over-the-counter pain medication as advised by a doctor, or applying a cold cloth to the injection site. If parents are concerned, they should contact their doctor or health care provider.

Extensive studies and research show that there is no evidence of a link between vaccines and autism.

What Do Vaccines Do

Vaccines work by preparing the body to fight illness. Each contains either a dead or a weakened germ that causes a particular disease.

The body practices fighting the disease by making antibodies that recognize specific parts of that germ. This permanent or longstanding response means that if someone is ever exposed to the actual disease, the antibodies are already in place and the body knows how to combat it and the person doesn’t get sick. This is called immunity.

Since the start of widespread vaccinations in the United States, cases of once common childhood illnesses like measles and diphtheria have dropped dramatically. Immunizations have protected millions of kids from dangerous diseases and saved thousands of lives.

In fact, some diseases are so rare now that parents sometimes ask if vaccines for them are even needed. But most diseases that can be prevented by vaccines do still exist in the world, even in the United States, although they happen very rarely.

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Havent We Gotten Rid Of These Diseases In The Us

No. The vaccines that Kaiser Permanente and other health care organizations recommend are for diseases that still show up in the United States, so children are still at risk. You may have heard about the measles becoming more common. In 2019, our country had the most cases since 1992. More than 120 people were hospitalized because of measles, with complications such as pneumonia and brain inflammation.

Are There Side Effects To Vaccines

How Do We Know Covid-19 Vaccines Are Safe? | Ask Your Internist | American College of Physicians

There can be side effects after you or your child get a vaccine. They are usually mild. They include redness or swelling at the injection site. Sometimes children develop a low-grade fever. These symptoms usually go away in a day or two. More serious side effects have been reported, but are rare.

It takes years of development and testing before a vaccine is approved as safe and effective. Scientists and doctors at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration study the research before approving a vaccine. They also inspect places where the vaccines are produced to make sure all rules are being followed. After the vaccine is released to the public, the FDA continues to monitor its use. It makes sure there are no safety issues.

Vaccines are safe. The benefits of their use far outweigh any risks of side effects.

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I Have A Severe Allergy Can I Get The Mrna Covid

There have been rare cases of people having a severe allergic reaction after receiving the mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. As a result, everyone getting an mRNA vaccine in the US must be observed for at least 15 minutes after getting their shot, so they can receive immediate medical treatment if they experience a severe allergic reaction.

Despite the small risk, most people with a history of severe allergy can safely get the mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. This includes people who are allergic to food, pollen, bee stings, and medications taken by mouth. If you have a history of severe allergy, tell the person administering your vaccine. You will be observed for at least 30 minutes, instead of the usual 15 minutes.

If you have a history of allergic reactions to injectable medications or other vaccines, the CDC recommends asking your doctor if you should get one of the currently available mRNA vaccines.

There are some people who should not get an mRNA COVID vaccine. You should not get one if you are allergic to any components of the mRNA vaccine, which include polyethylene glycol and polysorbate. If you had an allergic reaction within the first 30 minutes after receiving the first vaccine dose, ask your doctor whether or not you should get a second dose. There are different types of allergic reactions and the specifics of your reaction can help inform the decision.

If you have questions regarding the safety of the COVID vaccine for you, your best option is to talk to your doctor.

How Long Does Immunity Last After Getting A Vaccine

A few vaccines, like the two for measles or the series for hepatitis B, may make you immune for your entire life. Others, like tetanus, last for many years but require periodic shots for continued protection against the disease.

The whooping cough vaccine also does not give lifelong immunity, and that may be one reason why outbreaks still happen. Whooping cough isn’t a serious problem for older kids and adults, but it can be for infants and young children. Because of this, teens and adults now receive a pertussis booster along with the tetanus and diphtheria booster an important step in controlling this infection, particularly for pregnant women and other adults who will be around newborn babies.

It’s important to keep a record of vaccinations so the doctor knows when your kids are due for a booster. Also make sure your kids get the flu vaccine each year. Having been immunized last year won’t protect someone from getting the flu this year because flu viruses constantly change. The vaccine is updated each year to include the most current strains of the virus.

The flu vaccine reduces the average person’s chances of catching the flu by up to 80%. It can’t prevent infection by all viruses that can cause flu-like symptoms, though, so being immunized isn’t a guarantee that someone won’t get sick during flu season. Still, even if someone who’s gotten the vaccine has the flu, symptoms usually will be fewer and milder.

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What Side Effects Can I Expect From The Covid Vaccine

Minor side effects are common after COVID-19 vaccination. Almost everyone experiences arm pain at the injection site. Other symptoms can include low grade fever, body ache, chills, fatigue, and headache.

You can expect to feel better within 24 to 48 hours. Some people feel too unwell to go to work or perform their usually daily activities during this period. Contact your doctor if your symptoms have not improved by the third day.

Moving your sore arm around may help to relieve discomfort. If you have a fever, drink plenty of fluids. Over the counter pain relievers like ibuprofen or acetaminophen can also help with fever, pain, and other discomfort. However, itâs best to not take a pain reliever right before getting your shot, because there is a chance this could blunt your immune response.

The good news: These side effects are a sign that the vaccine is working and that your body is building an antibody response.

Does Vaccination Protect Against Long Covid

High rates of B

Being fully vaccinated with a COVID-19 vaccine does reduce the risk of long COVID. Also called post-COVID-19 syndrome or post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection , long COVID is the term for symptoms that arise or persist more than 28 days after an initial COVID-19 infection.

Vaccination may reduce the risk of long COVID in two ways. The first is by reducing the risk of becoming infected with COVID in the first place. But what about people who experience breakthrough infections, becoming infected despite being vaccinated?

A study published in The Lancet shows that fully vaccinated people who experience breakthrough infections are about 50% less likely to develop long COVID than people who are infected without having been vaccinated. These results are based on self-reported data submitted via the COVID Symptom Study phone app in the United Kingdom between December 2020 and July 2021.

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Can I Get Covid

Yes, it is possible for a child infected with the coronavirus to transmit COVID-19 to another person. Data from some studies suggest that young children may be less likely than older children and adults to spread the coronavirus to others, but it can still happen.

Let’s Talk Health | The New Normal for Kids: During COVID-19 – Part I

Can A Vaccine Give Someone The Disease It’s Supposed To Prevent

It’s impossible to get the disease from any vaccine made with dead bacteria or viruses or just part of the bacteria or virus.

Only those immunizations made from weakened live viruses like the chickenpox and measles-mumps-rubella vaccines could possibly make a child develop a mild form of the disease. But it’s almost always much less severe than if a child became infected with the disease-causing virus itself. However, for kids with weakened immune systems, such as those being treated for cancer, these vaccines may cause problems.

The risk of disease from vaccination is extremely small. One live virus vaccine that’s no longer used in the United States is the oral polio vaccine . The success of the polio vaccination program has made it possible to replace the live virus vaccine with a killed virus form known as the inactivated polio vaccine . This change has completely eliminated the possibility of polio disease being caused by immunization in the United States.

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Why Vaccines Are Safe

All vaccines are thoroughly tested to make sure they will not harm you or your child.

It often takes many years for a vaccine to make it through the trials and tests it needs to pass for approval.

Once a vaccine is being used in the UK it’s also monitored for any rare side effects by the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency .

Anyone can report a suspected side effect of vaccination to the MHRA through the Yellow Card Scheme.

There are very few people who cannot have vaccines.

Generally, vaccines are only not suitable for:

  • people who’ve ad a serious allergic reaction to a previous dose of the vaccine
  • people who’ve had a serious allergic reaction to ingredients in the vaccine

People with weakened immune systems may also not be able to have some vaccines.

If you’re not sure if you or your child can be vaccinated, check with a GP, practice nurse, health visitor or pharmacist.

Should I Get The Covid

What is a vaccine? Little Journey | NHS

Both COVID infection and full vaccination protect against subsequent COVID infection for several months. A report published in MMWR even suggested that prior infection may be more protective than vaccination. Still, the CDC recommends vaccination for everyone who is eligible, even those who were previously infected. If you are sick with COVID-19, you can get vaccinated as soon as you meet the criteria for discontinuing your isolation.

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Is There Anyone Who Cant Get Vaccines

There are some people who cant or shouldnt receive vaccinations. These include young infants and people with certain medical issues. There is also a small number of people who dont respond to a particular vaccine. Because these people cant be vaccinated, its very important everyone else gets vaccinated. This helps preserve the herd immunity for the vast majority of people. This means that if most people are immune to a disease because of vaccinations, it will stop spreading.

Why Vaccines Are Important

Vaccination is the most important thing we can do to protect ourselves and our children against ill health. They prevent up to 3 million deaths worldwide every year.

Since vaccines were introduced in the UK, diseases like smallpox, polio and tetanus that used to kill or disable millions of people are either gone or seen very rarely.

Other diseases like measles and diphtheria have been reduced by up to 99.9% since their vaccines were introduced.

However, if people stop having vaccines, it’s possible for infectious diseases to quickly spread again.

The World Health Organization has listed vaccine hesitancy as one of the biggest threats to global health.

Vaccine hesitancy is where people with access to vaccines delay or refuse vaccination.

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Do Vaccines Cause Sids Multiple Sclerosis Or Other Problems

There are concerns, many of which circulate on the Internet, linking some vaccines to multiple sclerosis, sudden infant death syndrome , and other problems. To date, studies have failed to show any connection between immunizations and these conditions. The number of SIDS cases has actually fallen by more than 50% in recent years, whereas the number of vaccines given yearly has continued to rise.

The Allure Of Natural Health

Officials say there

Our society is increasingly preoccupied with organic foods and medicinecertain that natural substances are all we need to remain healthy and than “chemicals” are the problem. In 2018, Gwyneth Paltrow’s lifestyle company, Goop, invited “holistic health psychiatrist” Kelly Brogan to speak at a conferenceBrogan links vaccines and autism, and insists flu shots don’t work. Holly Blumhardt, a California mother of three unvaccinated children, told the L.A. Times her family believes in staying healthy “from the inside out.” She takes vitamins, avoids GMOs and sees to a chiropractorand receives a belief exemption from innocculating her kids.

An entire alternative medical establishment has emerged to serve anti-vaccine parents fixated on being “natural”: One former naturopathic doctor told The Atlantic she met a naturopath who suggested elderberry syrup could substitute for the flu vaccine. Naturopaths undergo far less rigorous scientific training than conventional doctors, yet 20 states give them licenses to practice, legitimizing science-skeptical philosophies.

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