How Safe Is The Hpv Vaccine
The HPV vaccine has been licensed by the Food and Drug Administration . The CDC has approved this vaccine as safe and effective. The vaccine was studied in thousands of people around the world, and these studies showed no serious safety concerns. Side effects reported in these studies were mild, including pain where the shot was given, fever, dizziness, and nausea. Vaccine safety continues to be monitored by CDC and the FDA. More than 60 million doses of HPV vaccine have been distributed in the United States as of March 2014.
Fainting, which can occur after any medical procedure, has also been noted after HPV vaccination. Fainting after any vaccination is more common in adolescents. Because fainting can cause falls and injuries, adolescents and adults should be seated or lying down during HPV vaccination. Sitting or lying down for about 15 minutes after a vaccination can help prevent fainting and injuries.
Reasons To Get Hpv Vaccine
All children ages 1112-years should get HPV vaccine to protect against cancers caused by HPV infections.
Almost every unvaccinated person who is sexually active will get HPV at some time in their life. About 13 million Americans, including teens, become infected with HPV each year. Most HPV infections will go away on their own. But infections that dont go away can cause certain types of cancer.
HPV can cause cancers of the:
- Penisexternal icon in men
- Anusexternal icon in both women and men
- Back of the throat , including the base of the tongue and tonsils, in both men and women
HPV infections, genital warts, and cervical precancers have dropped since the vaccine has been in use in the United States.
- Infections with HPV types that cause most HPV cancers and genital warts have dropped 88% among teen girls and 81% among young adult women.
- Among vaccinated women, the percentage of cervical precancers caused by the HPV types most often linked to cervical cancer have dropped by 40 percent.
HPV is estimated to cause nearly 36,000 cases of cancer in men and women every year in the United States. HPV vaccination can prevent 33,000 of these cancers by preventing the infections that cause them. Thats the same as the average attendance for a baseball game.
Most children only need two doses of HPV vaccine when vaccinated before age 15 years. You can take advantage of any visit to your childs doctor to get recommended vaccines for your child:
How Long The Hpv Vaccine Protects You
Studies have already shown that the vaccine protects against HPV infection for at least 10 years, although experts expect protection to last for much longer.
But because the HPV vaccine does not protect against all types of HPV that can cause cervical cancer, it’s important that all girls who receive the HPV vaccine also have regular cervical screening once they reach the age of 25.
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What Vaccinated Girls/women Need To Know: Will Girls/women Who Have Been Vaccinated Still Need Cervical Cancer Screening
Yes, vaccinated women will still need regular cervical cancer screening because the vaccine protects against most but not all HPV types that cause cervical cancer. Also, women who got the vaccine after becoming sexually active may not get the full benefit of the vaccine if they had already been exposed to HPV.
What Is Hpv And How Does It Cause Cancer
HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States. There are more than 100 types of HPV, some of which can cause serious health problems, like cancer. There are roughly 45,000 HPV-associated cancers diagnosed each year. About 25,400 cases are in women and 19,900 are in men.
As a pediatric oncologist, Im often asked if there are things a parent can do to prevent their child from getting cancer, says Dr. Kung. The answer is yes: There are certain things that can be done in childhood to prevent cancer later, like getting vaccinated against HPV.
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Are There Hpv Vaccine Side Effects
Research shows that the vaccine is safe. The most common side effect is temporary pain and redness where you get the shot.
One of the reasons the HPV vaccine is controversial is because it prevents a sexually transmitted infection, which leads some people to believe its inappropriate for children. But, the thing is, the vaccine works best if you get it long before you have sex. So its a good idea to get it when youre young so you wont have to worry about getting certain kinds of cancer later in life.
Studies show that the HPV vaccine doesnt lead to people having more sex or sex at a younger age. So giving kids the HPV vaccine doesnt encourage them to have sex. All it does is help protect them from genital warts and cancer in adulthood.
Part : Increasing Global Hpv Vaccination
The burden of HPV-associated cancers extends beyond the borders of the United States, affecting populations in every country. Patterns of HPV-associated cancers differ by region. Cervical cancer is the most common HPV-associated cancer globally. In less developed regions, the large majority of HPV-attributed cancers are cervical cancers. In the United States and other more developed regions, other sites account for a significant proportion of HPV-associated cancers.
While the prevalence of HPV infections and distribution of HPV types vary by region, research has found consistently that HPV16 and HPV18, the cancer-causing strains HPV vaccines protect against, are responsible for at least two-thirds of cervical cancer cases in populations around the world. This provides a strong indication that HPV vaccines will be effective virtually everywhere.
As with cervical cancer screening programs, HPV vaccination programs have been implemented primarily in high-resource areas. Some of the most successful vaccination programs are in Australia, the United Kingdom, and parts of Canada. The U.S. can learn from successful HPV vaccination programs in these and other countries that in some cases have already led to measurable public health benefits.
Addressing the global burden of HPV-associated cancers requires implementation of HPV vaccination programs in low- and middle-income countries, where the majority of HPV-associated cancer cases occur.
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Fact : The Hpv Vaccine Is For Boys And Girls
The HPV vaccine is strongly recommended for boys and girls. It can help protect them from infection with the most common types of HPV that can cause cancer when they get older. HPV is so common that almost everyone will come in contact with it at some point in their lives.
Most HPV infection goes away without any health problems. However, there is no way to know when it wont and an infection could lead to cancer. Vaccinating your child against HPV helps protect them.
How Long Does The Hpv Vaccine Protect For
Studies have shown that the vaccine protects against HPV infection for at least 10 years, although experts expect protection to last for much longer.
But because the HPV vaccine does not protect against all types of HPV that can cause cervical cancer, it’s important that all women who receive the HPV vaccine also have regular cervical screening once they reach the age of 25.
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What Are The Hpv Vaccine Ingredients
The HPV vaccine contains no viruses and is not made from human papillomavirus. The active ingredients in the HPV vaccine are proteins that are similar to those found in the human papillomavirus. Genetically modified bacteria produce the proteins, which are then purified and mixed into a sterile, water-based solution.
How Does The Hpv Vaccine Work
Gardasil has been the HPV vaccine used in the NHS vaccination programme since 2012.
Sometime during the 2021 to 2022 academic year, the HPV vaccine used in the NHS programme will switch to Gardasil 9.
Gardasil 9 protects against 9 types of HPV: 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58. Between them, types 16 and 18 are the cause of most cervical cancers in the UK . Types 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58 cause an additional 15% of cervical cancers.
These types of HPV also cause most anal cancers, and some genital and head and neck cancers.
HPV types 6 and 11 cause around 90% of genital warts, so using Gardasil 9 helps protect girls and boys against both cancer and genital warts.
HPV vaccination does not protect against other infections spread during sex, such as chlamydia, and it will not stop girls getting pregnant, so it’s still very important to practise safe sex.
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False Claims About The Hpv Vaccine
We are aware of stories on social media claiming that the HPV vaccine causes an increase in cases of:
- postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome an increase in heart rate that can make you feel faint and dizzy
- complex regional pain syndrome a form of chronic pain that usually affects an arm or a leg
The European Medicines Agency researched these claims in 2015. They found no evidence that the HPV vaccine leads to an increase in these conditions.
For Hpv Vaccination: The Younger The Better
The Swedish study is the largest to compare cervical cancer diagnoses among women who did and did not receive an HPV vaccine. In Sweden, the only HPV vaccine available during the time period studied was one that protects against four HPV types: HPV 6, HPV 11, HPV 16, and HPV 18. Infections with types 16 and 18 are responsible for approximately 70% of cervical cancers, and types 6 and 11 cause 90% of genital warts.
All of the females followed in the study were between the ages of 10 and 30. Approximately 528,000 of them had received at least one dose of the vaccine between 2006 and 2017, and the remaining 1.14 million had not been vaccinated. More than 80% of those vaccinated received the vaccine before they were 17 years old.
Overall, 19 of the vaccinated women were diagnosed with cervical cancer during the study period, compared with 538 of the unvaccinated women. After adjusting for different factors that can influence cervical cancer risk, those numbers translated into a 63% reduced risk of being diagnosed with cervical cancer among females who had been vaccinated compared with those who hadnt.
The nearly 90% reduction in cervical cancer among women who were vaccinated at a younger age makes sense, said Dr. Kreimer.
The evidence highlights the importance of continuing to introduce HPV vaccination programs and maintaining a high coverage, preferably for girls at young age, to maximize the benefits, Dr. Sparén said.
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When Should Children Get The Hpv Vaccine
The CDC recommends that children get vaccinated against HPV at age 11 or 12. If that seems early, consider this: HPV vaccines help prevent people from becoming infected by HPV, but they cannot treat existing HPV infections. According to the National Cancer Institute, nearly all sexually active people will become infected with HPV within a few months to a few years of becoming sexually active, and around half of these infections will involve a type of HPV that can cause cancer. As a result, the vaccines may provide the most benefit to people who receive them before becoming sexually active.
That said, even if your child is already sexually active, the vaccine may still be beneficial. The CDC recommends that adolescents and adults who are 26 and under and who havent yet received the HPV vaccine do so. Even if your child has already been infected by one type of HPV, the vaccine could still prevent infection by other types.
According to the CDC, most people who receive the first dose of the HPV vaccine before their fifteenth birthday only need two doses of the vaccine. People who receive the first dose between the ages of 15 and 26 and people who are immunocompromised should instead receive three doses.
Are There Any Adults Who Should Not Receive The Hpv Vaccine
Certain people should not get the HPV vaccine or should wait before getting it:
- Anyone who has had a life-threatening allergic reaction to a previous dose of the HPV vaccine
- Anyone who has had a previous life-threatening allergic reaction to an ingredient in the HPV vaccine
- Pregnant women
- Anyone with a moderate or severe illness people who feel mildly ill may still receive the HPV vaccine.
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Fact : The Hpv Vaccine Lasts A Long Time
When your child gets the HPV vaccine they will make proteins called antibodies that fight the virus. Antibodies give strong and long-lasting protection. Current research shows that theres no sign the vaccine protection lessens with time. Research will continue to look at how long protection against HPV lasts, and if booster shots will be needed.
When Should You Be Vaccinated
The vaccines are given 2 or 3 times over a 6- to 12-month period. The timing of doses is important to make sure the vaccines are as effective as possible. If all doses of the vaccine are not given, or they are not given at the right time, you may not get the full benefit of the vaccine.
The vaccines are most effective if theyre given before a person becomes sexually active because their risk of infection will be lower. The vaccines are also more effective in young teens when the immune system is most responsive to the vaccine.
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Fifty Years In The Making
Researchers had long known that cervical cancer behaves like a venereal disease, transmitted through sexual contact. It is rare in virgins and most common among women with early sexual experience and multiple partners.
An infectious cause was suspected but difficult to prove. In 1968 on Page 1 of The Times, I reported a link between cervical cancer and a sexually transmitted virus called Type 2 herpes. It turned out to be a red herring. Finally, in the 1980s, the human papillomavirus was correctly identified as the cause of cervical cancer, which led to the development and marketing of a highly effective vaccine in 2006.
Now, if not for the slow adoption of the HPV vaccine by the parents of adolescents, we would likely be well on our way to eliminating nearly all cases of cervical cancer and the five other HPV-caused cancers, 45,000 cases of which are diagnosed annually in the United States, Dr. Abraham Aragones, a public health researcher at Memorial-Sloan Kettering Cancer Center told me.
Does Hpv Cause Oropharyngeal Cancer
It can, yes. As discussed above, most people who are infected with high-risk HPVs will never develop any symptoms or cancer, but some people are unable to clear the virus out of their bodies and may eventually develop oropharyngeal cancer as a result. It typically takes decades for oropharyngeal cancer to develop after being infected with a high-risk HPV, but currently there are no known HPV treatments or ways to prevent HPV-infected people from developing cancer. It is not well understood why some people infected with high-risk HPVs develop oropharyngeal cancer while the majority of people do not.
According to the CDC, an estimated 19,700 Americans are diagnosed with HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer each year. This represents about 70% of cases of oropharyngeal cancer, meaning that HPV is the leading cause of this type of cancer in the United States.
Although the total number of Americans with oropharyngeal cancer is still very small, this type of cancer is on the rise, mostly as a result of HPV infections. In fact, HPV-associated oropharyngeal cancer is now the most common HPV-related cancer in the United States. Researchers are hopeful that vaccinating children and adolescents against HPV will curb this trend in future decades.
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Hpv Vaccine Can Potentially Protect Children From Cervical Cancer
While most parents are quite familiar with the vaccination schedule of their children when they are very young, there is a vaccine recommended for pre-teens that can help prevent cancer.
Vaccination to protect both boys and girls from the human papillomavirus is now included on the list of recommended shots between the ages of 11 and 12. The vaccine can be given to patients up to the age of 26 who did not receive the shots as pre-teens. It is administered in two to three doses during a six-month period depending on the age at initial vaccination.
HPV infections are very common and while often spread through intimate contact, can also be spread through close skin-to-skin contact, even among younger children, said Dr. Anand Budi, local pediatrician and associate chief medical officer at Meritus Health. The vaccines helps in prevention of cancers caused by certain HPV types.
There are now more than 200 types of HPV based on more recent science, and the most serious ones cause normal cells to become abnormal, then begin to reproduce at a higher rate. Cancer is caused when cells within the body begin to grow uncontrollably. Several types of HPV are responsible for the majority of HPV-caused cancers that account for approximately 5% of cancers worldwide.
It is still important for young women to have routine cervical screenings in order to detect any cancer in its earliest forms even if they received the HPV vaccine as a pre-teen.
Hpv Vaccination For Men Who Have Sex With Men
Men who have sex with men have not benefited in the same way from the longstanding girls’ programme, so may be left unprotected against HPV.
Since April 2018, MSM up to and including 45 years of age have been eligible for free HPV vaccination on the NHS when they visit sexual health clinics and HIV clinics in England.
Ask the doctor or nurse at the clinic for more details.
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