How Does Vaccination Work
A healthy immune system defends against invaders. The immune system is composed of several types of cells. These cells defend against and remove harmful pathogens. However, they have to recognize that an invader is dangerous.
Vaccination teaches the body to recognize new diseases. It stimulates the body to make antibodies against antigens of pathogens. It also primes immune cells to remember the types of antigens that cause infection. That allows for a faster response to the disease in the future.
Vaccines work by exposing you to a safe version of a disease. This can take the form of:
- a protein or sugar from the makeup of a pathogen
- a dead or inactivated form of a pathogen
- a toxoid containing toxin made by a pathogen
- a weakened pathogen
When the body responds to the vaccine, it builds an adaptive immune response. This helps equip the body to fight off an actual infection.
Vaccines are usually given by injection. Most vaccines contain two parts. The first is the antigen. This is the piece of the disease your body must learn to recognize. The second is the adjuvant.
The adjuvant sends a danger signal to your body. It helps your immune system to respond more strongly against the antigen as an infection. This helps you develop immunity.
Vaccines are very important for infants, but theyre not all given immediately after birth. Each vaccine is given on a timeline, and some require multiple doses. This table can help you understand the timeline of each vaccine:
|Name of Vaccine|
How Do Vaccinations Work
All immunisations work in the same way. The vaccination uses your bodys immune system to increase protection to an infection before you come into contact with that infection. In other words, it is like being infected with the disease without suffering the actual symptoms.
If you come into contact with an infection after youve been vaccinated, your body works to stop you from getting the disease, or you may get just a mild case. Unlike other proposed approaches to immunisation , vaccinations have been rigorously tested to demonstrate their safety and effectiveness in protecting against infectious disease.
What Is An Emergency Use Authorization
The FDA can issue an Emergency Use Authorization to allow the use of unapproved medical products in an emergency to diagnose, treat, or prevent serious or life-threatening diseases or conditions when specific criteria have been met, including that there are no adequate, approved, and available alternatives.
Manufactures submit a request for an EUA to the FDA which is reviewed, and a determination is made by the FDA about authorizing the EUA.
On Aug. 23, 2021, the FDA issued full approval of the Pfizer vaccine for those 16 and older. This full approval further indicates how safe and effective the vaccines are.
Under 18 years
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Can People With Chronic Health Conditions Have Covid
People with specific underlying medical conditions can arrange to have a COVID-19 vaccination now. However, people with certain underlying medical conditions should speak with their healthcare provider for advice on their particular situation.
ATAGI has noted evidence of a very rare but serious side effect after the AstraZeneca vaccination involving blood clots with low blood platelet counts a syndrome called thrombosis with thrombocytopenia . There is potentially increased risk of TTS following AstraZeneca vaccination in those under 60 years. Therefore, ATAGI recommends that people aged 60 and over receive the AstraZeneca vaccine and eligible 12- to 59-year-olds receive the Pfizer or Moderna vaccine.
However, people aged 18 and older can have AstraZeneca if they have the following medical conditions and they have weighed up the benefits versus the rare risk of a serious side effect:
- a history of venous thromboembolism in typical sites, such as deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism
- a predisposition to form blood clots, such as those with Factor V Leiden, or other non-immune thrombophilic disorders
- a family history of clots or clotting conditions
- currently receiving anticoagulant medications
- a history of ischaemic heart disease or cerebrovascular accident
- a current or past history of thrombocytopenia
The Pfizer vaccine is recommended for people aged 12 years and older with the following medical conditions:
- coronary artery disease
To Qualify As A Fully Vaccinated Traveller To Canada You Must:
- have received at least 2 doses of a vaccine accepted for travel, a mix of 2 accepted vaccines
- or at least 1 dose of the Janssen/Johnson & Johnson vaccine
- have received your second dose at least 14 full days before you enter Canada
- Example: if your second dose was anytime on Thursday July 1, then Friday July 16 would be the first day that you meet the 14 day condition
- have no signs or symptoms of COVID-19
- complete your ArriveCAN submission and and have ArriveCAN receipt with letter I, V, or A beside your name
- complete arrival test and quarantine if selected
- monitor for signs and symptoms of COVID-19 for the 14 days after entry into Canada
- if you have symptoms of COVID-19, seek advice from local public health
Vaccines accepted by the Government of Canada for the purpose of travel to and within Canada:
- Bharat Biotech
- Sinopharm BIBP
To qualify as a fully vaccinated traveller, you must have received, at least 14 full days prior to the day you travel:
- at least 2 doses of a vaccine accepted by the Government of Canada for the purpose of travel
- or a mix of 2 accepted vaccines
- or at least 1 dose of the Janssen/Johnson & Johnson vaccine
If your proof of vaccination is not in English or French, you need a certified translation in English or French.
Your certified translation must include the stamp or membership number of a professional translation association.
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If Your First Dose Was Received Outside Of New Brunswick
If you received your first dose outside of New Brunswick and have lived in New Brunswick for at least four weeks, you can register for your second dose.
If you received a dose of COVID-19 vaccine outside of New Brunswick, please reach out to your local Public Health office. Contact information can be found online.
Preparing For Your Vaccine
You can get a COVID-19 vaccine and other vaccines, including a flu vaccine, at the same visit. Experience with other vaccines has shown that the way our bodies develop protection, known as an immune response, and possible side effects after getting vaccinated are generally the same when given alone or with other vaccines. Learn more about the timing of other vaccines.
You should get a COVID-19 vaccine even if you already had COVID-19.
Getting sick with COVID-19 offers some protection from future illness with COVID-19, sometimes called natural immunity. The level of protection people get from having COVID-19 may vary depending on how mild or severe their illness was, the time since their infection, and their age. No currently available test can reliably determine if a person is protected from infection.
All COVID-19 vaccines currently available in the United States are effective at preventing COVID-19. Getting a COVID-19 vaccine gives most people a high level of protection against COVID-19 even in people who have already been sick with COVID-19.
Emerging evidence shows that getting a COVID-19 vaccine after you recover from COVID-19 infection provides added protection to your immune system. One study showed that, for people who already had COVID-19, those who do not get vaccinated after their recovery are more than 2 times as likely to get COVID-19 again than those who get fully vaccinated after their recovery.
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Why Vaccines Are Important
Vaccination is the most important thing we can do to protect ourselves and our children against ill health. They prevent up to 3 million deaths worldwide every year.
Since vaccines were introduced in the UK, diseases like smallpox, polio and tetanus that used to kill or disable millions of people are either gone or seen very rarely.
Other diseases like measles and diphtheria have been reduced by up to 99.9% since their vaccines were introduced.
However, if people stop having vaccines, it’s possible for infectious diseases to quickly spread again.
The World Health Organization has listed vaccine hesitancy as one of the biggest threats to global health.
Vaccine hesitancy is where people with access to vaccines delay or refuse vaccination.
I Received Monoclonal Antibodies Or Convalescent Plasma How Long Should I Wait To Get The Covid
Currently, there is no information on how well the COVID-19 vaccines work in people who received monoclonal antibodies or convalescent plasma. Evidence suggests it is rare for people to get infected again in the 90 days after they first got ill. Because of that, people who have had one of these treatments should wait for at least 90 days after the treatment before getting vaccinated.
If you received the first dose of vaccine and then received monoclonal antibodies, you should wait 90 days before receiving your second dose of vaccine. However, if you received the first or second doses of vaccine before the full 90 days passed, no repeat doses of vaccine are necessary.
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How Close Is A Covid
Research into vaccines for COVID-19 has progressed very quickly compared to previous immunisations. Thatâs thanks to both a global research effort backed by governments and public health organisations, but also a result of using new genetic technologies to rapidly identify potential vaccine candidates.
A team of Chinese scientists sequenced the virusâ genetic material and published it on January 12th, kicking off intensive vaccine research and testing all over the world. The first vaccine candidates were ready for pre-clinical testing in animals just weeks later, and a few have already gone into clinical trials in human volunteers. â
As of April 8th, there were 115 vaccine candidates in development, each with their own strategy for generating immunity.
Some rely on injecting the virus spike proteins into the body, or delivering a harmless weakened form of the entire virus. Others use various techniques to deliver genetic material from the virus into your cells, which then make the spike proteins required to generate immunity. â
Vaccine Requirements For Us Military And Police
In August, the Pentagon said that all 1.3 million active-duty service members will need to receive COVID-19 vaccinations. The directive covers all active-duty members of the Armed Forces or in the Ready Reserve, including the National Guard. The Department of Defense will make Pfizer shots accessible on military installations around the world. Service members who received the Moderna or Johnson & Johnson vaccines will still be considered fully vaccinated. There are some exemptions, including one for religious reasons, but they aren’t granted frequently.
In response to several cities requiring law enforcement officers to get vaccinated, police associations have come out openly against vaccine mandates. In Oregon, for example, police and firefighter associations sued Gov. Kate Brown to block a state-level vaccine requirement, although that suit was later rejected by the state Supreme Court.
Right now, members of the military are already required to get at least nine other vaccines — and possibly up to 17 in total — depending on where they’re deployed.
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Ive Had Bells Palsy Will Getting Vaccinated Bring It Back
Cases of Bells palsy were reported in participants in the mRNA COVID-19 vaccine clinical trials. However, the Food and Drug Administration does not consider these to be above the rate expected in the general population. They have not concluded these cases were caused by vaccination. Therefore, persons who have previously had Bells Palsy may receive an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine.
Measles And Mumps In England
Measles and mumps are starting to appear again in England, even though the MMR vaccine is safe and protects against both diseases.
Measles and mumps cases have nearly doubled in recent years:
Measles and mumps cases in England
This is serious as measles can lead to life-threatening complications like meningitis, and mumps can cause hearing loss.
If 95% of children receive the MMR vaccine, it’s possible to get rid of measles.
However, measles, mumps and rubella can quickly spread again if fewer than 90% of people are vaccinated.
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Interchangeability And Fully Vaccinated
At this time New Brunswick recommends that everyone should receive a complete COVID-19 vaccination series to protect themselves from COVID regardless of any past COVID infection.
In New Brunswick, you’re considered fully vaccinated 14 days after you have any of the following COVID-19 vaccine combinations:
- 2 doses of AstraZeneca or COVISHIELD
- 2 doses of Moderna
- 2 doses of a combination of COVID-19 vaccines
- 1 dose of Janssen
- complete series of a COVID-19 vaccine authorized by the World Health Organization
If you received 1 or more doses of a COVID-19 vaccine that’s not approved by Health Canada and/or the World Health Organization, youâre not considered fully vaccinated and need one dose of an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine .
NOTE-AstraZeneca is not offered for those under the age of 55 years old in New-Brunswick.
More information is available on the Public Health Agency of Canada webpage on the Interchangeability of authorized COVID-19 vaccines.
Vaccines And Immunization: What Is Vaccination
Vaccination is a simple, safe, and effective way of protecting you against harmful diseases, before you come into contact with them. It uses your bodys natural defenses to build resistance to specific infections and makes your immune system stronger.
Vaccines train your immune system to create antibodies, just as it does when its exposed to a disease. However, because vaccines contain only killed or weakened forms of germs like viruses or bacteria, they do not cause the disease or put you at risk of its complications.
Most vaccines are given by an injection, but some are given orally or sprayed into the nose.
Vaccines reduce risks of getting a disease by working with your bodys natural defenses to build protection. When you get a vaccine, your immune system responds. It:
Recognizes the invading germ, such as the virus or bacteria.
Produces antibodies. Antibodies are proteins produced naturally by the immune system to fight disease.
Remembers the disease and how to fight it. If you are then exposed to the germ in the future, your immune system can quickly destroy it before you become unwell.
The vaccine is therefore a safe and clever way to produce an immune response in the body, without causing illness.
If you have missed any recommended vaccinations for you or your child, talk to your healthcare worker about catching up.
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The Vaccine Can Help Your Unborn Baby Or Newborn
Studies have found that expectant mothers who receive the COVID-19 vaccine create antibodies to the virus and pass those to their unborn baby through the placenta. Mothers were also shown to pass antibodies to their newborns through breast milk. This suggests those newborns have some immunity to the virus, which is especially important as young children cannot get the vaccine. Learn more about vaccine considerations for pregnant and nursing women.
The Convoy Claims To Protest Public Health Measures
Their main gripe against the government has to do with COVID vaccine mandates and public health measures, which also include lockdowns, social distancing measures and the wearing of masks indoors.
According to the Memorandum of Understanding created by the organizers of the protest, Canada Unity, what they want is:
- “All levels of the Federal, Provincial, Territorial and Municipal governments to not only stop, but furthermore waive all SARS-CoV-2 fines that have been issued and imposed upon its citizens, institutions, and private enterprises”
- The reinstatement of all employees, in all branches, of all levels of governments, and private industry and institutional sectors employees, with full lawful employment rights before wrongful and unlawful dismissals stemming from vaccine passport mandates
- For the use of a vaccine passport to cease and desist immediately.
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If Youve Already Had Covid
A indicates that if you had COVID-19 before and are not vaccinated, your risk of getting reinfected is more than two times higher than for those who were infected and got vaccinated.
While evidence suggests there is some level of immunity for those who previously had COVID, it is not known how long you are protected from getting COVID-19 again. Plus, the level of immunity provided by the vaccines after having COVID-19 is higher than the level of immunity for those who had COVID but were not subsequently vaccinated.
Getting vaccinated provides greater protection to others since the vaccine helps reduce the spread of COVID-19.
But Who Really Benefits The Most
You cant argue right now that everyone needs one, Russell said, though some clearly do, including the elderly, frail and immunocompromised who may not have responded well to the vaccines from the beginning. The unvaccinated, theyve made their choice. But the vaccinated vulnerable, Ive always been most worried about, Russell said.
He also worries about his children. Russell has a three-year-old daughter. Id rather not see her get infected. He got his third shot as soon as he could, a few weeks ago. If theres any chance that my third dose can keep me from getting infected at all, then that reduces my chances of exposing her to the virus. By fall, there may be vaccinations for children six months and older.
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