Wednesday, September 27, 2023

What Do We Have Vaccines For

How Do I Know Vaccines Are Safe

Why Do We Get Vaccines?

Before a vaccine can be given to the population it must go through rigorous testing. Like all medicines, vaccines go through many clinical trials, where they are administered and monitored in groups of volunteers. In the UK, the results of trials are then assessed by the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency . Once licensed, the vaccine must then be further approved by the MHRA before it is added to the routine vaccination programme. Even once a vaccine becomes part of the vaccination programme, it is continually monitored for safety and effectiveness by the MHRA. Any suspected side effects are reported by medical providers or patients to the MHRA using the yellow card scheme. No medicine can ever be completely risk free or 100% effective. However, strong licensing processes and safety tests ensure that the health benefits of medicines being given through the NHS greatly outweigh any risks. As vaccines are given to healthy people, these regulatory measures are even stricter, meaning that the level of acceptable risk for vaccines is much lower than it would be for other medicines.9

When Can Children Get The Vaccine

While children are less likely to develop severe disease and die from Covid-19, there are several reasons for ensuring that eventually there is a vaccine that is safe and effective for children. Although rare, some children may develop severe disease or die from Covid-19. Children have also developed a severe inflammatory syndrome, called multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. Children may be important transmitters of SARS-CoV-2 and vaccinating them with a vaccine that reduces transmission could be important in controlling the pandemic. Finally, having a safe vaccine for children will build confidence towards opening up schools and learning centers for in-person educational processes.

Both the Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna vaccines are being studied in children as young as 12 years of age. These studies typically involve several thousand children, and not the tens of thousands studied in phase 3 trials in adults. Assuming the vaccines are safe and effective, the vaccines will be studied in younger and younger children. Studies of the Moderna vaccine in children 1 to 11 years of age may start soon.

Still Dreading That Shot

We usually think of vaccines as shots, but not all vaccines are given that way. Some are given orally or in other forms like nasal sprays.

But it’s impossible to escape the fact that some immunizations are just best given as shots. And it’s completely normal to feel nervous about them. If you’re one of the many people who dread shots, you can try a few techniques to make shots easier, like taking calming breaths and even coughing as the needle goes in.

The good news is that the shot itself only lasts for a second, but you’ll be protected for a long, long time after that!

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Why Should I Vaccinate My Child

Vaccines save lives. Measles vaccines alone are estimated to have prevented over 21 million deaths between 2000 and 2017.

Vaccines will help protect your child against diseases that can cause serious harm or death, especially in people with developing immune systems like infants.

Its important to vaccinate your child. If not, highly contagious diseases such as measles, diphtheria and polio, which were once wiped out in many countries, will come back.

Should I Get A Fourth Shot Now Or Wait For An Omicron

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On Aug. 15, Britain became the first country to authorize a booster vaccine designed to target the Omicron variant in addition to the original coronavirus. The new vaccine is bivalent, meaning it will combat two variants of the virus.

A similar booster is likely coming to the U.S. in the fall. The Biden administration expects to roll out these retooled vaccines in September, although it is unclear exactly when Pfizer and Moderna, the companies producing the vaccines, will make them available when the Food and Drug Administration will authorize them and which populations will be cleared to receive them first. The new boosters may roll out first to groups that are at higher risk of severe outcomes from Covid, such as older and immunocompromised people, before being made available to others.

With that new booster shot on the horizon, doctors and infectious disease experts said they were fielding questions as to whether people should get a fourth shot now or wait for the Omicron-specific booster.

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What If I Got A J& j Vaccine Should I Worry About Blood Clots

If you received a Johnson & Johnson vaccine more than three weeks ago, you do not need to watch for side effects related to blood clots.

If you received the J& J vaccine within the last three weeks, you should watch for possible symptoms of TTS and get medical help immediately if you have any of the following:

  • Severe or persistent headaches or blurred vision
  • Shortness of breath
  • Easy bruising or tiny blood spots under the skin near the injection site

Diseases Preventable Through Vaccination

The chart shows the number of global deaths caused by some of the most common and serious vaccine-preventable diseases.

There are more diseases for which vaccines are available now and even more are under development currently. The WHO publishes list of 26 diseases for which vaccines are available including Japanese encephalitis, pneumococcal disease, varicella/chicken pox, HPV, Hepatitis A and rotavirus.

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If Your Child Is Missing A Vaccine

Life can get busy and you may not be able to make every vaccination appointment for your child. Your child may also have missed vaccines from your health care provider or their school because of the COVID-19 pandemic.

It is important to call your health care provider or local public health authority if your child missed receiving any vaccines. They can help your child get back on track with the recommended vaccination schedule. This will help to protect your child from many vaccine-preventable diseases.

How Do I Find Out Whether Residents Of My Country Are Eligible For A Canada Visa

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Our visa checker online can provide you with information about the eligibility for a Canada visa without any complications at all. It is always a matter of a few clicks when it comes to finding information about anything related to Canada Visa. You can also find the answers to questions like Do I need a vaccine to travel to Canada online.

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Do I Still Need To Wear A Mask And Practice Physical Distancing After I Am Vaccinated

Yes. Until we substantially reduce community transmission of SARS-CoV-2, and see hospitalizations and deaths dramatically decrease, we still need to wear masks and practice physical distancing even after vaccination. The vaccine is not 100% effective and we still do not know if someone who was vaccinated can develop asymptomatic infection and transmit the virus. Although the phase 3 clinical trials were designed to determine whether vaccinated individuals are protected against disease, it will also be important to understand whether vaccinated individuals are less likely to transmit the virus. This is likely but not ensured. If a vaccine not only protects against disease but reduces transmission, and continues to do so for many years, we are likely to reach a state of herd protection when masks and physical distancing will no longer be required. Herd protection is achieved when a sufficient proportion of the population is made non-infectious through vaccination or natural infection so that the likelihood of an infectious individual transmitting to a susceptible individual is very low.

People Do Not Know How Well We Actually Do In Global Vaccination

Today vaccines protect millions of people around the world from infectious diseases. In this fight we are much, much further ahead than most people realize.

The first chart shows the evidence for this misperception. In this chart we plotted the survey responses that people gave when they were asked How many of the worlds 1-year old children today have been vaccinated against some disease?. The correct answer was 85.8% this is the share of 1-year olds that received the third dose of the combination vaccine that protects against Diphtheria, Tetanus, and Pertussis .

But in all countries in which people were surveyed people were much too pessimistic about the global coverage. Americans think that only 35% of the worlds children are vaccinated, the true coverage is 50 percentage points higher.22

In Japan people were even more pessimistic and thought that only 18% were vaccinated. As it is often the case in questions on global development we again see that people in poorer countries have a more accurate view of the world: in Kenya and Senegal people thought that vaccines reach around two thirds of all children in the world, but even these highest estimates are 20 percentage points too low.

We hugely underestimate global vaccination coverage23

Peoples view on vaccination coverage is outdated by more than three decades

We have created a chart that shows the absolute number of one-year-olds who have received the vaccinations.

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Do I Need A Covid Vaccine Or Vaccination Certificate To Enter Japan

No, you don’t. As of today, COVID vaccination passports or certificates are not mandatory to enter Japan.

Approved vaccines are Pfizer, AstraZeneca, Moderna, Janssen.

Since information may change quickly, we advise you to follow up on the latest Japan travel updates and/or contact your local embassy.

A History Of Vaccines

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Vaccines have a long and impressive history. Well before we understood how infections worked, in the late 1700s an English physician Edward Jenner learned that giving small amounts of infected material from smallpox victims to others provided them protection from the dreaded disease. It was from those learnings that he developed a smallpox vaccine saving countless lives and small-pox has now been eradicated worldwide. Since that first vaccine was developed in 1798, we have used that same principle to produce vaccines to almost eliminate many of the formerly deadly childhood infectious diseases from the U.S. In fact, the greatest vaccine success in the modern era has been the near worldwide elimination of polio.

But its not always that simple. Try as we might, we have not yet been able to develop successful vaccines to control other important worldwide infections, such as tuberculosis , malaria and HIV. In addition, controlling influenza also remains a challenge requiring new vaccines each flu season. Most recently, scientists are working tirelessly to create additional vaccines to stop the COVID-19 pandemic.

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Smallpox And The Origin Of Vaccination

Vaccination has a long history. An early form of vaccination was referred to as variolation or more broadly as inoculation. Practised for a long time in Asia, this was an ancient technique of deliberate smallpox infection in which dried smallpox scabs were blown up the nose to infect the person with a form of the disease which was often milder. By the 1700s variolation had spread to Africa, India and the Ottoman Empire, followed by the UK and America, where the method of infection more frequently used was a puncture to the skin.

Variolation did work, but there were large risks. Those variolated could contract the more severe form of smallpox and die, and they could also transmit the disease to others.

In 1796 English physician Edward Jenner demonstrated another method of inoculation in which he relied on cowpox. Cowpox is a similar disease to smallpox and it had previously been observed that an infection with cowpox can protect against smallpox. Jenner conducted an experiment using matter from a cowpox lesion to inoculate his gardeners eight-year-old son James Phipps. Two months later Jenner exposed the boy to smallpox lesion matter and when Phipps did not develop smallpox he concluded that he was protected against the disease. Jenner called the procedure vaccination after vacca the Latin word for cow because of the origin of this first vaccination from the cowpox virus.

What Are The Documents That You Need To Attach Along With Your Application

Following are the documents that you need to submit to seek the approval of your Canada Visa from the authorities:

  • A valid passport which is valid for the next six months at least.
  • A Valid Credit or Debit card for completing the payment.
  • A Valid E-mail address for sending the approval status of your Visa.

After the submission of the above-mentioned documents, you can find out the answer to Do I need a vaccine to travel to Canada online.

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If These Diseases Are So Rare Why Does My Child Need To Be Vaccinated

All of the diseases that we vaccinate against exist in the world today. Therefore, if your child has not been vaccinated, there is still a risk that they could get the disease and become very sick. We know that decreases in vaccination uptake can result in outbreaks of diseases such as measles.5 Regular vaccination is needed to keep our children healthy, prevent outbreaks from occurring and to eventually eradicate these diseases altogether. Infectious diseases are easily passed from person to person and entire communities can rapidly become infected. If a high enough proportion of a community is protected by vaccination, it makes it difficult for the disease to spread because the number of people who can be infected is so small.

Your immune system is there to protect you by vaccinating your child, you give his/her immune system all the tools it needs to keep them safe from many severe diseases Meike Heurich-Sevcenco, BSI Vaccine Champion

This type of protection is known as herd immunity and is particularly crucial for some individuals who are unable to receive some vaccines. This may include those that are too young, undergoing certain medical treatment or have a health condition that impairs the function of their immune system . Declines in herd immunity caused by decreasing vaccination rates have recently caused outbreaks of measles and whooping cough in the UK.6,7

How Vaccines Are Approved

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Vaccine and new drug testing are overseen by the Food and Drug Administration and are done in a similar way.

First, the vaccine is tested in cells or animals to see if it can elicit an immune response and identify any serious side effects. If animal testing seems safe and effective, this is when a group submits their study to the FDA for approval to move on to the next stage of testing.

This stage is randomized, diverse, controlled and include a larger number of participants. Individuals may include children, elderly, and other high-risk groups. The goal of this phase is to determine what variables may affect the safety of the vaccine, differences in immune responses, as well as the most effective dosage size and delivery method.

These trials are similar to Phase II but they can involve tens of thousands of individuals. Researchers give the new medicine or treatment to an even larger group of participants to confirm its effectiveness, monitor side effects, and collect information that will allow the new medicine or treatment to be used safely.

These trials are similar to Phase II but they can involve tens of thousands of individuals. Researchers give the new medicine or treatment to an even larger group of participants to confirm its effectiveness, monitor side effects, and collect information that will allow the new medicine or treatment to be used safely.

Learn more by searching for recent vaccine topics covered in our Each Breath blog.

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Why Dont We Have Vaccines Against Everything

Money is just the obvious obstacle. A few diseases, like H.I.V., so far have outwitted both the immune system and scientists.

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Vaccines are among the most ingenious of inventions, and among the most maddening.

Some global killers, like smallpox and polio, have been totally or nearly eradicated by products made with methods dating back to Louis Pasteur. Others, like malaria and H.I.V., utterly frustrate scientists to this day, despite astonishing new weapons like gene-editing.

We have a vaccine for Ebola that protects nearly 100 percent of its recipients, but we are lucky to get a routine flu shot that works half that well.

We have childrens vaccines against measles, mumps, rubella, diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus, chickenpox, polio, hepatitis A and B, rotavirus, pneumococcus, haemophilus influenzae and meningococcal disease.

They have changed our expectations of mortality and of parenthood. In 17th century England, one-third of all children died before age 15. Today, thanks largely to those vaccines, less than 1 percent of English children do.

There is no universal flu vaccine. There are no vaccines with long-lasting protection against malaria or tuberculosis.

None for some that already have, including Lyme, West Nile, Zika and hepatitis C.

For Conscience Or Religious Belief

For your child to be exempted due to conscience or religious belief, you must contact your local public health unit:

  • Complete an education session
    • Let your local public health unit know you wish to have your child exempted from the required vaccines.
    • The PHU will:
    • advise you on the steps to take in completing a valid exemption, including watching the vaccine education video.

    Once its complete, you must get it signed by a commissioner for taking affidavits in Ontario.

  • Make copies for your records
  • Make copies of your:

    • signed Statement of Conscience or Religious Belief form

    You will need to submit the original versions.

    It is important that you keep your copies because the ministry and local public health units do not keep records of your exemption documents.

  • Submit the originals
  • Submit the original copies of your Vaccine Education Certificate and signed Statement of Conscience or Religious Belief form to your local public health unit. Contact them to find out how.

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