Monitoring Safety Of Hpv Vaccines
The Yellow Card Scheme allows doctors, other healthcare professionals and members of the public to report suspected side effects from any medicine taken, including vaccines.
It’s run by the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency .
The scheme regularly reviews the reports and, if there’s a potential problem, will carry out an investigation and take appropriate action if necessary.
There’s also a legal requirement for pharmaceutical companies to report serious and suspected adverse events to the MHRA.
The Hpv Vaccine And Men Who Have Sex With Men
The longstanding HPV vaccination programme in girls indirectly protects boys against cancers and genital warts linked to infection with HPV because girls will not pass HPV on to them.
MSM have not benefited in the same way from the girls’ HPV vaccination programme.
But they’re at risk of cancers linked to infection with HPV types 16 and 18 that affect men, such as cancer of the anus, penis, mouth or throat.
MSM are also at risk of genital warts caused by HPV types 6 and 11.
MSM up to and including the age of 45 are eligible for free HPV vaccination on the NHS when they visit sexual health or HIV clinics.
MSM aged 15 and over need 3 doses of the vaccine. Those under 15 need 2. It’s important to have all doses to be properly protected.
Ask the doctor or nurse at the clinic for more details.
National Advisory Committee On Immunization Recommendations
In February 2007, based on sound scientific consideration, the National Advisory Committee on Immunization issued recommendations for the use of Gardasil® for females ages nine to 26. In January 2012, NACI issued an update on human papillomavirus vaccines, which included recommendations in light of the expanded use of Gardasil® for males ages nine to 26 and females ages 27 to 45, as well as the approval of Cervarix® for females. In 2015, NACI issued updated recommendations on the HPV immunization schedule, including recommendations for either a 2- or 3- dose schedule in healthy, immunocompetent, non-HIV infected individuals 9-14 years of age, based on new evidence about the efficacy of HPV vaccines in this population. In 2016, NACI issued recommendations on the new vaccine, Gardasil®9, authorized for use in Canada. In 2017, NACI provided evidence-based recommendations on a 2-dose schedule for the most recently approved HPV vaccine, and summarized evidence and resulting recommendations on HPV immunization in immunocompromised populations.
Currently, all HPV vaccines are recommended by NACI for:
- girls and women 9 to less than 27 years of age, including those who have had previous Pap test abnormalities, cervical cancer or genital warts, and may be administered to women 27 years of age and older at ongoing risk of exposure to HPV
HPV vaccination prior to onset of sexual activity and exposure to HPV is recommended to maximize the benefit of the vaccine.
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Complications And Side Effects Of The Hpv Vaccine
Your risks from contracting HPV typically outweigh the risk of side effects from receiving the vaccine. All treatments pose the risk of negative side effects, so talk to your doctor about the potential risks associated with receiving the vaccine.
The HPV vaccine is still beneficial even if you are an adult.
Keep in mind that for people between the ages of 27 and 40, the vaccine is not recommended for people with some preexisting conditions. For example, if you are pregnant or have any serious allergies you should avoid the HPV vaccine. This is even more important for those people who are over the age of 40 and considering vaccination.
Serious reactions to the HPV vaccine are rare. Symptoms following the vaccine include:
- Pain, redness, and swelling at the site of the injection
Does The Vaccine Protect Against Cervical Cancer
Yes, HPV vaccine is the first vaccine developed to prevent cervical cancer. This new vaccine is highly effective in preventing HPV infection, the major cause of cervical cancer in women. The vaccine protects against four types of HPV, including two that cause about 70% of cervical cancer.
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Side Effects Of The Vaccine Against Hpv
Immunisation against HPV is effective and safe, although all medication can have unwanted sideeffects. Common side effects following immunisation are usually mild and temporary . Specific treatment is not usually required.Side effects may include:
- localised pain, redness and swelling at the injection site
- low-grade temperature
- a burning sensation
at the injection site for one to two days. Paracetamol might be required to ease the discomfort.
What If You Miss Your Vaccine
Anyone who misses either of their HPV vaccine doses when they became eligible in school Year 8 should speak to their school immunisation team or their GP surgery. They should make an appointment to get up to date as soon as possible.
If you have the 1st dose of the HPV vaccine at 15 years of age or over, you’ll need 3 doses to be fully protected. Having 2 doses is not as effective for older people.
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Fact : The Vaccine Prevents Certain Cancers
HPV is known to cause cancers of the throat, cervix, vulva, vagina, penis, and anus. The HPV vaccine works very well. Studies have shown that the vaccine provides close to 100% protection against infections and pre-cancers caused by certain types of HPV. Giving the vaccine to boys and girls between 9 and 12 years old can prevent more than 90% of HPV cancers when they get older.
Carrons Story Cervical Cancer And The Hpv Vaccine
In this short film Carron Hulme talks about her experience of surviving cervical cancer, and her daughters Charlotte and Mollie talk about the HPV vaccine. Charlotte talks about receiving three doses of the HPV vaccine, but in 2014 the schedule changed. Girls and boys now receive two doses, as long as they get the first dose when they are under 15. Thanks to Jos Cervical Cancer Trust for their help in making this film.
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What Are The Different Types Of Hpv And What Do They Do
There are more than 100 different types of HPV, and around 40 that affect the genital area.
HPV is very common and can be caught through any kind of sexual contact with another person who already has it.
Most people will get an HPV infection at some point in their lives and their bodies will get rid of it naturally without treatment.
But some people infected with a high-risk type of HPV will not be able to clear it.
Over time, this can cause abnormal tissue growth as well as other changes, which can lead to cancer if not treated.
High-risk types of HPV are linked to different types of cancer, including:
Infection with other types of HPV may cause:
- genital warts small growths or skin changes on or around the genital or anal area they’re the most common viral sexually transmitted infection in the UK
- skin warts and verrucas not on the genital area
- warts on the voice box or vocal cords
How Effective Are The Vaccines
The HPV vaccines have demonstrated very high efficacy in preventing the types of HPV infection for which they are indicated . If you are infected with one of the HPV types in the vaccine, the vaccine will still protect against the other type in the vaccine. HPV DNA testing is not recommended prior to vaccination.
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Does The Hpv Vaccine Prevent Cervical Cancer
We still need more, long-term research to fully understand the impact of the HPV vaccine on cervical cancer. However, a study in England has looked at the first HPV vaccine called Cervarix, which was used between 2008 and 2012. It protects against 2 types of HPV that, together, are thought to cause around 7 in 10 cervical cancers.
The study found that women who were vaccinated in their teens have had about 450 fewer diagnoses of cervical cancer. This means the incidence of cervical cancer has decreased by 87% in women in their 20s.
What Difference Has The Hpv Vaccine Made So Far
The UK HPV vaccination programme began in 2008, and there’s evidence from England, Scotland and other countries national vaccination programmes that the vaccine is making a difference.
There’s been a large drop in the rates of infection with the 2 main cancer-causing HPV types in women and men and a large drop in the number of young people with genital warts.
A recent Scottish study found an 89% reduction in severe cervical abnormalities in vaccinated women.
The UK programme is expected to eventually prevent hundreds of deaths from cervical cancer every year.
It can take many years for cervical cancer to develop after HPV infection, so it’ll take some time to find out the overall benefits of the vaccination programme.
Page last reviewed: 10 May 2019 Next review due: 10 May 2022
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The Universal Hpv Vaccination Programme
In England, all boys and girls aged 12 to 13 years are routinely offered the 1st HPV vaccination when they’re in Year 8 at school. The 2nd dose is offered 6 to 24 months after the 1st dose.
If youre eligible and miss the HPV vaccine offered in Year 8 at school, its available for free on the NHS up until your 25th birthday for:
- girls born after 1 September 1991
- boys born after 1 September 2006
Contact your school immunisation team or GP surgery.
The vaccine is effective at stopping people getting the high-risk types of HPV that cause cancer, including most cervical cancers and some anal, genital, mouth and throat cancers.
It’s important to have both doses to be properly protected.
How Long Does The Hpv Vaccine Protect For
Studies have shown that the vaccine protects against HPV infection for at least 10 years, although experts expect protection to last for much longer.
But because the HPV vaccine does not protect against all types of HPV that can cause cervical cancer, it’s important that all women who receive the HPV vaccine also have regular cervical screening once they reach the age of 25.
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Key Facts About The Hpv Vaccine
- The HPV vaccine protects against some types of HPV that can cause cancer, including cervical cancer.
- The HPV vaccine called Gardasil is offered free in schools. If you are eligible, you may also be able to have it free at your GP surgery.
- You can also pay to have the HPV vaccine.
- Cervical screening is an important test even if you have had the HPV vaccine.
Can Pregnant Women Get The Vaccine
The vaccine is not recommended for pregnant women. Studies show that the HPV vaccine does not cause problems for babies born to women who were vaccinated while pregnant, but more research is still needed. A pregnant woman should not get any doses of the HPV vaccine until her pregnancy is completed.
Getting the HPV vaccine when pregnant is not a reason to consider ending a pregnancy. If a woman realizes that she got one or more shots of an HPV vaccine while pregnant, she should do two things:
- Wait until after her pregnancy to finish any remaining HPV vaccine doses.
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Pregnancy And Hpv Immunisation
Immunisation against HPV is not recommended for women who are pregnant. If you become pregnant afterstarting the HPV vaccination course, you should not receive any further doses of the vaccine whilepregnant. You can complete the course of vaccination after the birth of your baby. The HPV vaccine canbe given to women who are breastfeeding.
Fact : The Hpv Vaccine Lasts A Long Time
When your child gets the HPV vaccine they will make proteins called antibodies that fight the virus. Antibodies give strong and long-lasting protection. Current research shows that theres no sign the vaccine protection lessens with time. Research will continue to look at how long protection against HPV lasts, and if booster shots will be needed.
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What Are The Advantages Of Getting The Hpv Vaccine
The biggest advantage is reducing your risk for cancers caused by HPV infection. HPV is so common that around 80% of people in the United States will encounter it at some point in their lives. There is no way to know which infection can lead to cancer. Vaccinating against HPV is the best protection available at this time.
How Widespread Is The Rollout Of The Hpv Vaccine Around The World
Almost 90% of cervical cancer deaths are in low- and middle-income countries, according to the World Health Organization .
In these countries, cervical cancer is often not identified until it has further advanced and symptoms develop.
Last year, the WHO announced plans to eliminate the disease“within the next century” by achieving 90% coverage for HPV vaccination by 2030.
Over a hundred countries have now introduced HPV vaccination.
However, as of 2020, less than 25% of low-income and under 30% of lower middle-income countries had introduced the vaccine, compared with 85% of high-income countries.
Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women in Africa, but it is the deadliest, the WHO says.
Inadequate screening programmes, limited access to treatment services and vaccine hesitancy all contribute to this.
Rwanda was one of the first countries in Africa to introduce a vaccination campaign. It launched a plan in 2011 to get girls vaccinated early and to introduce cervical screening for women.
In the first year it reached nine out 10 girls eligible for the vaccine, a result that experts cite as a model for other countries.
However, HPV vaccine rates remain low even in some developed countries, partly due to misinformation that it could cause infertility. Currently, less than 0.1% of eligible Japanese women get vaccinated.
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What Questions Should I Ask My Healthcare Provider
It’s common to have questions prior to getting a vaccine. Some questions you may want to ask your healthcare provider about the HPV vaccine are:
- When should I get the HPV vaccine?
- Are there any side effects of the HPV vaccine?
- How does the HPV vaccine work?
- Where is the HPV vaccine given?
- How effective is the HPV vaccine?
- Is there any reason to not get the HPV vaccine?
Hpv Vaccination Protect Against Cervical Cancer
You’ve probably heard that a HPV vaccine can protect women against cervical cancer. In fact, the vaccine may be most effective when given to girls and young women. However the strains against which the HPV vaccine provides protection is limited. The vaccine does provide cover against the most prevalent strains .
What Are the Benefits of the HPV Vaccine?
The main benefit of the vaccine is protection from cervical cancer.
Two HPV vaccines are currently on the market: Gardasil and Cervarix. In 2006, the FDA licensed Gardasil, the first cervical cancer vaccine. In 2007 Cervarix was approved. However, they don’t protect against all types of cancer-causing HPV. Vaccines protect against these four types of HPV:
These types are responsible for 70% of cervical cancers and 90% of genital warts .
What parents should know about the HPV or Cervical Cancer Vaccine
Does your daughter need the HPV vaccine to help protect against cervical cancer?
Pap screening in girls and young women should be recommended as follows:
Within 3 years of becoming sexually active.
Most girls taking the vaccine will probably need fewer Pap smears taken at longer intervals over their lifetimes.
Has your daughter already been infected with HPV virus?
If so, receiving the vaccine won’t prevent disease from that particular type. However, the HPV vaccine will protect against infection from the other HPV strains included in the shot.
Why Should Girls Receive the HPV Vaccine?
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Getting The Hpv Vaccine
The vaccine is offered routinely, through a school-based programme, to all males and females aged 12 to 13 years . If you have been eligible for the vaccine but have not received it in school, you can still receive it free of charge until the age of 25, if you ask your doctor.
If you start the vaccination course on or after your 15th birthday, you need three doses to be fully protected. This is because the antibody response is weaker in older girls and boys.
If you have not received the vaccine and believe the HPV vaccine could be helpful, you can discuss this with your GP. They may prescribe the vaccine for you.
Does The Hpv Vaccine Protect Against All Strains Of Hpv
Clinical trials of Gardasil 9, the only HPV vaccine available in the U.S., has shown that it provides nearly 100% protection against cervical infections with HPV strains 16 and 18. Gardasil 9 has also been found to be almost 100% effective in preventing cervical, vulvar, and vaginal disease caused by HPV strains 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58.
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How Much Does The Hpv Vaccine Cost
Each dose of the vaccine can cost about $250. Luckily, many health insurance companies cover the HPV vaccine. There are also programs that help some people without insurance get the vaccine for low or no cost.
You deserve to be healthy, regardless of whether you have health insurance. Talk with the staff at your local Planned Parenthood health center or another nurse or doctor to get more information about ways to make the vaccine more affordable.