Wednesday, September 27, 2023

What Does The Gardasil Vaccine Prevent

What Research Is Being Done On Strategies To Prevent Hpv Infection

Does the HPV Vaccine Prevent Cancer? – Answers from a Pediatrician

If a single dose of HPV vaccine were effective, that would be an important advance. A large observational study using national data from women across Australia found that one dose of HPV vaccine was as effective as two or three doses in preventing high-grade cervical lesions . An analysis of data from a community-based clinical trial of Cervarix in Costa Rica, found that even one dose of the vaccine caused the body to produce approximately nine times more antibodies against HPV than the body produces in response to a natural HPV infection, and those antibody levels persisted for 11 years . In addition, the rates of HPV infection remained low for at least 10 years .

Two NCI-led clinical trials have been launched in Costa Rica to confirm and extend these findings. The ESCUDDO study, a randomized double-blind controlled trial involving 20,000 girls ages 1216 years, is testing whether one dose of either Cervarix or Gardasil 9 is as effective as two doses at preventing persistent cervical infection with HPV. PRIMAVERA-ESCUDDO, a non-randomized open-label trial, will provide earlier and complementary results to ESCUDDO about the immunogenicity of one dose of Cervarix in girls ages 914 years compared with three doses of Gardasil in women ages 1825 years.

Selected References
  • Koutsky LA, Ault KA, Wheeler CM, et al. A controlled trial of a human papillomavirus type 16 vaccine. New England Journal of Medicine 2002 347:16451651.

  • Omicron Vs Delta: Vaccines Seem Less Effective

    Early estimates suggest that vaccine effectiveness against symptomatic infection with Omicron is significantly lower compared with the Delta variant.

    A report by Imperial College London indicated that the risk of reinfection with Omicron was 5.4 times greater than the Delta variant. Previously having COVID-19 also afforded little protection against reinfection with Omicron.

    This is such a contagious virus that it can spread not only among the unvaccinated, where I think it still has a very substantial risk of causing serious disease that might require hospitalization, but it can also spread among vaccinated persons, although the illness it produces among the vaccinated, particularly if youve had a boost, is generally mild and even without symptoms, said Dr. William Schaffner, a professor of preventive medicine and infectious diseases at Vanderbilt University Medical Center in Tennessee.

    However, the Imperial College London study suggests that there is no evidence of Omicron having different severity from Delta, despite hospitalization remaining relatively low for the time being.

    Omicron may not lead to more severe illness than Delta, a rapid and massive surge in infections could still overwhelm hospitals with sick patients. People who are unvaccinated remain at the highest risk, but also those who have not received a third dose of an mRNA vaccine, said Dr. Robert Glatter, an emergency physician at Lenox Hill Hospital in New York City.

    What Vaccinated Girls/women Need To Know: Will Girls/women Who Have Been Vaccinated Still Need Cervical Cancer Screening

    Yes, vaccinated women will still need regular cervical cancer screening because the vaccine protects against most but not all HPV types that cause cervical cancer. Also, women who got the vaccine after becoming sexually active may not get the full benefit of the vaccine if they had already been exposed to HPV.

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    Does Hpv Cause Oropharyngeal Cancer

    It can, yes. As discussed above, most people who are infected with high-risk HPVs will never develop any symptoms or cancer, but some people are unable to clear the virus out of their bodies and may eventually develop oropharyngeal cancer as a result. It typically takes decades for oropharyngeal cancer to develop after being infected with a high-risk HPV, but currently there are no known HPV treatments or ways to prevent HPV-infected people from developing cancer. It is not well understood why some people infected with high-risk HPVs develop oropharyngeal cancer while the majority of people do not.

    According to the CDC, an estimated 19,700 Americans are diagnosed with HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer each year. This represents about 70% of cases of oropharyngeal cancer, meaning that HPV is the leading cause of this type of cancer in the United States.

    Although the total number of Americans with oropharyngeal cancer is still very small, this type of cancer is on the rise, mostly as a result of HPV infections. In fact, HPV-associated oropharyngeal cancer is now the most common HPV-related cancer in the United States. Researchers are hopeful that vaccinating children and adolescents against HPV will curb this trend in future decades.

    Gardasil 9 For Preventing Precancerous Or Abnormal Lesions Caused By Hpv

    Safe and effective vaccine that prevents cancer continues ...

    Gardasil 9 is FDA-approved to prevent precancerous growths or abnormal lesions caused by HPV.

    HPV can cause abnormal changes in your cervix, vulva, vagina, or anus. Some of these changes are called neoplasia, and they can lead to cancer in some people.


    Clinical trials showed the effectiveness of the Gardasil 9 vaccine at preventing certain abnormal growths or changes caused by HPV.

    In one study, Gardasil 9 was more than 96% effective at preventing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or adenocarcinoma caused by HPV types 31, 33, 45, 52 or 58. These are the HPV types whose effects are not prevented by the now-discontinued Gardasil vaccine.

    In the study, 5,948 females received the Gardasil 9 vaccine. In this group, there was one case of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or adenocarcinoma. In comparison, in 5,943 females who received the original Gardasil vaccine, there were 27 cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or adenocarcinoma.

    Other studies looked at Gardasil to show the effectiveness of Gardasil 9. This was done because the Gardasil vaccine and Gardasil 9 vaccine both protect against the four types of HPV covered in the studies: 6, 11, 16, and 18.

    In these clinical studies, more than 24,000 people received Gardasil, and a similar number received a placebo . Gardasil was found to be effective in preventing HPV-related precancerous or abnormal lesions caused by those four types of HPV.

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    Does The Hpv Vaccine Help To Prevent Oral Cancer

    There have not yet been any studies to conclusively prove that the HPV vaccine can prevent HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer, but based on studies that have been done, it seems reasonable to conclude the vaccine could help.

    The HPV vaccine was originally developed to prevent HPV-related cervical and reproductive cancers. So far, clinical trials have primarily focused on demonstrating that the HPV vaccine can prevent anogenital HPV infections that lead to cervical and anal cancer, not on whether they can prevent oral HPV infections that may lead to oropharyngeal cancer. However, the vaccine has been shown to prevent infection by various types of HPV, including HPV 16, which is a high-risk HPV type that is linked to more than half of oropharyngeal cancer cases in the U.S. A study in 2017 found that oral infections with certain types of HPV, including HPV 16, were 88% lower in young adults who had received at least one dose of an HPV vaccine than in those who had not been vaccinated.

    When deciding whether to get the vaccine, it is at least worth considering that, in addition to protecting against other types of cancers, the vaccine could potentially also help prevent oropharyngeal cancer. Your childs physician can work with you and your child to help you understand all of the vaccines risks and benefits.

    What Are The Side Effects Of The Hpv Vaccine

    Side effects that people get from the HPV vaccine usually are minor. They may include swelling or pain at the injection site, or feeling faint after getting the vaccine. As with other vaccines, there is a rare chance of an allergic reaction.

    A few people have reported health problems after getting the shot. The FDA is monitoring the vaccine closely to make sure these are not caused by the vaccine itself.

    Most people have no trouble with the vaccine. You can make fainting less likely by sitting down for 15 minutes after each shot.

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    Are Vaccines Effective Against Omicron

    The most up to date analysis by the UK governments Health Security Agency indicates that two Covid jabs do not offer strong protection against symptomatic infection from the new variant, with the current suite of vaccines less effective than they were against Delta.

    However, those who have received a booster jab remain up to 70 per cent protected, the agency found, underlining the importance of getting a third shot as soon as possible.

    Earlier results from studies conducted by the German Centre for Infection Research likewise found that there were significant reductions in antibody potency for the Pfizer/BioNTech, Moderna and Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccines against Omicron.

    But two doses of a vaccine should still offer some protection from severe disease, with the World Health Organisation suggesting that current vaccines remain effective against severe disease and death.

    Professor Ugur Sahin, CEO and co-founder of BioNTech, has said: Individuals who have received two vaccines will most likely not have a significant prevention from infection or any type of disease. We know they will have memory T-cells, which may prevent severe disease.

    Another preliminary study from the Africa Health Research Institute in South Africa, which was released on Tuesday 7 December, found there was a 41-fold reduction in the potency of antibodies after two doses of Pfizer against Omicron.

    How Well Do Hpv Vaccines Work

    What to Know About the Gardasil-9 Vaccine

    Research has shown that HPV vaccines are very good at preventing HPV infections caused by the viruses that they target. They reduce the likelihood of cervical cells changing and becoming abnormal, and also lower the risk of cervical cancer.

    If the protection lasts a long time, the following could be expected:

    • Without an HPV vaccine: About 30 out of 1,000 women would develop cervical cancer at some point in their lives if they don’t go for cervical screening.
    • With an HPV vaccine: About 10 out of 1,000 women would develop cervical cancer at some point in their lives if they don’t go for cervical screening.

    In other words, HPV vaccines could prevent cervical cancer in about 20 out of 1,000 women.

    They would also prevent the need for surgery to remove pre-cancerous abnormal tissue. This is because women with high-grade dysplasia have such a high risk of cervical cancer that they are advised to have the abnormal tissue removed.

    One of the vaccines, Gardasil 9, also greatly reduces the risk of genital warts.

    The effectiveness of the vaccine will depend on whether a girl already has an HPV infection when she is vaccinated. It is less effective in girls who have already been sexually active.

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    Why Adults Should Get The Hpv Vaccine

    HPV infection is extremely common. Most sexually active people will be infected with HPV at some point in life. More than 42 million people in the United States are infected with HPV and most of them donât know it. It spreads easily among infected partners. HPV infection usually causes no symptoms, but can cause genital warts and anal cancer in both women and men. HPV can also cause throat cancer.

    In women, HPV infection can cause cells in the cervix to grow abnormally. In a small fraction of women, these HPV-induced changes will develop into cervical cancer. About 12,000 women are diagnosed with cervical cancer each year and about 4,000 women die from the condition.

    The HPV vaccine prevents infection by the HPV types responsible for most cervical cancers. Up until 2017, there were two vaccines available . Today, Gardasil 9 is the only available HPV vaccine in the U.S.

    Gardasil 9 prevents infection by the same HPV types as Gardasil, plus HPV-31, HPV-33, HPV-45, HPV-52, and HPV-58. Collectively, these types are implicated in 90% of cervical cancers. In October 2018, the FDA approved Gardasil9 for everyone ages 9 through 45

    Can You Get Covid If You Are Fully Vaccinated Or Receive A Booster

    While two doses of the Moderna or Pfizer vaccine combined with a booster shot doesn’t provide complete protection from a COVID-19 infection, the vaccines offer a sturdy defense against catching the virus and suffering serious illness. Walensky on Wednesday said an unvaccinated person has a 10 times higher risk of testing positive for COVID-19 and a 20 times greater risk of dying when compared with those who are vaccinated and boosted.

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    Are There Hpv Vaccine Side Effects

    Research shows that the vaccine is safe. The most common side effect is temporary pain and redness where you get the shot.

    One of the reasons the HPV vaccine is controversial is because it prevents a sexually transmitted infection, which leads some people to believe its inappropriate for children. But, the thing is, the vaccine works best if you get it long before you have sex. So its a good idea to get it when youre young so you wont have to worry about getting certain kinds of cancer later in life.

    Studies show that the HPV vaccine doesnt lead to people having more sex or sex at a younger age. So giving kids the HPV vaccine doesnt encourage them to have sex. All it does is help protect them from genital warts and cancer in adulthood.

    Why Is The Hpv Vaccine Given At Such A Young Age


    HPV infections can be spread by any skin-to-skin contact and are usually found on the fingers, hands, mouth and genitals.

    This means the virus can be spread during any kind of sexual activity, including touching.

    The HPV vaccine works best if girls and boys get it before they come into contact with HPV .

    So getting the vaccine when recommended will help protect them during their teenage years and beyond.

    Most unvaccinated people will be infected with some type of HPV at some time in their life.

    The virus does not usually do any harm because the person’s immune system clears the infection.

    But sometimes the infection stays in the body for many years, and then it may start to cause damage.

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    Can I Have The Vaccine When Pregnant

    If you know that you are pregnant then delay starting getting the vaccine until after pregnancy.

    If you have already had one or two doses, and then discover that you are pregnant, then wait until after pregnancy until receiving the subsequent dose/s.

    If you had your vaccination and didn’t realise that you were pregnant at the time, don’t worry, the vaccine is safe. In the clinical trials, there were many pregnancies that occurred in the trial participants and there were no adverse effects to fertility, pregnancy, or baby.

    Women may safely breastfeed if they receive the vaccine during that period.

    How Is The Hpv Vaccine Given

    The HPV vaccine is given as 2 injections into the upper arm spaced at least 6 months apart.

    It’s important to have both doses of the vaccine to be properly protected.

    If you missed the HPV vaccine offered in school Year 8, you can get it for free up until your 25th birthday.

    But if you get your 1st vaccine dose at the age of 15 or over, you’ll need to have 3 injections.

    Men who have sex with men , and trans men and trans women who are eligible for the vaccine, will need 3 doses of the vaccine .

    If you need 3 doses of the vaccine:

    • the 2nd dose should be given at least 1 month after the 1st dose
    • the 3rd dose should be given at least 3 months after the 2nd dose

    It’s important to have all 3 vaccine doses to be properly protected.

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    Reasons To Get Hpv Vaccine

    All children ages 1112-years should get HPV vaccine to protect against cancers caused by HPV infections.

    Almost every unvaccinated person who is sexually active will get HPV at some time in their life. About 13 million Americans, including teens, become infected with HPV each year. Most HPV infections will go away on their own. But infections that dont go away can cause certain types of cancer.

    HPV can cause cancers of the:

    HPV infections, genital warts, and cervical precancers have dropped since the vaccine has been in use in the United States.

    • Infections with HPV types that cause most HPV cancers and genital warts have dropped 88% among teen girls and 81% among young adult women.
    • Among vaccinated women, the percentage of cervical precancers caused by the HPV types most often linked to cervical cancer have dropped by 40 percent.

    HPV is estimated to cause nearly 36,000 cases of cancer in men and women every year in the United States. HPV vaccination can prevent 33,000 of these cancers by preventing the infections that cause them. Thats the same as the average attendance for a baseball game.

    Most children only need two doses of HPV vaccine when vaccinated before age 15 years. You can take advantage of any visit to your childs doctor to get recommended vaccines for your child:

    What Does The Vaccine Not Protect Against

    Does the HPV vaccine protect men against cancer?

    The vaccine does not protect against all HPV types so they will not prevent all cases of cervical cancer. Since some cervical cancers will not be prevented by the vaccine, it will be important for women to continue getting screened for cervical cancer. Also, the vaccine does not prevent other sexually transmitted infections . So it will still be important for sexually active persons to lower their risk for other STIs.

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