Saturday, September 23, 2023

What Does The Hpv Vaccine Protect Against

Why Get The Hpv Vaccine

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The HPV vaccine has been proven to be safe and effective. It protects against four types of HPV – HPV 16, 18, 6 and 11.

HPV 16 and 18 are two of the most common high-risk types of HPV, which cause about 7 out of 10 cervical cancers. There isnt a cervical cancer injection that directly stops all cervical cancer cases. But as most cases of cervical cancer are caused by HPV, the HPV vaccine plays an important role in reducing the risk of developing cervical cancer.

A 2021 UK study found that cervical cancer rates were reduced by almost 90% in women in their 20s in England, who were offered the vaccine aged 12-13.

Cancers of the vagina, vulva, penis and anus, and some types of mouth and throat cancer, are also linked to high-risk HPV. This means the vaccine should also protect against these cancer types.

The vaccine also provides protection against genital warts, as HPV 6 and 11 are responsible for the majority of cases.

Who Is Eligible For The Free Hpv Vaccine

In Victoria, the HPV vaccine is available for free to all adolescents in year seven of secondaryschool under the National Immunisation Program. The two-dose course of the vaccineis given at school. It can also be given by a local doctor or at a council immunisation session. Contactyour state or territory health department for more information about HPV vaccination at your school.

People under 20 years of age who missed the vaccine at secondary school can access free catch-updoses at their local doctor or at a community immunisation session. From 15 years of age theGardasil®9 vaccine is given as a three-dose course.

People from 20 years of age are not eligible for free vaccination through the National Immunisation Program, so they will have to pay for thevaccine. The HPV vaccine is licensed for males aged 9 to 26 years and females aged 9 to 45 years.

Hpv Vaccination For Men Who Have Sex With Men

Men who have sex with men have not benefited in the same way from the longstanding girls’ programme, so may be left unprotected against HPV.

Since April 2018, MSM up to and including 45 years of age have been eligible for free HPV vaccination on the NHS when they visit sexual health clinics and HIV clinics in England.

Ask the doctor or nurse at the clinic for more details.

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Hpv Vaccination For Transgender People

Trans women are eligible in the same way as MSM if their risk of getting HPV is similar to the risk of MSM who are eligible for the HPV vaccine.

Trans men are eligible if they have sex with other men and are aged 45 or under.

If trans men have previously completed a course of HPV vaccination as part of the girls’ HPV vaccine programme, no further doses are needed.

Why Is Hpv Vaccination Important

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The combination of HPV vaccination and cervical screening can provide the greatest protection against cervical cancer. Also, HPV vaccination reduces the risk of developing cancers caused by HPV at sites other than the cervix.

Not only does vaccination protect vaccinated individuals against infection by the HPV types targeted by the vaccine that is used , but vaccination can also reduce the prevalence of the vaccine-targeted HPV types in the population, thereby reducing infection in individuals who are not vaccinated . For example, in Australia, where a high proportion of girls are vaccinated with Gardasil, the incidence of genital warts went down during the first 4 years of the vaccination program among young maleswho were not being vaccinated at the timeas well as among young females .

Further evidence that large-scale HPV vaccination confers protection for unvaccinated individuals comes from a 2019 meta-analysis of girls-only HPV vaccination programs in 14 high-income countries that included 60 million vaccinated people . That analysis showed that, up to 8 years after the start of vaccination, diagnoses of anogenital warts decreased by 31% among women aged 2529 years, by 48% among boys aged 1519 years, and by 32% among men aged 2024 years, compared with the period before vaccination began.

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Concerns About Side Effects Of Immunisation

If a side effect following immunisation is unexpected, persistent or severe, or if you are worried aboutsomeones condition after a vaccination, see your doctor or immunisation nurse as soon as possibleor go directly to a hospital.

You can report immunisation side effects to SAEFVIC, the Victorian vaccine safety and central reportingservice. In other states or territories, you can discuss with your immunisation provider how to reportadverse events.

It is important to seek medical advice for anyone who is unwell after vaccination, as this may be due toother illness rather than because of the vaccination.

How Much Does Hpv Vaccination Cost And Will Insurance Pay For It

Most private insurance plans cover HPV vaccination. The federal Affordable Care Act requires most private insurance plans to cover recommended preventive services with no copay or deductible.

Medicaid covers HPV vaccination in accordance with ACIP recommendations, and immunizations are a mandatory service under Medicaid for eligible individuals under age 21. In addition, the federal Vaccines for Children Program provides immunization services for children younger than 19 years who are Medicaid eligible, uninsured, underinsured, or Native American or Alaska Native.

Merck, the manufacturer of Gardasil 9, offers the Merck Vaccine Patient Assistance Program, which provides Gardasil 9 for free to people aged 19 to 45 years who live in the United States, do not have health insurance, and have an annual household income less than a certain amount.

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Is It Helpful To Have An Hpv Test Before Having The Hpv Vaccine

Trick question! There is no single HPV test to check for all HPV types at multiple body sites. Also, HPV is good at “hiding”, and may only be present at undetectable levels. This means there is no test that can help answer the questions Do I have HPV?, Does my partner have HPV?, Has my HPV gone?.

Therefore, HPV testing is not required before vaccination.

How Long The Hpv Vaccine Protects You

Study shows HPV vaccine effective in protecting against some forms of cancer

Studies have already shown that the vaccine protects against HPV infection for at least 10 years, although experts expect protection to last for much longer.

But because the HPV vaccine does not protect against all types of HPV that can cause cervical cancer, it’s important that all girls who receive the HPV vaccine also have regular cervical screening once they reach the age of 25.

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How Is The Hpv Vaccine Given

The HPV vaccine is given as 2 injections into the upper arm spaced at least 6 months apart.

It’s important to have both doses of the vaccine to be properly protected.

If you missed the HPV vaccine offered in school Year 8, you can get it for free up until your 25th birthday.

But if you get your 1st vaccine dose at the age of 15 or over, you’ll need to have 3 injections.

Men who have sex with men , and trans men and trans women who are eligible for the vaccine, will need 3 doses of the vaccine .

If you need 3 doses of the vaccine:

  • the 2nd dose should be given at least 1 month after the 1st dose
  • the 3rd dose should be given at least 3 months after the 2nd dose

It’s important to have all 3 vaccine doses to be properly protected.

How Effective Is The Hpv Vaccine In Preventing Hpv

When doses are given at the recommended ages and at the appropriate intervals, it has been shown to prevent 90% of cancer-causing HPV. Research has also shown that fewer teens and young adults are getting genital warts. The number of cervical precancers are decreasing since HPV vaccines have been in use.

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What Are The Side Effects Of The Vaccine

HPV vaccines weren’t found to cause any serious side effects in the studies. They may lead to various temporary skin reactions where the shot was given, including pain , skin redness , and swelling . Problems such as indigestion, headaches, tiredness or muscle pain may also occur, but are less common.

Some girls may faint after having an injection. Because of this, it is important to stay at the doctor’s for about 15 minutes afterwards.

The vaccination shouldn’t be given to girls who have a fever. If the first vaccination causes an allergic reaction, a second dose shouldn’t be given.

What Are The Different Types Of Hpv And What Do They Do

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There are more than 100 different types of HPV, and around 40 that affect the genital area.

HPV is very common and can be caught through any kind of sexual contact with another person who already has it.

Most people will get an HPV infection at some point in their lives and their bodies will get rid of it naturally without treatment.

But some people infected with a high-risk type of HPV will not be able to clear it.

Over time, this can cause abnormal tissue growth as well as other changes, which can lead to cancer if not treated.

High-risk types of HPV are linked to different types of cancer, including:

Infection with other types of HPV may cause:

  • genital warts small growths or skin changes on or around the genital or anal area they’re the most common viral sexually transmitted infection in the UK
  • skin warts and verrucas not on the genital area
  • warts on the voice box or vocal cords

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Are There Other Ways To Prevent Cervical Cancer

Regular cervical cancer screening and follow-up can prevent most cases of cervical cancer. The Pap test can detect cell changes in the cervix before they turn into cancer. The HPV test looks for the virus that can cause these cell changes. Screening can detect most, but not all, cervical cancers at an early, treatable stage. Most women diagnosed with cervical cancer in the U.S. have either never been screened, or have not been screened in the last 5 years.

What Types Of Hpv Vaccines Are There

Three HPV vaccines9-valent HPV vaccine , quadrivalent HPV vaccine , and bivalent HPV vaccine have been licensed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration . All three HPV vaccines protect against HPV types 16 and 18 that cause most HPV cancers.

Since late 2016, only Gardasil-9 is distributed in the United States. This vaccine protects against nine HPV types .

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How Does The Hpv Vaccine Protect Against Cancer

The HPV vaccine protects against several types of HPV.

They include those causing nearly all cases of cervical cancer, most anal cancers, and some genital and head and neck cancers.

Studies have shown that the vaccine protects against HPV infection for at least 10 years, although experts expect protection to last much longer.

The first major study suggests it is very effective, cutting cases of cervical cancer by nearly 90%.

Where Can I Get Vaccinated

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The best place to go for vaccinations is your family medical clinic. They have your medical records and can check to see if youve already had a particular vaccination. Either your doctor or a nurse can give the vaccination.If you dont have a family doctor, you can go to one of the after-hour medical clinics. Phone them first to make sure they can help you with the vaccination you need.You can find a clinic near you on the Healthpoint website. Put in your address and region, and under Select a service, click on GPs/Accident & Urgent Medical Care.Vaccines on the National Immunisation Schedule are free. Other vaccines are funded only for people at particular risk of disease. You can choose to pay for vaccines that you are not eligible to receive for free.

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How Does The Hpv Vaccine Work

Gardasil has been the HPV vaccine used in the NHS vaccination programme since 2012.

Sometime during the 2021 to 2022 academic year, the HPV vaccine used in the NHS programme will switch to Gardasil 9.

Gardasil 9 protects against 9 types of HPV: 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58. Between them, types 16 and 18 are the cause of most cervical cancers in the UK . Types 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58 cause an additional 15% of cervical cancers.

These types of HPV also cause most anal cancers, and some genital and head and neck cancers.

HPV types 6 and 11 cause around 90% of genital warts, so using Gardasil 9 helps protect girls and boys against both cancer and genital warts.

HPV vaccination does not protect against other infections spread during sex, such as chlamydia, and it will not stop girls getting pregnant, so it’s still very important to practise safe sex.

Safety And Adverse Events

Common and local adverse events

Based on pre-licensure clinical trials, involving more than 15,000 subjects given HPV4 vaccine and 12,000 given HPV2 vaccine, the most common adverse events in persons receiving HPV vaccines were: injection site pain , swelling or redness . These adverse events were observed significantly more often following HPV vaccine than following active vaccine or placebo controls. In over 94% of subjects who received HPV vaccine, the reactions were mild to moderate in intensity, resolved over a few days, and did not prevent completion of the immunization schedule. Systemic adverse events, such as fatigue, myalgia, headache, fever, and nausea, generally occurred with comparable frequency in vaccine and control groups. The safety profile of HPV9 vaccine is comparable to HPV4 vaccine, although mild to moderate intensity injection site reactions are more common following receipt of HPV9 vaccine.

Since vaccine licensure, hundreds of millions of doses of HPV vaccine have been distributed worldwide. Data from post-licensure safety surveillance reporting systems have consistently mirrored the pre-licensure data with the most frequently reported adverse events following immunization being vaccination site reactions and muscle pain.

Less common and serious or severe adverse events
Other reported adverse events and conditions
Guidance on Reporting Adverse Events Following Immunization

Contraindications and precautions

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Gardasil 9 Vaccine Side Effects

Get emergency medical help if you have signs of an allergic reaction to Gardasil 9:hives difficulty breathing swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Keep track of any and all side effects you have after receiving this vaccine. When you receive a booster dose, you will need to tell the doctor if the previous shot caused any side effects.

You may feel faint after receiving this vaccine. Some people have had seizure like reactions after receiving this vaccine. Your doctor may want you to remain under observation during the first 15 minutes after the injection.

Developing cancer from HPV is much more dangerous to your health than receiving the vaccine to protect against it. However, like any medicine, this vaccine can cause side effects but the risk of serious side effects is extremely low.

Common Gardasil 9 side effects may include:

  • pain, swelling, or redness where the shot was given or

  • headache.

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report vaccine side effects to the US Department of Health and Human Services at 1-800-822-7967.

What Does This Mean To Mothers

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If you have a daughter 9 years old or older, it is important for you to learn about HPV infection.

About 75% of sexually active Canadians will have at least one HPV infection at some point in their lives. However, HPV vaccination is most useful if given before a girl starts sexual activity.

Talk to your doctor about ways to protect your daughter from HPV and the health problems it can cause. Protection from HPV includes practising safer sex, having regular Pap tests and check-ups, and considering HPV vaccination.

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Should My Child Have The Hpv Vaccine


People think that the vaccine is not required because children are not sexually active, but there are very good reasons for the vaccine to be given at an early age.

All vaccines need to be given prior to exposure of the infection that you are trying to protect against.

The best immune response to a vaccine is before around the age of 12 years. This means that vaccines work best at an early age and will provide the most enduring protection.

The HPV vaccine has been tested in children down to 9 years of age. The clinical trials included girls and boys aged from 9 years of age, who were tested for their immune response to the vaccine and followed up for safety. The group who received the vaccine in early adolescence has now been followed as young adults, with no development of the HPV infections covered by the vaccine.

Males are now included in the HPV vaccination programmes because research shows that HPV infection is shared during sexual activity and males are at risk of HPV anal, penile and throat cancers. It is highly recommended that parents consider getting the HPV vaccination for their boys.

What Does The Hpv Vaccine Do

The HPV vaccine protects against six strains of the HPV virus that have been shown to cause cervical cancer as well as vagina, vulvar, anus, penile and throat cancers. Each year, there are about 35,000 cases of HPV-related cancer diagnosed. The most common among women is cervical cancer. The most common among men is throat cancer.

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