What Are The Side Effects Of Meningococcal Vaccines
Mild side effects happen in about half those who get the vaccine. They may include redness or pain where the skin was injected. These side effects last no longer than 1 or 2 days.
Severe allergic reactions may happen within minutes or hours of having the vaccination. These are signs of an allergic reaction:
Two Types Of Meningitis Vaccine:
Two categories of meningitis vaccine are available at UHS, quadrivalent vaccine and meningitis B vaccine.
Quadrivalent vaccine is routinely recommended for our incoming first-year students, especially for those living in residence halls:
- Protects against four strains , which cause 2/3 of meningitis cases
- Brand names are Menactra, Menomune and Menveo
- Recommended for adolescents 11-18 years old and certain others first-year college students living in residence halls are at increased risk of disease
- For more information including side effects and contraindications, see CDC Vaccine Information Statement
Meningitis B vaccine expands protection against this serious but rare infection.
People ages 16 -23 years old are eligible to receive this vaccine, and ages 16 -18 years are the preferred ages for vaccination.
People 10 years or older who are at increased risk are recommended to receive the vaccine, including:
- People at risk because of a serogroup B meningococcal disease outbreak
- Anyone whose spleen is damaged or has been removed
- Anyone with a rare immune system condition called persistent complement component deficiency
- Anyone taking a drug called eculizumab
- Microbiologists who routinely work with isolates of N. meningitidis
- Protects against strain B, which causes 1/3 of meningitis cases
- Brand names are Bexsero and Trumenba, which are both offered at UHS.
- Is relatively expensive, so be sure to check whether it is covered by your health insurance.
Which Meningococcal Vaccines Are Available
In the U.S., three meningococcal vaccines are available:
- Meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine , sold as Menomune
- Meningococcal conjugate vaccine , sold as Menactra, MenHibrix, and Menveo.
- Serogroup B meningococcal vaccine, sold as Trumenba and Bexsero.
MPSV4 and MCV4 can prevent four types of meningococcal disease, which make up about 70% of the cases in the U.S.
The MenB vaccines prevent the Meningococcal B strain.
MCV4 is preferred for people age 55 and younger. The recommendation for teens is one dose at age 11 and one dose at age 16. The doctor or nurse injects one dose into the muscle. If MCV4 is not available, you can use MPSV4. The doctor or nurse injects one dose beneath the skin.
MPSV4 is the only meningococcal vaccine approved for use in people over 55.
The MenB vaccines are recommended for ages 10-24, by the CDC for high risk patients, but can also be used in older adults. Trumenba is administered in three doses while Bexsero requires two doses.
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Who Should Not Be Immunised
- There are very few people who cannot be given meningococcal vaccines.
- Immunisation should be postponed if a child has a high temperature or serious infection. Minor infections such as coughs, colds and snuffles are no reason to postpone immunisation.
- The vaccine should not be given if there has been a severe reaction to a previous dose of vaccine . Also, it should not be given if a person is known to have a severe allergy to any of the ingredients in the vaccine.
- The vaccines are safe if you are breastfeeding.
Where And When Can I Get The Vaccine
Talk to your doctor or local public health clinic to find out where and when your child should get vaccinated.
- The cost of Men-C-C is covered everywhere in Canada.
- Many provinces currently cover the cost of MCV-4 vaccine.
- Currently, no provinces or territories cover the cost of Men-B vaccine for all children. Some provide it for children at high risk of getting meningococcal disease.
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Is It Too Late To Get Vaccinated
The answer to this question isnt so clear-cut. If you have an unvaccinated teen headed off to college, there is still time for them to get their vaccines. Your child may also need another shot if they had the vaccine as a preteen. Meningitis vaccines are thought to only last for about five years, according to the Center for Young Womens Health.
Adults can also get the meningitis vaccine if their doctors recommend it. Certain situations can warrant the use of meningitis vaccinations. Examples include spleen removal, going to military camp, or traveling overseas.
How Does Meningitis Spread
Each form of meningitis spreads differently. Viral and bacterial will spread person-to-person through air droplets, kissing or nasal secretions. Fungal and parasitic are ususally cause by environmental factors.
Viral and bacterial are the most common variants. They are most often spread within communities that live or work together. Dorm living, close contact and shared facilities are some common risk areas.
Some regions of the world are at an increased risk for meningitis. These include the meningitis belt in Africa and Saudi Arabia during the Hajj.
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Hpv Vaccine For Some Men And Women
HPV vaccines protect against some strains of human papillomavirus that cause most cervical cancers in women and some throat cancers in men. One of the available HPV vaccines also protects against most genital warts in men and women. HPV is spread by sexual contact. The vaccine can be given to children as early as age 9, but young adults, especially those who have not had sexual activity, can receive the vaccine, too. It’s available for men and women through age 26.
How Can I Protect My Child
There are three kinds of meningococcal vaccine available in Canada. Each vaccine provides different protection:
- Meningococcal C vaccine is usually given to babies and young children. It protects against type C of the meningococcus germ, which used to be very common before this vaccine was available.
- MCV-4 protects against 4 types of the meningococcal germ . This vaccine is usually only given to people at higher risk of getting meningococcal disease . In some provinces it is given to all teenagers.
- Meningococcal B vaccine protects children against type B. This vaccine is not given routinely but is usually given to children at higher risk of getting meningococcal disease.
Your doctor will know which vaccine is best for your child, and at what age.
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What Is The Meningitis Vaccine
Do you need a meningitis vaccine?
Schedule an appointment with your local Passport Health Travel Medicine Specialist
There are two types of meningitis vaccinations available in Canada. One protects against A, C, W and Y strains, the other against B strains.
Meningitis B vaccination is recommended for youth age 16 to 23. It provides short term protection against infection. It is also recommended as a routine vaccination for some individuals over the age of 10 if: there has been an outbreak of meningitis B, they have a damaged or removed spleen, certain immune conditions among other similar indications.
Immunization against meningitis A, C, W and Y is recommended or required for most preteens.
Both of these vaccinations are relatively new. Many individuals over the age of 30 may not have been vaccinated.
Are There Any Side Effects
Most people who get vaccinated will not have any side effects and serious allergic reactions are rare.
The most common side effects are:
- Redness and/or soreness where the shot was given
- Mild swelling around the area of the shot
- Slight fever
These discomforts are usually temporary but may last for a few days. It is uncommon to have side effects from vaccines. Serious allergic reactions are rare and start within a few minutes-1 hr. after the shot is given and require medical care right away.
If you think you might have had a side effect from a vaccine, talk to your primary care provider. If you think you have had an allergic reaction, go to the nearest emergency room. Later, call 1-800-822-7967 or log on to vaers.hhs.gov to report the incident.
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Is There Any Reason Why I Should Wait Or Not Get The Meningococcal Vaccine
Most pre-teens and teens get the meningococcal vaccine without any problems. However, there are some reasons when you should wait or not get it.
You should not get the meningococcal vaccine if you:
- Have had an allergic or bad reaction to the meningococcal vaccine in the past
- Have had a serious allergic reaction to any part of the vaccine
- Are very sick when you are scheduled to get the shot .
- Are pregnant or breastfeeding and have a low risk of infection.
Other Vaccines To Prevent Meningitis
Vaccines can prevent many of the diseases that could lead to meningitis. Most of these shots are routinely given to young children. Some of these include:
Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine. It prevents infections that cause pneumonia, meningitis, and other problems. Kids get it when they’re between 2 months and 15 months old. It’s also given to children over age 5 or adults with certain medical conditions. While Hib used to be the most likely cause of bacterial meningitis in children under age 5, the vaccine has made it very rare.
Pneumococcal vaccines. They protect against bacterial meningitis. There are two types. Doctors give the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine to children under age 2. The pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine is recommended for all adults over 65. Some younger adults and children with a missing spleen, weakened immune systems, and certain long-term diseases may also need it.
MMR vaccine. Children need it to protect them from meningitis that can develop from measles and mumps.
Varicella vaccineand shingles vaccine. They target the varicella virus, which can potentially lead to viral meningitis.
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What To Think About
The menigococcal vaccine can be given at the same time as other routine childhood vaccinations.
The conjugate meningococcal vaccines may be used during pregnancy when the benefits of getting the vaccine outweighs the risk.
The conjugate and multi-component vaccines may be given to women who are breastfeeding.
No evidence has shown that Canadian university students who live in dormitories or residence halls are at higher risk of getting meningococcal disease.footnote 2
Who Should Receive A Meningitis Vaccine
Meningitis vaccination is recommended for individuals over 11-years-old. This includes both the A, C, W and Y immunization and the B vaccination.
Travellers or others who could be exposed to meningitis should also be vaccinated this includes:
- Travellers to the meningitis belt in Africa
- Travellers going to Hajj in Saudi Arabia
- Individuals who work in confined conditions
- Healthcare workers
- College or other students
If you have not been vaccinated, or are unsure of your vaccination history, Passport Health can help. We keep meningitis vaccinations in-stock and ready for your trip or need. Call to schedule your appointment or book online now.
Why Do I Need The Vaccine
Because you may participate in the following behaviors and others not listed that put you at a significantly greater risk than other college students of getting this contagious disease:
- Live in group housing,
- Kiss a boyfriend or girlfriend
- Smoke or inhale secondhand smoke
- Irregular sleep or eating habits
Haemophilus Influenzae Type B Vaccine
Before a vaccine became available for it, Haemophilus influenzae type b was the leading cause of bacterial meningitis. Hib is much less common today due to vaccinations.
Doctors usually administer the Hib vaccine at 2, 4, and 6 months of age. They will administer it again between the ages of 12 and 15 months.
The dosing regimen depends on the brand of vaccine an infant receives.
Doctors will give this vaccine either alone or as part of a combination vaccine.
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When Are Meningococcal Vaccines Given
Vaccination with MenACWY is recommended:
- when kids are 11 or 12 years old, with a booster given at age 16
- for teens 1318 years old who haven’t been vaccinated yet
Those who have their first dose between the ages of 1315 should get a booster dose between the ages of 1618. Teens who get their first dose after age 16 won’t need a booster dose.
Kids and teens who are at higher risk for meningococcal disease need the full series of MenACWY vaccines, even if they’re younger than 11 years old. This includes kids who:
- live in or travel to countries where the disease is common
- are present during an outbreak of the disease
- have some kinds of immune disorders. If the immune disorders are chronic, these kids also need a booster dose a few years later, depending on their age at the first dose.
The sequence and dosage depends on the child’s age, medical condition, and vaccine brand. Some types of meningococcal vaccines can be given as early as 8 weeks of age.
Kids 10 years and older with these risk factors also should get the MenB vaccine. They’ll need 2 or 3 doses depending on the brand. They might need more booster doses as long as the risk factor remains.
For those without risk factors, the decision to receive the MenB vaccine should be made together by teens, their parents, and the doctor. For them, the preferred age range is 1618 years. Usually, they need 2 doses.
Measles/mumps/rubella: 3 Vaccines In 1
The “Big 3” childhood diseases — measles, mumps, and rubella — can hit harder when you’re an adult. One MMR vaccine protects against all three. Most American adults have either had the measles or been vaccinated against it. If you haven’t, you’re still at risk for this highly infectious virus. Even worse, you may be at risk of serious complications such as pneumonia and encephalitis.
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Where Does Meningitis Occur
Some regions are more likely to have meningitis due to environmental or other factors. These higher risk zones include:
- The Meningitis Belt This region of sub-Saharan Africa has more meningitis cases than most of the world. Three countries, Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, and Niger, account for 65 percent of meningitis cases in Africa. In some communities in the belt, one percent of the population will contract meningitis during an outbreak. The countries in the belt are : Gambia, Senegal, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Mali, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad, Central African Republic, Sudan, South Sudan, Uganda, Kenya, Ethiopia, Eritrea.
- Sub-Saharan Africa The rest of the region does have occasional outbreaks. Regions of note are Kenya and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
- Hajj PilgrimageSaudi Arabia has seen some outbreaks during the pilgrimage. Proof of vaccination is required for entry into the country during this time.
In Canada, dorms, schools or other areas with long-term close contact are sites of infection. Many educational centers now require proof of meningitis vaccination for enrolling.
Meningitis vaccinations are available at all Passport Health clinics. Call or make your appointment online now to schedule your appointment today.
When To Get Vaccinated
The key to the meningitis vaccines is to make sure that your teen gets them at the right time. Your child may get the MCV4 vaccine if they are:
- Between 11 and 15 years old. After the initial MCV4 vaccine, your teen will get a booster shot after five years.
- After the age of 16. In this case, your teen wont need the booster shot. Important to note: Its better to get the vaccines earlier rather than later. This will help prevent meningitis during your teens high school years.
- First-year college students. This applies to those who havent received a diagnosis or missed their booster shots.
- Those deemed by a pediatrician to need extra protection. This is due to underlying illnesses. Examples include immune system disorders or a damaged spleen.
Technically, the MenB vaccine is approved for children over the age of 10. Your doctor might recommend a dose at a younger age if your child has immune system deficiencies. But MenB is usually taken around the age of 16. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends MenB shots for teens ages 16 to 18. However, it may be given to young adults up to 23 years old.
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What Are The Different Types Of Vaccines For Meningitis B
In the United States, two types of meningitis B vaccines are Food and Drug Administration -approved Bexsero and Trumenba.
To receive FDA approval, both vaccines had to undergo clinical trials showing their safety and effectiveness. Both vaccines work in a similar way but use different proteins to stimulate your immune response.
Bexsero is produced by GlaxoSmithKline. Its administered in two 0.5 milligram doses, 1 month apart.
Before approval, safety data was reviewed from 3,139 subjects in clinical trials in the United States, Canada, Australia, Chile, the United Kingdom, Poland, Switzerland, Germany, and Italy. Additional safety information was collected from 15,351 people who received Centers for Disease Control and Prevention sponsored vaccines at universities.
Trumenba is produced by Pfizer and is administered in two to three doses. For the three-dose schedule, the second dose is administered 1 to 2 months after the first, and the third vaccine is given 6 months after the first dose. For the two dose schedule, the second dose is given at 6 months after the first.
Before the FDA approved Tremenba, reviewers examined
People who have the highest chance of getting meningitis B include:
In the U.S. meningitis B vaccine isnt available yet for infants younger than 1 year old but is administered in the United Kingdom as part of the National Health Service vaccination schedule.