The American Cancer Societys Recommendations For Hpv Vaccine Use
- Girls and boys should get 2 doses of the HPV vaccine between the ages of 9 to 12.
- Teens and young adults age 13 through 26 who have not been vaccinated, or who havent gotten all their doses, should get the vaccine as soon as possible. Vaccination of young adults will not prevent as many cancers as vaccination of children and teens.
- The ACS does not recommend HPV vaccination for persons older than age 26 years.
The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in health care check-ups and annual physicals being put on hold, including visits for routine vaccinations. Learn important information that can help you plan a safe return to well-child visits in Getting Essential Childhood and Adolescent Vaccines During the COVID-19 Pandemic.
What Is The Hpv Vaccine
The HPV vaccine currently available in the US, Gardasil 9, is the newest iteration of the vaccine. It’s a two-to-three dose vaccine regimen approved for use in all children that protects against HPV infection and HPV-related conditions, according to the CDC. Those conditions include:
- Genital warts
- Cervical precancers
- Cancers of the cervix, vagina, and vulva
- Penile cancer
- Anal cancer
- Oropharyngeal cancer
Of the more than 150 different strains of HPV, 40 are known to cause cancer. The HPV vaccine approved for use in the US protects against the nine strains responsible for about 90% of cervical cancers, Rebecca Perkins, MD, an associate professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the Boston University School of Medicine, tells Health.
Something to note: Gardasil was not the HPV vaccine used in the most recent UK study. That was, again, a first-generation HPV vaccine called Cervarix. Because Cervarix was one of the first iterations of the HPV vaccine, it didn’t protect against as many HPV strains. The HPV vaccines in circulation now protect against more strains of HPV, which means they offer more protection, says Dr. Perkins.
Are There Any Adults Who Should Not Receive The Hpv Vaccine
Certain people should not get the HPV vaccine or should wait before getting it:
- Anyone who has had a life-threatening allergic reaction to a previous dose of the HPV vaccine
- Anyone who has had a previous life-threatening allergic reaction to an ingredient in the HPV vaccine
- Pregnant women
- Anyone with a moderate or severe illness people who feel mildly ill may still receive the HPV vaccine.
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Benefits Of Hpv Vaccination
There is ongoing, active scientific inquiry and clinical trials to extend the vaccine to include activity against more of the oncogenic viral subtypes for cancers invading the oropharyngeal and anogenital regions. Merck has a 9-valent vaccine including 5 additional cancer-causing subtypes to increase activity against these types of cancer . Sales for the Gardasil vaccine have increased over the past 3 years . This measure serves as a surrogate for total vaccine doses produced by the pharmaceutical company. Numbers of patients actually vaccinated are difficult to extrapolate. The current data regarding estimated HPV vaccination coverage among adolescent boys and girls aged 13-17 details an increase in completed vaccine series from 5.9% in 2007 to 37.6% in 2013 for girls and 1.3% to 13.9% in boys from 2011 to 2013 .
Does Health Insurance Pay For The Hpv Vaccines
Insurance plans will probably cover the HPV vaccine cost if it is given according to national guidelines. But check with your insurance plan to be sure.
The vaccines are included in the federal Vaccines for Children program. This program covers vaccine costs for children and teens who dont have insurance. The VFC program provides free vaccines to children and teens younger than 19 years of age, who are either Medicaid-eligible, American Indian or Alaska Native, or uninsured.
The VFC program also allows children and teens to get VFC vaccines through federally qualified health centers or rural health centers. For more on the VFC program or to find the VFC contact where you live, visit www.cdc.gov/vaccines/programs/vfc/contacts-state.html, or call 1-800-232-4636.
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Why Do Adolescents Need The Hpv Vaccine
The HPV vaccine is recommended before the start of sexual activity for two reasons:
- Young people tend to get infected more frequently. In fact, about half of all new infections are diagnosed in girls and young women between 15 and 24 years of age.
- It takes six months to complete the series, so even though your son or daughter may not be active now, or even in six months, it is better to have the series completed sooner rather than later.
Why Is Hpv Vaccination Important
The combination of HPV vaccination and cervical screening can provide the greatest protection against cervical cancer. Also, HPV vaccination reduces the risk of developing cancers caused by HPV at sites other than the cervix.
Not only does vaccination protect vaccinated individuals against infection by the HPV types targeted by the vaccine that is used , but vaccination can also reduce the prevalence of the vaccine-targeted HPV types in the population, thereby reducing infection in individuals who are not vaccinated . For example, in Australia, where a high proportion of girls are vaccinated with Gardasil, the incidence of genital warts went down during the first 4 years of the vaccination program among young maleswho were not being vaccinated at the timeas well as among young females .
Further evidence that large-scale HPV vaccination confers protection for unvaccinated individuals comes from a 2019 meta-analysis of girls-only HPV vaccination programs in 14 high-income countries that included 60 million vaccinated people . That analysis showed that, up to 8 years after the start of vaccination, diagnoses of anogenital warts decreased by 31% among women aged 2529 years, by 48% among boys aged 1519 years, and by 32% among men aged 2024 years, compared with the period before vaccination began.
Side Effects Of The Hpv Vaccine
The side effects of the vaccination are quite mild usually just soreness, swelling and redness in the arm, which soon wears off.
Rarely, some people have a reaction soon after the injection, like a rash. The nurse will know how to treat this. It is not a reason not to have more injections for HPV or other diseases.
Severe allergic reactions are rare and nurses are trained to deal with them. People recover completely with treatment, usually within a few hours.
The vaccine meets the rigorous safety standards required for it to be used in the UK and other European countries.
Millions of doses of vaccine have already been given in the UK and around the world. As with all vaccines, reports of side effects are closely monitored and reviewed.
Who Should Not Get Hpv Vaccine
Tell your doctor about any severe allergies. Some people should not get some HPV vaccines if:
- They have ever had a life-threatening allergic reaction to any ingredient of an HPV vaccine, or to a previous dose of HPV vaccine.
- They have an allergy to yeast .
- They are pregnant.
HPV vaccines are safe for children who are mildly ill, like those with a low-grade fever of less than 101 degrees, a cold, runny nose, or cough. People with a moderate or severe illness should wait until they are better.
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How Is The Hpv Vaccine Made
The HPV vaccine is made using a protein that resides on the surface of the virus. The protein is grown in the lab in yeast cells. Once the protein is grown, it assembles itself to look like the HPV virus however, importantly, it does not contain HPV genetic material, so it cant reproduce itself or cause illness. The vaccine is composed of the surface protein from nine different types of HPV.
Can A Vaccine Help Prevent Hpv
Yes. Vaccines are available to help prevent infection by certain types of HPV and some of the cancers linked to those types. As of 2020, Gardasil 9 is the only HPV vaccine available in the United States. Other HPV vaccines are available outside the U.S.
Gardasil 9 helps prevent infection by 4 types of HPV , plus 5 other high risk types: 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58. Together these types cause about 90% of cervical cancers.
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How Well Do These Vaccines Work
HPV vaccination works extremely well. HPV vaccine has the potential to prevent more than 90% of HPV-attributable cancers.
- Since HPV vaccination was first recommended in 2006, infections with HPV types that cause most HPV cancers and genital warts have dropped 88% among teen girls and 81% among young adult women.
- Fewer teens and young adults are getting genital warts.
- HPV vaccination has also reduced the number of cases of precancers of the cervix in young women.
- The protection provided by HPV vaccines lasts a long time. People who received HPV vaccines were followed for at least about 12 years, and their protection against HPV has remained high with no evidence of decreasing over time.
Monitoring Safety Of Hpv Vaccines
The Yellow Card Scheme allows doctors, other healthcare professionals and members of the public to report suspected side effects from any medicine taken, including vaccines.
It’s run by the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency .
The scheme regularly reviews the reports and, if there’s a potential problem, will carry out an investigation and take appropriate action if necessary.
There’s also a legal requirement for pharmaceutical companies to report serious and suspected adverse events to the MHRA.
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Are There Hpv Vaccine Side Effects
Research shows that the vaccine is safe. The most common side effect is temporary pain and redness where you get the shot.
One of the reasons the HPV vaccine is controversial is because it prevents a sexually transmitted infection, which leads some people to believe its inappropriate for children. But, the thing is, the vaccine works best if you get it long before you have sex. So its a good idea to get it when youre young so you wont have to worry about getting certain kinds of cancer later in life.
Studies show that the HPV vaccine doesnt lead to people having more sex or sex at a younger age. So giving kids the HPV vaccine doesnt encourage them to have sex. All it does is help protect them from genital warts and cancer in adulthood.
Second Hpv Vaccine Approved In Us
Ceravix is approved for the prevention of cervical pre-cancers and cervical cancer associated with HPV types 16 and 18
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved Cervarix®, a vaccine against two high-risk types of human papillomavirus , for prevention of cervical cancer and cervical precancers. This is the second HPV vaccine to be approved in the United States.
Human papillomaviruses consist of more than 100 different viruses. Some types of HPV cause warts on the hands or feet others cause genital warts and some have been linked with cancer, most notably cervical cancer. The types of HPV most commonly linked with cervical cancer are HPV 16 and HPV 18, but several other high-risk types contribute to cancer as well.
The types of HPV that cause cervical cancer or genital warts are transmitted sexually. HPV infection is extremely common and generally occurs soon after an individual becomes sexually active. Although most infections resolve on their own, some persist and can lead to precancerous or cancerous changes to the cervix, vulva, vagina, penis, and anus. HPV infections have also been linked with some head and neck cancers.
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The Hpv Vaccine Protects Against Cancer The Vaccine Is Safe And Effective
What are HPV vaccines?
- The HPV vaccines protect against infection from certain types of human papillomavirus that cause cancers of the anus, cervix, mouth and throat, penis, vagina, and vulva as well as genital warts
- There are two HPV vaccines available in Canada: Cervarix® and Gardasil®9 . The HPV9 vaccine is approved for use in both males and females. The HPV2 vaccine is only approved for use in females.
Both vaccines protect against 2 types of HPV that cause about 70% of cases of cervical cancer and 80% of cases of anal cancer. The HPV9 vaccine protects against 5 additional types of HPV that cause 15% to 20% of cervical cancers and 11% of anal cancers in women and 4% in men.
The HPV9 vaccine also protects against 2 types of HPV that cause about 90% of cases of genital warts.
How Can You Avoid Getting Hpv
Sometimes people can be infected with HPV and not know it. So HPV can be difficult to avoid. The best way to avoid genital infection with HPV is abstinence. You can also decrease your chance of getting HPV by having sex with only one other person who isn’t infected with HPV. While condoms may also decrease the chance of getting HPV, they do not always work to prevent the spread of the infection. Because other than abstinence, none of these measures can completely protect someone from becoming infected or prevent the spread of this infection, the development of a vaccine was an important tool for preventing future generations from experiencing the devastation caused by HPV.
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Who Should Get Hpv Vaccination
The Centers for Disease Control and Preventions Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices develops recommendations regarding all vaccination in the United States, including HPV vaccination. The current ACIP recommendations for HPV vaccination are :
- Children and adults ages 9 through 26 years. HPV vaccination is routinely recommended at age 11 or 12 years vaccination can be started at age 9 years. HPV vaccination is recommended for all persons through age 26 years who were not adequately vaccinated earlier.
- Adults ages 27 through 45 years. Although the HPV vaccine is Food and Drug Administration approved to be given through age 45 years, HPV vaccination is not recommended for all adults ages 27 through 45 years. Instead, ACIP recommends that clinicians consider discussing with their patients in this age group who were not adequately vaccinated earlier whether HPV vaccination is right for them. HPV vaccination in this age range provides less benefit because more people have already been exposed to the virus.
- Persons who are pregnant. HPV vaccination should be delayed until after pregnancy, but pregnancy testing is not required before vaccination. There is no evidence that vaccination will affect a pregnancy or harm a fetus.
Could The Hpv Vaccine Treat Warts
ByRachael Rettnerpublished 4 September 15
The human papillomavirus vaccine is intended to prevent people from getting infected with the virus, but in some cases, it may actually work as a treatment, clearing warts in people who are already infected, a new report suggests.
The report describes several cases of people who had persistent oral warts that went away soon after they received the HPV vaccine. While it’s too early to say for certain whether the HPV vaccine treated the warts, the researchers said formal studies should look at this question.
“There remains a critical need for randomized clinical trials to assess efficacy of quadrivalent HPV vaccination for treatment” of oral warts, the researchers said.
The report highlights the case of a man in his 60s who had recurrent warts on his lips, tongue and cheeks for 18 months. The man tried to have the warts removed, but they kept coming back. Doctors diagnosed the man with an HPV infection. There are more than 150 strains of HPV, and although most infections go away on their own, some can linger and lead to health problems, such as genital warts, oral warts, cervical cancer or oral cancer.
The man received the quadrivalent HPV vaccine, which protects against four HPV strains. “We immunized him not with any therapeutic benefit in mind,” Stern said. The vaccine is typically given to children before they become sexually active it is not thought to help with existing HPV infections.
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How Much Does Hpv Vaccination Cost And Will Insurance Pay For It
Most private insurance plans cover HPV vaccination. The federal Affordable Care Act requires most private insurance plans to cover recommended preventive services with no copay or deductible.
Medicaid covers HPV vaccination in accordance with ACIP recommendations, and immunizations are a mandatory service under Medicaid for eligible individuals under age 21. In addition, the federal Vaccines for Children Program provides immunization services for children younger than 19 years who are Medicaid eligible, uninsured, underinsured, or Native American or Alaska Native.
Merck, the manufacturer of Gardasil 9, offers the Merck Vaccine Patient Assistance Program, which provides Gardasil 9 for free to people aged 19 to 45 years who live in the United States, do not have health insurance, and have an annual household income less than a certain amount.
Questions To Ask Your Health Care Team
If you want to learn more about joining a cancer treatment vaccine clinical trial, talk with your health care team. You may want to ask these questions:
Is there a clinical trial testing a vaccine for my type and stage of cancer?
Where is the clinical trial located?
What is the vaccine and how does it work?
How is the vaccine made? Will I need blood cells or tumor tissue removed to make the vaccine? How will you remove it?
How will I receive the vaccine and how often?
How long will I need the vaccine?
What side effects could occur?
Can I receive the vaccine with other treatments such as radiation therapy or chemotherapy?
What are the other treatment options for this cancer?
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