Sunday, March 19, 2023

What Is A Conjugate Vaccine

What If There Is A Serious Reaction

Vaccines part 5 – conjugated vaccine

An allergic reaction could occur after the vaccinated person leaves the clinic. If you see signs of a severe allergic reaction , call 9-1-1 and get the person to the nearest hospital.

For other signs that concern you, call your health care provider.

Adverse reactions should be reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System . Your health care provider will usually file this report, or you can do it yourself. Visit the VAERS website at or call . VAERS is only for reporting reactions, and VAERS staff does not give medical advice.

Persons New To Canada

Health care providers who see persons newly arrived in Canada should review the immunization status and update immunization for these individuals, as necessary. Review of pneumococcal vaccination status is particularly important for persons from areas of the world where sickle cell disease is present, as persons with sickle cell disease are at risk of serious pneumococcal infections. In many countries outside of Canada, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine is in limited use. Refer to Immunization of Persons New to Canada in Part 3 for additional information about vaccination of people who are new to Canada.

Before Taking This Medicine

You may not be able to receive this vaccine if you’ve ever had an allergic reaction to a meningococcal, diphtheria, or tetanus vaccine.

This vaccine may need to be postponed or not given at all if you have:

  • a severe illness with a fever or any type of infection

  • a weak immune system caused by disease or by using certain medicine

  • a history of Guillain-Barré syndrome or

  • a history of premature birth.

You can still receive a vaccine if you’ve a minor cold.

Your doctor should determine whether you need this vaccine during pregnancy or while breastfeeding.

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Meningococcal Vaccine: Canadian Immunization Guide

For health professionals

Latest partial content update :

: The chapter has been updated to align with the National Advisory Committee on Immunization Statement : The Use of Bivalent Factor H Binding Protein Meningococcal Serogroup B Vaccine for the Prevention of Meningococcal B Disease.

Updates include:

MenB-fHBP vaccine may be considered as an option for use in individuals 10 years of age and older in situations when a serogroup B meningococcal vaccine should be offered:

  • during serogroup B meningococcal disease outbreaks or with the emergence of hyperendemic Neisseria meningitidis strains that are predicted to be susceptible to the vaccine
  • for individuals who are close contacts with a case of invasive meningococcal disease caused by serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis
  • for individuals with underlying medical conditions that would put them at higher risk of meningococcal disease than the general population or
  • for individuals at higher risk of exposure to serogroup B meningococcal isolates than the general population.
  • MenB-fHBP vaccine may be considered as an option for individuals 1025 years of age who are not at higher risk of meningococcal disease than the general population, but who wish to reduce their risk of invasive serogroup B meningococcal disease.

    Last complete chapter revision: May 2015

    What Is Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine

    Bene�ts of pneumococcal conjugate 13
    • Pneumococcal pneumonia is the most common cause of severe pneumonia among children in the developing world.
    • The fight against pneumonia-related deaths in children relies on prevention, protection and, when infections occur, on better treatment.
    • PCV has demonstrated effectiveness in reducing the incidence and severity of pneumonia and other lower respiratory infections in children.
    • Children must receive all recommended doses in the vaccine schedule for maximum protection.
    • Vaccination is not intended to be used for the treatment of active infection.

    What are Pneumococcal Diseases?

    • The pneumococcal diseases are caused by Streptococcus Pneumoniae, which can cause infections in the blood, lungs, and brain.
    • The pneumococcal disease usually infects children younger than 5 years of age. The health issues include meningitis, blood, and ear infection the vaccine prevents the infection in adults and children. It affects adults who are older than 65.
    • Pneumococcal disease is the biggest vaccine-preventable cause of death in children under five, globally and in India.

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    Besides Pneumonia Pneumococcal Bacteria Can Also Cause:

    • Ear infections
    • Meningitis
    • Bacteremia

    Anyone can get pneumococcal disease, but children under 2 years of age, people with certain medical conditions, adults 65 years and older, and cigarette smokers are at the highest risk.

    Most pneumococcal infections are mild. However, some can result in long-term problems, such as brain damage or hearing loss. Meningitis, bacteremia, and pneumonia caused by pneumococcal disease can be fatal.

    What Is The Most Important Information I Should Know About Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine

    You may not be able to receive this vaccine if you’ve ever had an allergic reaction to a meningococcal, diphtheria, or tetanus vaccine.

    This vaccine may need to be postponed or not given at all if you have:

    • a severe illness with a fever or any type of infection
    • a weak immune system caused by disease or by using certain medicine
    • a history of Guillain-Barré syndrome or
    • a history of premature birth.

    You can still receive a vaccine if you’ve a minor cold.

    Your doctor should determine whether you need this vaccine during pregnancy or while breastfeeding.

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    Glycoconjugates And Immunologic Memory

    In addition to being immunogenic in the very young, conjugate vaccines have been shown to prime for memory responses. This has been demonstrated by studying antibody responses to pure polysaccharide antigens at 1218 months of age in infants who did or did not receive conjugate vaccines in the first year of life . Significant responses to plain polysaccharide challenge are generally not seen in unprimed toddlers, thus the presence of a response in primed toddlers is considered indicative of the presence of immunological memory. An increase in antibody avidity following primary immunization and boosting has also been demonstrated and has been proposed as a surrogate marker for the successful generation of immunological memory .

    The relative importance of memory versus circulating antibody levels for clinical protection by conjugate vaccines is unclear but it is interesting to note that even the least immunogenic of the Hib conjugates, PRP-D, has been shown to be efficacious in reducing the incidence of invasive Hib infection in Finland . The efficacy of such formulations may thus be related to the ability of the conjugate vaccines to prime for memory, even in the face of poor primary immunogenicity . The demonstration of the presence of immunological memory is thus increasingly being used in the phase II evaluation of such formulations .

    Messenger Rna Vaccinesalso Called Mrna Vaccines

    Developments in Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines

    Researchers have been studying and working with mRNA vaccines for decades and this technology was used to make some of the COVID-19 vaccines. mRNA vaccines make proteins in order to trigger an immune response. mRNA vaccines have several benefits compared to other types of vaccines, including shorter manufacturing times and, because they do not contain a live virus, no risk of causing disease in the person getting vaccinated.

    mRNA vaccines are used to protect against:

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    How To Take Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine

    Use Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine exactly as directed on the label, or as prescribed by your doctor. Do not use in larger or smaller amounts or for longer than recommended.

    This vaccine is given as an injection into a muscle.

    Meningococcal conjugate vaccine is recommended if:

    • you’ve been exposed to an outbreak of meningococcal disease
    • you are in the military
    • you work in a laboratory and are exposed to meningococcal bacteria
    • you live in a dormitory or other group housing
    • you live in or travel to an area where meningococcal disease is common
    • you have a medical problem affecting your spleen, or your spleen has been removed
    • you have HIV

    Our Track Record In Conjugate Vaccines

    Intravaccs Hib vaccine, which has been based on the conjugate platform, has been on the market in India for many years and has saved numerous lives. Intravacc published 6 manuscripts on its Hib vaccine and holds 1 patent family. More recently, Intravacc was part of a consortium to produce a semi-synthetic conjugate vaccine against Shigella flexnerii 2a. Here, Intravacc was responsible for the development and up-scaling of the process and the production of the vaccine for phase I and II clinical studies. This vaccine is currently being tested in phase II clinical trials.

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    Other Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccines

    Protein conjugate vaccines for serogroups A, C, and A/C combination are now available in several countries. The conjugate vaccine produces a T-cell-dependent response and so is immunogenic in infants.27 The meningococcal conjugate vaccines have been licensed for use in infants < 2 years in Canada, the UK, and several other countries. Schedules vary from country to country, but many recommend doses at 2, 4, and 6 months of age . A single dose is recommended for children between 1 and 4 years old. College students in the UK receive the meningococcal A+C conjugate vaccine owing to an incidence of disease, predominantly serogroup C, twice the national average.

    Greg T. Hermanson, in, 2013

    Hector D. de Paz, … Carmen Muñoz-Almagro, in, 2015

    Vaccine Schedule For Pcv Vaccine

    Conjugate Vaccine for Haemophilus Influenzae Type B and ...
    • PCV will be administered in three doses .
    • 1 dose at 6 weeks,
    • 1 dose at 14 weeks and
    • 1 dose at 9 months of age as part of routine immunization.
  • The first dose, PCV1, will be administered at 6 weeks of age with the first dose of pentavalent vaccine, oral polio vaccine , fractional-dose IPV1 and rotavirus vaccine.
  • The second dose, PCV2, will be given at 14 weeks of age, with the third dose of pentavalent vaccine, oral polio vaccine, fractional-dose IPV2 and rotavirus vaccine.
  • The PCV booster dose will be administered at 9 months of age with the first dose of the measles-rubella vaccine and the first dose of the Japanese Encephalitis vaccine .
  • The two primary doses and one booster dose of PCV should be given during the first year of life.
  • If the doses are delayed within the first year of life, delayed doses must be separated by a minimum interval of at least 8 weeks, to be given at the next scheduled immunization visit.
  • In delayed cases beyond 1 year of age, due doses can be given to a child only if a child has received at least one dose of PCV before his/her first birthday.
  • Stay updated with events of national and international importance by visiting the Current affairs page.

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    Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Efficacy

    Data from the first pneumococcal efficacy study to be completed have recently been presented . Infants in the Kaiser Permanante Efficacy Study were randomized to receive a seven valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine or a meningococcal C conjugate vaccine at the same time as their routine infant immunizations and a booster dose in the second year of life. Thirty-seven thousand infants were enrolled and when 17 invasive pneumococcal infections had been identified in the study population the randomization code was broken. All the infections at that stage were in the control group, giving the vaccine an efficacy estimate of 100% . Recent data presented by the group have also shown the vaccine to have some efficacy against pneumonia and otitis media . A formal efficacy study with otitis media as the main endpoint is currently being conducted in Finland and will report in late 1999.

    Active Immunization Against Haemophilus Influenzae Type B

    Conjugate vaccines for invasive H. influenzae type b infections in infants and children are highly effective. The vaccines induce serum antibody to the PRP capsule this antibody is bactericidal for the organism. The protective level of serum antibody to PRP has been estimated to be approximately 0.15µg/mL, although this estimate must be interpreted cautiously. Vaccination reduces or eliminates carriage of H. influenzae type b strains, and this effect has played an important role in the effectiveness of the vaccine. The widespread use of conjugate vaccines has almost eradicated invasive disease in children younger than 5 years in the United States. These vaccines represent a dramatic success in disease prevention and health care cost savings.

    Two conjugate vaccines are currently licensed and available in the United States . All children should be immunized with a conjugate vaccine beginning at 2 months of age. A primary series consisting of three doses at 2, 4, and 6 months of age or two doses given at 2 and 4 months , depending on the vaccine product, is recommended. After administration of the primary series, antibody titers decline, so an additional booster dose should be given between 12 and 15 months of age. Vaccines may be administered during visits when other vaccines are given. Adverse reactions are few the most common are pain, redness, and swelling at the injection site.

    Christopher R. Wilcox, Christine E. Jones, in, 2020

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    Barriers To Vaccine Use

    While Hib conjugate vaccines are routinely used in most developed countries, introduction in developing countries has been slow. Despite the availability of Hib conjugate vaccines, Hib remains a leading cause of meningitis and pneumonia deaths, accounting for at least 400,000 deaths in children annually around the world.1 As of early 2005, less than 25% of the children in the world had access to Hib vaccines through governmental immunization programs . There are many barriers to the introduction of the Hib vaccine in developing countries, including limited awareness of Hib disease, limited data on Hib disease burden, and relatively high vaccine cost.

    Marsha S. Anderson, … Arnold L. Smith, in, 2009

    Simultaneous Administration With Other Vaccines

    Covid-19 Update | Market nod to pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccine

    Men-C-C and 4CMenB vaccine may be administered concomitantly with routine childhood vaccines, and Men-C-ACYW vaccine may be administered concomitantly with adolescent and adult age appropriate vaccines. MenB-fHBP can be given concomitantly with quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine meningococcal serogroup A, C, Y, W conjugate vaccine and tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccine adsorbed. The concomitant administration of MenB-fHBP has not been studied with other vaccines.

    Men-C-ACYW-CRM can be administered with routine paediatric vaccines however, further studies are needed with regard to concomitant administration with pneumococcal 13-valent conjugate vaccine. Co-administration of Men-C-ACYW-CRM and combined tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccine may result in a lower immune response to the pertussis antigens than when Tdap vaccine is given alone however, the clinical significance of this is unknown. Tdap vaccine given one month after Men-C-ACYW-CRM induces the strongest immunologic response to pertussis antigens.

    If vaccines are to be administered concomitantly with another vaccine, a separate injection site and a different syringe must be used for each injection.

    Refer to Timing of Vaccine Administration in Part 1 for additional general information.

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    Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine India

    • The Indian government is planning for a nationwide rollout of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in India under the Universal Immunisation Programme .
    • According to the government, this rollout would require about 50 % of the budget of UIP. Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine is the costliest vaccine in UIP and covers only 50% of the birth cohort in Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Bihar, and more.
    • The cost challenge for Indiaâs immunisation will be more problematic, as GAVI is about to withdraw its support for India from 2022.

    Cubas Soberana 2 Covid

    Cuba’s Soberana 02 vaccine is a conjugate vaccine which carries part of the spike protein from the virus, binding it to human cells. It is one of the three vaccines in the Soberana series.

    Cubas Soberana COVID-19 Vaccines

    Soberana 2 COVID-19 Vaccine: Cuba has developed the worlds first conjugate Covid-19 vaccine Soberana 2 . Cubas State-run corporation BioFarma confirmed on July 9, 2021 that its indigenously produced Soberana 2 vaccine showed 91.2% efficacy when delivered with a booster shot of Soberana Plus during phase-3 clinical trials.

    If approved, Cuba will become the first Latin American country indigenously develop and produce a vaccine against Covid-19. Following the announcement of the efficacy results, Cuban President Miguel Díaz-Canel thanked the island nations scientists for working on the vaccine.

    Esa victoria sólo es comparable al tamaño de nuestros sacrificios. Y es una clarinada de los pobres de la tierra, un aviso del poder que dan la resistencia, la unidad, la consagración y el amor a la #Patria que tan hermosamente describen los versos martianos en #Abdala.

    Miguel Díaz-Canel Bermúdez

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    What Are The Side Effects Of Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine

    Get emergency medical help if you have signs of an allergic reaction: hives dizziness, weakness fast heartbeats difficult breathing swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

    Keep track of all side effects you have. If you need a booster dose, you will need to tell the vaccination provider if the previous shot caused any side effects.

    You should not receive a booster vaccine if you had a life-threatening allergic reaction after the first shot.

    Becoming infected with meningococcal disease and developing meningitis is much more dangerous to your health than receiving this vaccine. Any vaccine may cause side effects but the risk of serious side effects is low.

    You may feel faint after receiving this vaccine. Some people have had seizure like reactions after receiving this vaccine. Your doctor may want you to remain under observation during the first 15 minutes after the injection.

    • severe weakness or unusual feeling in your arms and legs
    • high fever or

    Common side effects may include:

    • nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
    • low fever, not feeling well or
    • fussiness, irritability.

    This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report vaccine side effects to the US Department of Health and Human Services at 1 800 822 7967.

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