Thursday, March 23, 2023

What Is A Titer Vaccine

What Happens If My Dog Shows Low Titers

Titer Tests & Vaccines

1) If inadequate antibody titers are found, we are prompted to give the booster vaccine for patients healthy enough to receive it! After giving the vaccine, we would resume titer testing 3 years after this vaccine is given.

2) For animals not healthy enough to receive vaccination knowing that antibody levels are inadequate for protection is valuable information to have, even if it is decided that vaccination on any level is not safe. Adjustments to life-style can be made to ensure risk of exposure is extremely low, or other precautions that would not have to be taken if antibody levels were known to be adequate.

Adverse Reactions To Vaccines

Vaccines rarely produce illness because they are made either from tiny, replicated parts of the disease-causing microorganism or from germs that are dead or have been very much weakened. This helps the body to build immunity without making the recipient sick. To be sure, full immunity is not 100% certain for all vaccinated pets and some individuals can have allergic or other adverse reactions to vaccines, but on the whole, the benefits of appropriate vaccination far outweigh any risks.

According to Mahaney, while adverse reactions to vaccines are the exception, these events are more likely to occur when pets are already sick with immune mediated diseases or cancers or are taking drugs that suppress the immune system, such as with steroids or chemotherapy. Additionally, some smaller breeds, such as Chihuahuas, Pugs, and Yorkshire Terriers, are more predisposed to problems associated with vaccination.

Adverse reactions to vaccines can occur within minutes or hours after a dose is given, or can manifest over a longer period of time. Symptoms of an allergic reaction to a vaccine include hives, vomiting, diarrhea, low blood pressure, decreased appetite, lethargy, swelling, collapse, and rarely coma or death.

How Money Influences Vaccines

Some veterinarians express concern that the companies that make vaccines are most interested in moving their products, and in the process, pressure veterinarians to push vaccines even when they are not needed. And since money can be made on vaccines, some vets go along with it.

Veterinarians commonly make money off of vaccines because the cost is very minimal, so they mark up the cost of providing a vaccination, says Mahaney.

Some markup is to be expected of course, since administering the injections takes time and labor on behalf of the veterinarian or veterinary technician. For vets who are recommending, and providing, three or four vaccines in one session, a small profit can be made.

Such is the case with mobile vaccine clinics, says Mahaney, its a method of generating practice income without having high overhead.

But titer tests often end up costing owners more than vaccines. According to Denish, a distemper-parvo battery titer costs about $76, while the vaccine is about $24. Because there is always the chance that an already paid for titer will show that a vaccination is required anyway, many owners would just as soon opt solely for the vaccination, if only for financial reasons.

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Vaccine Adjuvants Increase Risk Of Adverse Events

Adding adjuvants to vaccines is intended to accelerate, prolong or enhance antigen-specific immune responses, thereby promoting their immunogenicity. However, this increases the risk of autoimmune and inflammatory adverse events. All licensed canine rabies vaccines still contain adjuvants, and most have thimerosal or aluminum salts, whereas cats can receive a safer recombinant non-adjuvanted version. Importantly, killed inactivated vaccines containing adjuvants make up about 15% of the veterinary biologicals used, but have been associated with 85% of post-vaccination reactions.

Currently, particular attention is being focused on these heavy metal salts thimerosal and aluminum being used in human and animal vaccines. Aluminum and mercury have recently been found in the brains of autistic people, and from vaccine adjuvants that cross the blood-brain barrier after injection and then persist lifelong. Clearly, there is an urgent need to remove heavy metals, like aluminum and mercury, from all vaccines, but especially from those given to human and animal neonates and infants.

Ask A Laboratory Scientist


This form enables patients to ask specific questions about lab tests. Your questions will be answered by a laboratory scientist as part of a voluntary service provided by one of our partners, American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science. Please allow 2-3 business days for an email response from one of the volunteers on the Consumer Information Response Team.

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How Do Vaccines Work

To better comprehend titer tests, it helps to first understand how vaccines work and what they do to help the human body fight disease.

Vaccines teach your immune system to fight viruses without ever needing to expose your body to said viruses. What happens is the vaccine is made of a weakened or dead version of the disease what medicine refers to as “antigens.” When you receive a vaccine, your body detects something foreign and releases antibodies to fight it.

Once your body no longer detects a threat, many of the antibodies break down but signs of them remain in your system, and your body remembers what that disease looks like.

Should you eventually be exposed to the illness and antigens you were vaccinated for, your body will remember and quickly kick into fighting mode to protect itself by producing antibodies to attack the antigens.

Why Should You Get Titer Tests

The reason for getting titer tests if you’re unsure of your immunization history is clear: to avoid getting a vaccine you don’t need at the moment .

To be clear, in most cases, having an extra dose of routine vaccines isn’t harmful. Vaccine schedules were created in an attempt to keep people protected with the smallest number of doses possible. Thus, an additional dose should not come with adverse side effects.

However, if you’re already immune, you don’t need the vaccine, plain and simple. Getting vaccinated when you don’t need to be means money and time you didn’t need to spend and discomfort you didn’t need to endure.

You might see a titer test as an additional expense, but when you order one with e7 Health, the cost is considerably lower than if you were to get the vaccine again, making it a cost-efficient way to double check that you’re already immune to a disease. Plus, we offer the lowest prices available on our titers oftentimes more than 50% to 60% off the price you’ll pay at major laboratories.

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What Is The Rapid Fluorescent Focus Inhibition Test

The RFFIT is a rabies virus neutralization test performed in cell culture to determine the rabies virus neutralizing antibody level in human or animal sera. Immunofluorescent staining of infected cells is used as an indicator of rabies virus replication. The RFFIT takes ~20 hours and is both sensitive and specific in the hands of well-trained laboratory personnel.

While rabies virus antibodies can be measured through the application of an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbant Assay , these tests measure binding antibodies to viral antigens rather than functional neutralizing antibodies measured in the RFFIT. In some cases, ELISA tests can provide false positive results if they detect antibodies that bind to rabies virus, but are unable to neutralize the virus. The RFFIT is the current gold standard serological assay recommended by both the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices and the World Health Organization . Other serological tests, such as an ELISA, are more appropriate for research, and are not recommended for samples requiring clinical decision making by clinicians based upon current ACIP and WHO recommendations.

Despite Research Showing That Most Vaccines Have A Much Longer Duration Of Immunity Than Originally Thought Many Veterinarians And Their Clients Still Opt For Annual Boosters Find Out How To Break Free Of This Mold And Protect Your Dog Or Cat From Over

Should I Get an Antibody Test to Know If the COVID-19 Vaccine Worked?

The harmful effects of over-vaccination in dogs and cats is not a new topic. And if youve ever had an animal who reacted badly to too many vaccines, then you know its a real issue. Yet many conventional veterinarians still believe what they originally learned about vaccines, and promote annual boosters. In fact, yearly vaccination remains the single most common reason for annual check-ups or wellness visits. This article looks at the vaccines your dog or cat really needs, and how to help protect him from the harmful effects of over-vaccination through titer testing and other alternatives to conventional vaccine protocols.

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What Happens If My Dog Shows Good Titers

1) If adequate titers are found, your dog would not receive the Distemper, Parvovirus, Adenovirus vaccine that day. Testing would then be repeated once yearly to check if titer levels are adequate and if vaccination is needed. Some dogs will go 7 years or more before titer testing reveals a booster vaccine is needed!

2) When adequate titers are found, a certificate similar to a vaccine certificate can be issued that should allow the dog to be recognized as having an up to date vaccine status that can be used for kennels or grooming facilities.

Why Order Titer Tests From E7 Health

As we mentioned earlier, our titer tests are a fraction of the cost of tests conducted by major labs. Another benefit of working with e7 Health is that we provide you with your prescription and draw your blood in the same location. We take both appointments and walk-ins, and there is usually little to no wait time.

Outside of e7 Health, you’ll first need to visit a physician to get your prescription and then go to an outside lab, where a technician will draw your blood. It adds up to more time and more money for you two things you can’t waste when it comes to maintaining your health for work, school, travel, and life in general.

e7 Health is supervised and run by Board-certified doctors and clinicians. We offer a wide range of vaccines for work, school, travel, and general health. Additionally, we offer many other preventative health services, like complete laboratory testing, TB skin testing, drug testing, and physicals. We can even work with employers to provide comprehensive employee health services.

Working with e7 Health is a simpler, easier, and quicker way to stay healthy, and we offer the best prices in our industry. If you’d like more information or want to schedule an appointment online, contact us today for assistance.

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How Does Proof Of Titer Testing Affect Your Pets Acceptance At Groomers Or Kennel Clubs

Groomers and kennel clubs must consider the health and wellbeing of all their pets. As such, they often demand proof of vaccination before accepting your pet for treatment or a stay. A signed letter from the vet, confirming that your pet has been titer tested and is fully protected, may very well provide them with the proof they need to accept your pet with open arms.

Which Vaccines Does Your Dog Or Cat Truly Need



  • Modified live virus or recombinant core vaccines preferably either at nine to ten and 14 to 16 weeks of age or at nine, 12 and 16 to 18 weeks of age. A bivalent CDV + CPV vaccine can be given instead, as preferred by this author.
  • For the optional bordetella or kennel cough vaccines, the oral version is preferred over the intranasal, although both offer more complete protection than the injectable version.
  • Leptospirosis vaccines protect against only four serovars of the organism. They are also second to rabies vaccines when it comes to hypersensitivity risk and other adverse effects. This vaccine should only be considered if leptospirosis is endemic in your area.
  • While canine influenza viruses are highly contagious, most infected dogs have mild to no clinical issues, unless they develop a high fever and are at risk for secondary pneumonia. Vaccination, while being widely promoted, is still optional.


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Diagnose For Causes Of Inflammation: Pathogens

Definition of Antigen

Any substance that causes the immune system to produce antibodies against it. The substance may be from the environment or formed within the body. The immune system will kill or neutralize any antigen that is recognized as a foreign and potentially harmful invader.

A sample is taken from the patient blood and is then challenged with known antigens to detect the presence of antibodies to these antigens. A titer is a measure of how much a sample can be diluted before antibodies can no longer be detected. Titers are usually expressed as ratios, such as 1:256, meaning that one part serum to 256 parts saline solution results in no antibodies remaining detectable in the sample. A titer of 1:8 is, therefore, an indication of lower numbers of bacteria antibodies than a 1:256 titer.

Antibodies may take up to 2 months to reach peak levels, with immunoglobulin M appearing between 2 and 4 weeks after infection, and immunoglobulin G taking between 4 and 6 weeks to reach detectable levels in most cases. Ensuring that the correct testing, either for IgM, IgG, or both, is carried out at the appropriate time is also important so as not to invalidate the purpose of the test.

Polymerase chain reaction : Another method for detecting and measuring bacteria, especially those implicated in AD, is PCR testing. This test is used to detect the bacterial genes in a blood or tissue sample.

Periodontal bacteria

Remember the definition for Typhus:


How Is The Rapid Fluorescent Focus Inhibition Test Conducted

The RFFIT is performed by mixing different dilutions of test sera with a constant amount of rabies virus in a multi-chambered slide. The serum-virus mixture is incubated for a short time to allow time for any antibodies in the serum to neutralize rabies virus, before adding the mixture to cells, in which the virus can replicate. The samples are incubated for ~20 hours to allow any non-neutralized virus to replicate in the cells before they are fixed and stained to detect any rabies virus production, by reading the slide using a fluorescent microscope.

In the RFFIT, a total of 20 microscopic fields are read for each serum dilution, and compared against a control slide containing reference serum and virus dilutions. The number of infected fields for each serum dilution is used to determine the rabies virus neutralizing titer.

Figure A: An example of a microscopic field where virus has been neutralized.

Figure B: An example of a microscopic field where virus was not neutralized.

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Current Clinical Experience With Opsonophagocytosis Assay

Along with technological improvements in OPA, recent studies of pneumococcal vaccines often include OPA results. These studies confirmed that the results of OPA and ELISA generally correlate well, at least in children sera, except in certain situations. In the following sections, we review various infant and adult studies that used the two assays and examine how OPA has been useful as a surrogate marker of vaccine efficacy.

When Is Titer Testing Appropriate

MMR (Measles, Mumps and Rubella) and Varicella (Chicken Pox) titer and vaccine information

Unfortunately, titers are not an option when it comes to some serious conditions including canine leptospirosis, bordetella , and Lyme disease, feline herpesvirus-1, feline calicivirus, and feline leukemia. Vaccines for these and some other conditions lose their effectiveness more quickly and the results of infections are more life-threatening and resistant to treatment.

Rabies vaccines offer long-term protection from infection, and the titer test for the rabies virus antibody is generally considered to be very accurate. However, most states including Texas, require annual rabies vaccinations and do not recognize rabies titer testing as a replacement for the rabies vaccine.

Generally speaking, titer testing is an appropriate option for pets with serious health conditions or pets that have previously experienced vaccine reaction.

As you can see, titer testing is not a replacement for vaccinations, but in certain cases, it can be a safe and effective alternative.

Here at Breckinridge Park Animal Hospital, were committed to providing you with the information you need to make informed decisions about your pets healthcare. Give us a call at 972-690-6900 or complete the form below to learn more about our vaccinations, titers and our other veterinary services.

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Can I Titer Test Immediately After Vaccination

To get an accurate test, you must wait at least 14 days after vaccination before testing.

What if your vet, groomer, spouse, best friend, kennel owner or day care proprietor says titer testing is voodoo science, that your dog needs continued vaccination even if testing indicates otherwise?

Know that vets out of school longer than 10 years received little or no immunology or vaccinology training in school they shouldnt be considered experts unless theyve devoted hundreds of hours to research and training. Others who want to influence you may have no training at all and may be acting out of fear.

Do your own research and advocate for your dog.


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How Often Should I Test Titers For Parvo And Distemper

Youre going to have to decide for yourself. Some vets recommend testing yearly, but this can be expensive. Others test every three years. Still others test five to seven years after vaccination.


Challenge tests show that successful vaccination against parvovirus gives most animals at least seven years of immunity. Distemper provides immunity for at least five to seven years.*

Dr. Ron Schultz, one of the most renowned pet vaccination experts in the country, believes that once a test yields strong titers, you need not test again.

In Dr. Jean Dodds article on vaccine reactions, she quotes Dr. Schultz on the value of testing titers: an animal with a positive test has sterilizing immunity and should be protected from infection. If that animal were vaccinated it would not respond with a significant increase in antibody titer, but may develop a hypersensitivity to vaccine components .

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