Persons With Inadequate Immunization Records
Children and adults lacking adequate documentation of immunization should be considered unimmunized and started on an immunization schedule appropriate for their age and risk factors. Conjugate meningococcal vaccine, as appropriate for age, may be given regardless of possible previous receipt of the vaccine, as adverse events associated with repeated immunization have not been demonstrated. Refer to Immunization of persons with inadequate immunization records in Part 3 for additional general information.
Why Do Teens Need A Meningococcal Vaccine
Of the 1,000-2,600 people who get meningococcal disease each year, one-third are teens and young adults. Ten percent to 15% of those who get sick with the disease will die, even with antibiotic treatment. As many as 20% of the survivorswill have permanent side effects, such as hearing loss or brain damage.
The immunization can help prevent this serious disease.
What Are The Options For Meningococcal Vaccine
Meningococcal vaccine is highly effective at protecting against four strains of the meningococcal bacteria. Three strains are common in the United States and the fourth strain protects travelers to certain countries where the disease is more common.
The MenACWY vaccine does not contain the meningococcal B strain that is more commonly found in infants and may cause some cases in adolescents. There is an additional vaccine, meningococcal B vaccine , that contains the B strain. If your clinic does not carry the MenB vaccine, you can ask them to order it for you, or to refer you to another clinic that has the vaccine. Talk to your health care provider about getting this additional vaccine.
Also Check: Can I Get A Tdap Shot At Cvs
This Vaccine Side Effects
Get emergency medical help if you have signs of an allergic reaction:hives dizziness, weakness fast heartbeats difficult breathing swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.
Keep track of all side effects you have. If you need a booster dose, you will need to tell the vaccination provider if the previous shot caused any side effects.
You should not receive a booster vaccine if you had a life-threatening allergic reaction after the first shot.
Becoming infected with meningococcal disease and developing meningitis is much more dangerous to your health than receiving this vaccine. Any vaccine may cause side effects but the risk of serious side effects is low.
You may feel faint after receiving this vaccine. Some people have had seizure like reactions after receiving this vaccine. Your doctor may want you to remain under observation during the first 15 minutes after the injection.
severe weakness or unusual feeling in your arms and legs
high fever or
redness, pain, swelling, or a hard lump where the shot was given
joint or muscle pain
Are Students In College At Risk For Meningococcal Disease
In the 1990s, college freshmen living in residence halls were identified as being at increased risk for meningococcal disease. Meningococcal disease and outbreaks in young adults were primarily due to serogroup C. However, following many years of routine vaccination of young people with quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine , serogroup B is now the primary cause of meningococcal disease and outbreaks in young adults. Among the approximately 9 million students aged 18-21 years enrolled in college, there are an average of 20 cases and 2-4 outbreaks due to serogroup B reported annually.
Although incidence of serogroup B meningococcal disease in college students is low, college students aged 18-21 years are at increased risk compared to non-college students. The close contact in college residence halls, combined with certain behaviors , may put college students at increased risk.
Is there a vaccine against meningococcal disease?
Yes, there are 2 different meningococcal vaccines.
Also Check: How Much Does Shingles Vaccine Cost At Cvs
Are You Still At Risk Of Meningitis After The Immunisation
Yes. However, the MenC vaccine has greatly reduced the number of cases of meningitis and blood infection since it was introduced in 1999 and the MenB vaccine is expected to be as effective.
Note: other groups of meningococcus, and other germs can still cause meningitis.
You should get medical help immediately if you suspect that your child, or someone you know, has meningitis or septicaemia. The earlier the treatment of meningitis or septicaemia, the better the chance of recovery and preventing complications or death. See the separate leaflet called Meningitis. See also the separate leaflets called and Meningitis Symptoms Checklist for more details about the symptoms of meningitis and septicaemia.
What Are The Possible Reactions After The Vaccine
Vaccines are very safe. It is much safer to get the vaccine than to get meningococcal disease.
Common reactions to the vaccine may include soreness, redness and swelling where the vaccine was given. Headache, muscle soreness, chills, fever, and nausea may also occur after getting the vaccine. These reactions are mild and generally last 1 to 2 days.
For more information on Reye Syndrome, see HealthLinkBC File #84 Reye Syndrome.
It is important to stay in the clinic for 15 minutes after getting any vaccine because there is an extremely rare possibility, less than 1 in a million, of a life-threatening allergic reaction called anaphylaxis. This may include hives, difficulty breathing, or swelling of the throat, tongue or lips. Should this reaction occur, your health care provider is prepared to treat it. Emergency treatment includes administration of epinephrine and transfer by ambulance to the nearest emergency department. If symptoms develop after you leave the clinic, call 9-1-1 or the local emergency number.
It is important to always report serious or unexpected reactions to your health care provider.
Read Also: Tdap At Cvs
Healthy Infants And Children
One dose of Men-C-C vaccine is recommended in unimmunized children less than 5 years of age. One dose of Men-C-C vaccine may be considered for children 5 to 11 years of age if they have not previously been immunized as infants or toddlers. Immunization with 4CMenB vaccine or MenB-fHBP may be considered on an individual basis, depending on individual preferences, regional serogroup B epidemiology and strain susceptibility.
Immunogenicity And Vaccine Effectiveness
- Conjugate: A type of vaccine that joins a protein to an antigen in order to improve the protection the vaccine provides
- Recombinant protein: A type of vaccine that contains protein antigens
Incidence of meningococcal disease has declined in the United States since the 1990s and remains low today. Much of the decline occurred prior to routine use of MenACWY vaccines. In addition, serogroup B meningococcal disease declined even though MenB vaccines were not available until the end of 2014.
CDC first recommended adolescents get a MenACWY vaccine in 2005. Since then, the incidence of meningococcal disease in adolescents caused by serogroups C, Y, and W decreased by over 90% . Other age groups that CDC does not recommend routine MenACWY vaccination for did not see this large of a percent decline. These data suggest MenACWY vaccines have provided protection to those vaccinated, but not to the larger, unvaccinated community through population or herd immunity. Experts also believe MenB vaccines do not provide protection to unvaccinated people through population immunity. As part of the licensure process, both MenACWY and MenB vaccines demonstrated that they produce an immune response. This immune response suggests the vaccines are protective , but effectiveness data are limited. Since meningococcal disease is uncommon, many people need to get these vaccines in order to measure their effectiveness.
Don’t Miss: How Much Does Tdap Cost At Cvs
Who Should Get The Meningococcal Quadrivalent Conjugate Vaccine
The vaccine is provided free to children in grade 9.
The vaccine is also provided free to children and adults at high risk of meningococcal disease, including those who have:
- no spleen, or a spleen that is not working properly
- immune system disorders including complement, properdin or factor D deficiencies, or primary antibody deficiency
- an islet cell or solid organ transplant, or those who are waiting for one
- had a stem cell transplant
- been in close contact with a person with meningococcal A, Y or W-135 disease, or who are determined by public health to be at risk of infection with these during an outbreak in B.C.
The vaccine is recommended, but not provided free, for the following people:
- laboratory workers routinely exposed to meningococcal bacteria
- military personnel and
- those living or travelling in a high risk area for meningococcal disease.
For information on high risk travel areas contact a travel clinic.
The vaccine is usually given as 1 dose. Some people may need additional doses of the vaccine. Speak with your health care provider to find out if you need additional doses and when you should get them.
People who are not eligible for the free vaccine but want to be protected against meningococcal A, C, Y and W-135 strains of the disease can purchase the quadrivalent vaccine at most travel clinics and pharmacies.
It is important to keep a record of all immunizations received.
Who Is At Risk For Meningococcal Disease
Meningococcal disease can affect people at any age. Certain groups seem to be at increased risk of contracting the disease including those in close contact with a known case, patients with compromised immunity, and persons traveling to specific endemic areas of Asia, Africa, or South America.
Since 1991, cases of meningococcal disease among 15-24 year olds have more than doubled. Recent evidence found students residing on campus in dormitories appear to be at higher risk for meningococcal disease. The highest risk appeared to be in freshmen living in dormitories, who seemed to have a six times higher risk than college students overall. Data also suggests that certain social behaviors such as exposure to passive and active smoking, bar patronage, and excessive alcohol consumption may increase students’ risk for contracting the disease.
Also Check: Does Cvs Offer Tetanus Shots
What Should I Discuss With My Healthcare Provider Before Receiving This Vaccine
You should not receive this vaccine if you have ever had an allergic reaction to meningococcal group B vaccine.
If you have any of these other conditions, your vaccine may need to be postponed or not given at all:
- an allergy to latex rubber
- any condition that weakens the immune system or
- a condition for which you are receiving steroids, chemotherapy, or radiation treatments.
You can still receive a vaccine if you have a minor cold. In the case of a more severe illness with a fever or any type of infection, wait until you get better before receiving this vaccine.
Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or breastfeeding. Your doctor will determine whether you need this vaccine.
What Are Meningococcal Quadrivalent Vaccines
Meningococcal quadrivalent vaccines protect against 4 types of meningococcal bacteria: types A, C, Y and W-135. The vaccines are either polysaccharide or conjugate vaccines. While both types of vaccines are approved by Health Canada, the conjugate vaccines are used in B.C. because they provide longer lasting protection against disease.
You May Like: Cvs Pharmacy Tdap
Who Should Get Meningococcal Vaccines
CDC recommends meningococcal vaccination for all preteens and teens. In certain situations, CDC also recommends other children and adults get meningococcal vaccines. Below is more information about which meningococcal vaccines, including booster shots, CDC recommends for people by age.
Talk to your or your childs doctor about what is best for your specific situation.
Talk With Your Healthcare Provider
Tell your vaccination provider if the person getting the vaccine:
- Has had an allergic reaction after a previous dose of meningococcal ACWY vaccine, or has any severe, life-threatening allergies
In some cases, your health care provider may decide to postpone meningococcal ACWY vaccination until a future visit.
There is limited information on the risks of this vaccine for pregnant or breastfeeding people, but no safety concerns have been identified. A pregnant or breastfeeding person should be vaccinated if indicated.
People with minor illnesses, such as a cold, may be vaccinated. People who are moderately or severely ill should usually wait until they recover before getting meningococcal ACWY vaccine.
Your health care provider can give you more information.
Don’t Miss: Cvs Tdap
Effectiveness Of The Menb Vaccine
Another type of meningococcal vaccine is the MenB vaccine, which protects against a fifth strain of Neisseria meningitidis. In the U.S., parents can opt to give their children a MenB vaccine once theyre in their teens.
The CDC’s analysis of the efficacy of the MenB vaccines in the real world comes from studies done in other countries. In Canada, a study followed a mass vaccination campaign in a region with a meningitis B outbreak and found that a MenB vaccine was 79% effective in the four years after vaccination.
In the UK, MenB vaccines have become part of the childhood immunization schedule. By 2018 as many as 92% of eligible infants in the UK completed a MenB vaccination by their first birthday, according to a 2020 study in The New England Journal of Medicine.
That study estimated that the vaccine was about 53% effective. This policy has also resulted in a large drop in meningitis B cases. The study noted a 75% drop in cases among vaccine-eligible age groups, compared to the expected numbers.
Effectiveness Of The Menacwy Vaccine
The type of meningococcal vaccine that most young adults get is generally called the MenACWY vaccine, which protects against four strains of the Neisseria meningitidis bacteria.
Since the CDC recommended vaccination for adolescents in 2005, cases of meningococcal disease fell by 90%. Similar declines werent seen in groups that didnt have this vaccine recommendation.
Other studies also noted a large drop in meningococcal disease since the vaccine was introduced. One 2020 paper in JAMA Pediatrics analyzed the national rates of meningococcal disease between 2000 and 2005 and compared it to 2011 to 2017 .
The annual incidence rates of three strains of meningococcal disease were already dropping in the pre-vaccine period by about 14.6% among adolescents 16 to 22 years old. But that drop accelerated after vaccine introduction. Between 2011 and 2017, the incidence of meningitis due to these strains dropped by 35.6% per year.
This suggests that MenACWY vaccination is related to the drop in meningococcal disease among adolescents, though vaccination alone cant explain this decline. But other studies have replicated these results in other populations.
A study compared meningococcal disease cases and deaths in the Republic of Korea Armed Forces between 2008 and 2013 and 2013 to 2016 . Data showed the MenACWY vaccine is 88% effective in protecting against meningococcal disease.
You May Like: Does Cvs Give Tdap Shots
Are There Any Side
Most people have no side-effects. A mild high temperature may develop for a short time after baby injections. Some babies cry more and become irritable for a short time after the injection. Occasionally they may be sick or have diarrhoea. Slight swelling, pain and redness at the injection site may occur. Headache and muscle aches for a short time can occur in some older children.
None of the above side-effects is serious, and they soon settle. It is a good idea to give your baby a single dose of liquid infant paracetamol at the time of their MenB vaccine or soon after, as a high temperature is a little more common after this vaccine. If necessary, you can give paracetamol or ibuprofen to children to ease pain as well as fever following immunisation. Serious reactions are rare.
Uncommon side-effects, described in up to 1 in 100 people, are high fever, seizures , vomiting dry skin, itchy rash, skin rash, and paleness .
Rare side-effects include Kawasaki syndrome .
Types And Composition Of Meningococcal Vaccines
Of the 5 meningococcal vaccines available in the United States: 3 are conjugate vaccines and 2 are recombinant protein vaccines. Meningococcal vaccines also vary by the number of serogroups they provide protection against. Both recombinant protein vaccines are monovalent vaccines. This means the Food and Drug Administration licensed them to provide protection against 1 serogroup . In contrast, the conjugate vaccines provide protection against 4 serogroups , making them quadrivalent vaccines.
Also Check: Does Cvs Pharmacy Give Tdap Vaccine
Why Are Meningococcal Vaccines Recommended
Meningococcal disease is caused by a type of bacteria. It can lead to an infection of the bloodstream or meningitis, or both, and can be life-threatening if not quickly treated. The MenACWY vaccine is very effective at protecting against four strains of the bacteria, while the MenB vaccine protects against a fifth strain.
What Is Meningococcal Infection
Meningococcal infection is caused by bacteria. Meningococcal infection due to types A, C, Y and W-135 is very rare in B.C. Since 2009 there have been less than 10 cases per year. Although rare, it can cause serious and life-threatening infections including meningitis, an infection of the lining that covers the brain, and septicemia, an infection of the blood. For every 100 people who get sick, up to 15 will die, even if they receive treatment. Permanent complications of infection include brain damage, deafness, and loss of limbs.
Meningococcal infection is spread from person to person by coughing, sneezing, or close face-to-face contact. It can also be spread through saliva. This can occur through activities such as kissing or sharing of food, drinks, cigarettes, lipsticks, water bottles, mouth guards used for sports, or mouthpieces of musical instruments.
You May Like: How Much Does The Shingles Vaccine Cost At Cvs
What Are The Side Effects From The Meningococcal Vaccines
With any vaccine, there is the potential of a severe allergic reaction within a few minutes to a few hours after the shot. But the likelihood that the meningococcal vaccines would cause a severe reaction is extremely slight.
About one out of every two people who get the shot experience mild reactions such as redness or a mild pain where the shot was given. Those usually go away in one to two days. A small percentage of people develop a mild fever.
There have been reports that a few people have been diagnosed with Guillain-Barre syndrome after receiving MCV4. But experts say it occurs so rarely that it’s not possible to tell if it’s related to the vaccine or coincidental.