What Are The Side Effects
About half of people who get a MenACWY vaccine have mild side effects following vaccination:
- Redness or pain where they got the shot
These reactions usually get better on their own within 1 to 2 days, but serious reactions are possible.
Following a MenB shot, more than half of people who get the vaccine will have mild problems:
- Soreness, redness, or swelling where you got the shot
Use Of Saliva Testing Of Antibody Levels Against Meningococcal Serogroups For Monitoring Meningococcal Vaccine Responses
The authors stated that a drawback of this study was that only samples of children aged 10 to 15years were used here to identify the salivary thresholds. Thus, these salivary thresholds as surrogate of protection have to be validated in other large meningococcal vaccine trials, preferably studies that include participants with a wide age range. furthermore, samples were collected only up to 1 year after vaccination. Whether saliva samples could be used as a surrogate of protection in the long-term after vaccination has to be examined as well.
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What Are The Possible Reactions After The Vaccine
Vaccines are very safe. It is much safer to get the vaccine than to get meningococcal disease.
Common reactions to the vaccine may include soreness, redness and swelling where the vaccine was given. Headache, muscle soreness, chills, fever, and nausea may also occur after getting the vaccine. These reactions are mild and generally last 1 to 2 days.
It is important to stay in the clinic for 15 minutes after getting any vaccine because there is an extremely rare possibility, less than 1 in a million, of a life-threatening allergic reaction called anaphylaxis. This may include hives, difficulty breathing, or swelling of the throat, tongue or lips. Should this reaction occur, your health care provider is prepared to treat it. Emergency treatment includes administration of epinephrine and transfer by ambulance to the nearest emergency department. If symptoms develop after you leave the clinic, call 9-1-1 or the local emergency number.
It is important to always report serious or unexpected reactions to your health care provider.
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Symptoms Of Meningococcal Disease
Neisseria meningitidis can cause invasive meningococcal disease , which usually presents as meningitis and septicaemia. Septicaemia, either on its own or with meningitis, can be particularly severe. N. meningitidis can also cause other localised infections, although these are less common, including:74,84
The clinical manifestations of meningococcal septicaemia and meningitis may be non-specific.
They can include:85
Not all symptoms or signs may be present at disease onset.
The characteristic rash of meningococcal disease does not disappear with gentle pressure on the skin, but the rash is not always present.
IMD can also present atypically as:
These atypical presentations are more common among certain serogroups, especially serogroup W.
Who Should Get Vaccinated
Children 2 through 10 years of age should receive two doses of meningococcal vaccine only if they are at increased risk for the disease.
All 11- through12-year-old adolescents should be vaccinated with meningococcal conjugate vaccine . Effective August, 1, 2020, a booster dose to protect against meningococcal disease is required for adolescents entering the 12th grade or by 17 years of age, whichever comes first. Adolescents who receive their first dose of MCV4 at or after age 16 years do not need a booster dose.
Adults should get meningitis vaccine if they:
- Are a college freshmen living in a dormitory
- Are a military recruit
- Have a damaged spleen or your spleen has been removed
- Have terminal complement deficiency
- Are a microbiologist who is routinely exposed to Neisseria meningitidis
- Are traveling or residing in countries in which the disease is common.
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What Are Meningococcal Quadrivalent Vaccines
Meningococcal quadrivalent vaccines protect against 4 types of meningococcal bacteria: types A, C, Y and W-135. The vaccines are either polysaccharide or conjugate vaccines. While both types of vaccines are approved by Health Canada, the conjugate vaccines are used in B.C. because they provide longer lasting protection against disease.
How Are Cvs Pharmacy And Minuteclinic Different
At the pharmacy, vaccinations for adolescents through seniors are administered by certified immunizationâtrained pharmacist. Age and state restrictions apply. No appointment necessary.
At MinuteClinic, vaccinations for children through seniors are administered by a nurse practicioner. View wait times and schedule a visit online, or walk in anytime.
CVS Pharmacy and MinuteClinic also at Target
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What Are The Risks From Meningococcal Vaccines
Most people have mild side effects from the vaccine, such as redness or pain where the shot was given. A vaccine, like any medicine, may cause serious problems, such as severe allergic reactions. This risk is extremely small. Getting the meningococcal vaccine is much safer than getting the disease.
You can learn more on the Vaccine Information Statements for meningococcal ACWY and meningococcal B.
Immunogenicity Of Monovalent Serogroup C Vaccines
Meningococcal serogroup C vaccines were introduced in the UK in 1999 in response to high rates of serogroup C disease caused by a virulent clone . The safety and immunogenicity of the three different MCC vaccines in children and adults have been demonstrated in several studies, and there are no substantial differences in effectiveness between the vaccine types. Ninety-eight percent of infants develop rSBA titers 8, the putative correlate of protection, following a three-dose series at 2, 3, and 4 months of age.,, Similar immune responses are seen following a two-dose series at 3 and 5 months as well as a single dose in older children and adults.,
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Who Needs A Meningococcal Vaccine
The CDC recommends a meningococcal vaccine for:
- All children ages 11-18 or certain younger high-risk children
- Anyone who has been exposed to meningitis during an outbreak
- Anyone traveling to or living where meningitis is common, such as in sub-Saharan Africa
- Military recruits
- People with certain immune system disorders or a damaged or missing spleen
What Is Meningococcal Disease
Meningococcal disease can refer to any illness caused by a type of bacteria called Neisseria meningitidis, also known as meningococcus . Meningococcal disease is not very common in the United States, but teens and young adults are at increased risk.
The two most common types of infections are
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Medical Definition Of Meningitis Vaccine
- Medical Editor: Jay W. Marks, MD
Reviewed on 6/3/2021
Meningitis vaccine: This term usually refers to a vaccine used to prevent meningococcal meningitis, an inflammation of the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord due to bacterial infection by Neisseria meningitidis.
The CDC’s Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices in 1999 made a unanimous recommendation that college freshmen be vaccinated against this type of bacterial meningitis.
A study published in The Journal of the American Medical Association showed that college students who live on campus have triple the risk of acquiring meningococcal infection compared with their peers who live off-campus. Among the factors cited for a higher risk of the disease on campus were the relative crowding associated with dormitory residence, alcohol-related behaviors, and exposure to tobacco smoke. The same factors make young adults who are military recruits at higher risk for meningococcal meningitis and provide the basis for recommendations that they, too, receive the vaccine.
The vaccine is generally effective against most strains of the bacteria affecting college students in the U.S. . Protection by the vaccine lasts at least 3 years. A booster is not needed in college
Who Should Not Get A Meningococcal Vaccine
Your preteen or teen shouldn’t get the meningococcal vaccine if they:
- Has had a severe, life-threatening allergic reaction to a meningococcal vaccine before or to any vaccine component
- Is moderately or severely ill
- Has ever had Guillain-Barre syndrome
Pregnant women can get the meningococcal vaccine, but it’s only recommended for those with certain immune problems or those likely to be exposed to meningitis. With the newer MCV4 and MenB vaccines, there hasn’t been as much study in pregnant women compared to the MPSV4 vaccine.
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What Is Acceptable Evidence Of Vaccination
Documentation must be in English, state the name and other information sufficient to identify the individual who received the required vaccination, state the month, date and year the vaccine was administered.
Meningococcal Vaccine: Canadian Immunization Guide
For health professionals
Latest partial content update :
: The chapter has been updated to align with the National Advisory Committee on Immunization Statement : The Use of Bivalent Factor H Binding Protein Meningococcal Serogroup B Vaccine for the Prevention of Meningococcal B Disease.
MenB-fHBP vaccine may be considered as an option for use in individuals 10 years of age and older in situations when a serogroup B meningococcal vaccine should be offered:
MenB-fHBP vaccine may be considered as an option for individuals 1025 years of age who are not at higher risk of meningococcal disease than the general population, but who wish to reduce their risk of invasive serogroup B meningococcal disease.
Last complete chapter revision: May 2015
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What If There Is A Severe Reaction
What should I look for?
Look for anything that concerns you, such as signs of a severe allergic reaction, very high fever, or unusual behavior. Signs of a severe allergic reaction can include hives, swelling of the face and throat, difficulty breathing, a fast heartbeat, dizziness, and weakness– usually within a few minutes to a few hours after the vaccination.
What should I do?
If you think it is a severe allergic reaction or other emergency that can’t wait, call 9-1-1 or get to the nearest hospital. Otherwise, call your doctor.
Afterward, the reaction should be reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System . Your doctor should file this report, or you can do it yourself through the VAERS web site at , or by calling .
VAERS does not give medical advice.
Advisory Committee On Immunization Practices Recommendations
Adolescents All adolescents 11-18 years of age without contraindications should receive two doses of meningococcal conjugate vaccine , routinely given at 11 or 12 years of age and a booster at 16 years of age. Adolescents who receive a first dose after their 16th birthday do not need a booster dose unless they become at increased risk for meningococcal disease. All Age Groups Vaccination to prevent meningococcal disease is also recommended for all persons starting at 9 months of age who are at increased risk for meningococcal disease . Serogroup B meningococcal vaccine is recommended for all persons starting at 10 years of age who are at increased risk for serogroup B meningococcal disease . Adolescents and young adults aged 1623 years may also receive this vaccine, even if they are not at increased risk .For More Information Immunization schedules:
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Immunogenicity Of Quadrivalent Serogroup A C Y W
Two quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccines are licensed in the US . While these vaccines are often recommended and used for protection against serogroup A in travelers, the US is the only country that employs a routine program of immunization due to the proportion of meningococcal disease caused by serogroup Y.
Prelicensure trials for MenACWYD demonstrated the safety and immunologic noninferiority to quadrivalent polysaccharide vaccine. At 28 days after a single dose, a similar high proportion of 11- to 18-year-old subjects achieved at least a four-fold rise in rSBA titers, and the proportion achieving rSBA of 128 was > 98% for all serogroups for both vaccines. Comparable results were demonstrated for adults ages 18 through 55 years, with > 97% rSBA 128 for all serogroups for both vaccines. High rates of protective rSBA titers 128 were also demonstrated in children aged 210 years with levels varying depending on the serogroup .
Who Should Get The Meningococcal Quadrivalent Conjugate Vaccine
The vaccine is provided free to children in grade 9.
The vaccine is also provided free to children and adults at high risk of meningococcal disease, including those who have:
- no spleen, or a spleen that is not working properly
- immune system disorders including complement, properdin or factor D deficiencies, or primary antibody deficiency
- an islet cell or solid organ transplant, or those who are waiting for one
- had a stem cell transplant
- been in close contact with a person with meningococcal A, Y or W-135 disease, or who are determined by public health to be at risk of infection with these during an outbreak in B.C.
The vaccine is recommended, but not provided free, for the following people:
- laboratory workers routinely exposed to meningococcal bacteria
- military personnel and
- those living or travelling in a high risk area for meningococcal disease.
For information on high risk travel areas contact a travel clinic.
The vaccine is usually given as 1 dose. Some people may need additional doses of the vaccine. Speak with your health care provider to find out if you need additional doses and when you should get them.
People who are not eligible for the free vaccine but want to be protected against meningococcal A, C, Y and W-135 strains of the disease can purchase the quadrivalent vaccine at most travel clinics and pharmacies.
It is important to keep a record of all immunizations received.
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Are Both Meningococcal Vaccines Equally Effective
The MCV4, MPSV4 and MenB vaccines are about 85-90% effective in preventing meningococcal disease. There are actually several types of N meningitidis — the bacterium that causes meningococcal disease, five of which are common in the U.S. These vaccines together protect against all five of these strains.
MCV4 has not been available long enough to compare the long-term effectiveness of the two vaccines. But most experts think that MCV4 provides better, longer-lasting protection.
What Are The Possible Side Effects Of Meningococcal Vaccines
Some of the most common side effects are swelling, redness, and pain at the site of the injection, along with headache, fever, or tiredness. Serious problems, such as allergic reactions, are rare.
The meningococcal vaccines contains only a small piece of the germ, so it can’t cause meningococcal disease.
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People With Medical Conditions That Increase Their Risk Of Invasive Meningococcal Disease
People with medical conditions specified in List. Specified medical conditions associated with increased risk of invasive meningococcal disease are strongly recommended to receive MenACWY and MenB vaccines.
- a full primary course of MenACWY vaccine, with ongoing booster doses
- a full primary course of MenB vaccine
People with these specific medical conditions have a higher risk of invasive meningococcal disease. They are recommended to receive extra doses compared with people who do not have these conditions.
The number of doses needed depends on the vaccine brand used and the persons age when they start the vaccine course.
For people aged 2 years receiving MenACWY vaccine, it is preferable to receive either Menveo or Nimenrix, rather than Menactra. If Menveo and Nimenrix are unavailable, Menactra can be given.
There is no preference for either Bexsero or Trumenba for people aged 10 years. For people aged < 10 years, Bexsero is the only registered MenB vaccine available in Australia.
Bexsero and Trumenba are not interchangeable. The same vaccine should be used for both vaccine doses.
Regular booster doses are required for MenACWY vaccines, but not for MenB vaccines.
For more details see:
People who have previously received a meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine
Menveo Nimenrix And Menactra
The product information for Menveo, Nimenrix and Menactra states that vaccine should be administered as a single dose to people aged 2 years.
ATAGI recommends that these vaccines can be given in a 2- or 3-dose primary schedule to people aged 2 years who are at increased risk of invasive meningococcal disease according to Table. Recommendations for MenACWY vaccine for people with a specified medical condition that increases their risk of invasive meningococcal disease.
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Meningococcal Vaccine Programs And Vaccine Effectiveness
Since routine meningococcal vaccination was introduced in the UK in 1999, vaccination programs have expanded across Europe, Australia, and North America . These programs have been implemented using various schedules and target age groups.,,,, In general, vaccine effectiveness estimates have paralleled immunogenicity data, but the observed public health impact of these programs is likely a combination of the vaccines used, the target age groups, and the recommended schedule. While some countries have implemented routine recommendations for a specific age group, others have implemented catch-up campaigns in addition to routine recommendations, more rapidly achieving high vaccine coverage and population protection. Differences in circulating strain diversity may also contribute to varying vaccine effectiveness, and postlicensure studies have demonstrated the importance of reduction in carriage and herd immunity.