Who Is At Risk For Meningococcal Disease
Meningococcal disease can affect people at any age. Certain groups seem to be at increased risk of contracting the disease including those in close contact with a known case, patients with compromised immunity, and persons traveling to specific endemic areas of Asia, Africa, or South America.
Since 1991, cases of meningococcal disease among 15-24 year olds have more than doubled. Recent evidence found students residing on campus in dormitories appear to be at higher risk for meningococcal disease. The highest risk appeared to be in freshmen living in dormitories, who seemed to have a six times higher risk than college students overall. Data also suggests that certain social behaviors such as exposure to passive and active smoking, bar patronage, and excessive alcohol consumption may increase students’ risk for contracting the disease.
Simultaneous Administration With Other Vaccines
Men-C-C and 4CMenB vaccine may be administered concomitantly with routine childhood vaccines, and Men-C-ACYW vaccine may be administered concomitantly with adolescent and adult age appropriate vaccines. MenB-fHBP can be given concomitantly with quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine meningococcal serogroup A, C, Y, W conjugate vaccine and tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccine adsorbed. The concomitant administration of MenB-fHBP has not been studied with other vaccines.
Men-C-ACYW-CRM can be administered with routine paediatric vaccines however, further studies are needed with regard to concomitant administration with pneumococcal 13-valent conjugate vaccine. Co-administration of Men-C-ACYW-CRM and combined tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccine may result in a lower immune response to the pertussis antigens than when Tdap vaccine is given alone however, the clinical significance of this is unknown. Tdap vaccine given one month after Men-C-ACYW-CRM induces the strongest immunologic response to pertussis antigens.
If vaccines are to be administered concomitantly with another vaccine, a separate injection site and a different syringe must be used for each injection.
Refer to Timing of Vaccine Administration in Part 1 for additional general information.
What Is Meningococcal Disease
Meningococcal disease can refer to any illness caused by a type of bacteria called Neisseria meningitidis, also known as meningococcus . Meningococcal disease is not very common in the United States, but teens and young adults are at increased risk.
The two most common types of infections are
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Schedule For Children Who Are More Likely To Get Meningitis
Younger kids will need a vaccine if they’re at a greater risk of getting meningitis because they:
- Have complement component deficiency, a rare immune system disease
- Have spleen damage or had their spleen removed
- Live in an area that had a meningitis outbreak
- Take drugs that affect their immune system
- Travel to a country where meningitis is common
For these cases, doctors strongly recommend MenACWY for kids ages 2 months to 10 years. The number of doses and boosters your child needs depends on their health, age, and how long they stay at risk for the disease. For example, a child with spleen damage will be at risk longer than someone who travels for a week to a country where meningitis is common. Check with your doctor to find out what your child needs.
Doctors also recommend that kids ages 10 and older with these risks get the standard doses of MenB.
Ingredients In Menb Vaccines
Meningitis B vaccines, like Bexero and Trumenba, are made up of three proteins found on the surface of one subtype of the Neisseria meningitidis bacteria. The specific proteins differ, depending on whether you receive Bexsero or Trumenba.
These vaccine contains very small amounts of other ingredients, like aluminum hydroxide, sucrose , histidine , and sodium chloride .
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Who Shouldn’t Get Vaccinated
According to the CDC, some people should speak to their healthcare provider before receiving a meningococcal vaccine. Specifically, people who have had life-threatening allergic reactions to meningococcal vaccines or their ingredients should not receive it.
Growing evidence suggests that it is safe for pregnant people to receive a MenACWY vaccine. The CDC notes that pregnancy shouldn’t preclude a person from seeking a MenACWY vaccine and that they should contact a healthcare provider for more information.
As for MenB vaccines, the CDC notes that there have been no randomized controlled trials evaluating this vaccine’s safety for pregnant or lactating people. The agency suggests that vaccination can wait until after this period. But if the person is at increased risk of meningococcal disease, a vaccine should still be considered.
What Are The Risks From Meningococcal Vaccine
Most people have mild side effects from the vaccine, such as redness or pain where the shot was given. A vaccine, like any medicine, may cause serious problems, such as severe allergic reactions. This risk is extremely small. Getting the meningococcal vaccine is much safer than getting the disease.
You can learn more on the Vaccine Information Statements for meningococcal ACWY and meningococcal B.
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Where Can I Find These Vaccines
Your doctor is usually the best place to receive recommended vaccines for you or your child. These vaccines are part of the routine childhood immunization schedule. Therefore, vaccines for children and teens are regularly available at
- Pediatric and family practice offices
- Community health clinics
If your doctor does not have these vaccines for adults, ask for a referral.
Vaccines may also be available at
- Health departments
- Other community locations, such as schools and religious centers
You can also contact your state health department to learn more about where to get vaccines in your community.
When receiving any vaccine, ask the provider to record the vaccine in the state or local vaccine registry, if available. This helps providers at future visits know what vaccines you or your child have already received.
Are Both Meningococcal Vaccines Equally Effective
The MCV4, MPSV4 and MenB vaccines are about 85-90% effective in preventing meningococcal disease. There are actually several types of N meningitidis — the bacterium that causes meningococcal disease, five of which are common in the U.S. These vaccines together protect against all five of these strains.
MCV4 has not been available long enough to compare the long-term effectiveness of the two vaccines. But most experts think that MCV4 provides better, longer-lasting protection.
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Submitting Proof Of Vaccination
Do not submit your vaccination proof to Undergraduate Admissions or the Student Health Center.
Texas State uses Magnus Health SMR for managing compliance with the meningitis vaccination requirement. New students planning to enroll at Texas State must submit proof of meningitis vaccination directly to Magnus Health SMR. Students subject to the bacterial meningitis requirement will receive an email from Magnus Health SMR with instructions. Students will be charged $10 by Magnus Health SMR for processing the documents and verifying compliance with the vaccination requirement. Acceptable evidence of vaccination may include any of the following:
- An official immunization record from a government health authority .
- An official immunization record received from school officials, including a record from another state .
- Students using a pharmacy should download and provide the pharmacist with the generic immunization form available on the Magnus website, once they have paid their processing fee, to ensure they receive an approvable document from the pharmacist . H-E-B customers should request their Vaccine Administration Consent Form for submission to Magnus.
- All records must be in English to be approved.
What Is The Clinical Manifestation Of Meningitis
Meningitis is a severe infection that gets caused by various pathogens that include fungi, viruses, and bacteria. Many diverse bacteria can give rise to meningitis. N. meningitides causes meningococcal meningitis, and it has the probability to create huge epidemics. Meningococcal meningitis is capable of affecting any person regardless of his age. Commonly, it affects babies, young people, and pre-school children. This disease does occur in many situations beginning from sporadic cases to huge epidemics all through the world.
Geographical distribution differs based on serogroup. The huge burden of some meningococcal meningitis happens in the belt of meningitis. N. meningitidis can give rise to various diseases. IMD or Invasive meningococcal disease is referred to the assortment of some invasive diseases that N. meningitidis causes, and it includes meningitis, arthritis, and septicemia. In the same way, S. pneumoniae causes some invasive diseases that include pneumonia and otitis.
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Guidance On Reporting Adverse Events Following Immunization
To ensure the ongoing safety of vaccines in Canada, reporting of AEFIs by vaccine providers and other clinicians is critical, and in some jurisdictions, reporting is mandatory under the law.
Vaccine providers are asked to report AEFIs, through local public health officials, and to check for specific AEFI reporting requirements in their province or territory. In general, any serious or unexpected adverse event felt to be temporally related to vaccination should be reported.
For additional information about AEFI reporting, please refer to Adverse events following immunization. For general vaccine safety information, refer to Vaccine safety and pharmacovigilance in Part 2.
What Are The Symptoms Of Meningitis
The symptoms of meningitis in very small children and babies include:
- purple-red skin rash or bruising
- muscle and joint pains
The signs and symptoms do not appear in a definite order and some may not appear at all. Not all cases of meningitis will cause a rash.
This symptoms list does not include every possible sign and symptom of meningitis.
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What Are The Side Effects Of Meningococcal Vaccines
Mild side effects happen in about half those who get the vaccine. They may include redness or pain where the skin was injected. These side effects last no longer than 1 or 2 days.
Serious side effects are rare and can include high fever, weakness, and changes in behavior.
Severe allergic reactions may happen within minutes or hours of having the vaccination. These are signs of an allergic reaction:
Can You Please Tell Me What The Difference Is Between These Two Vaccines: Prevnar And Menjugate And Menactra
Prevnar is the brand name for the vaccine against a bacteria called pneumococcus. Pneumococcus is a major cause of meningitis and also caused other infections such as pneumonia. It is also the major cause of ear infections in children. Prevnar is composed of 7 separate vaccines against the 7 most common strains of pneumococcus.
Menjugate C is the brand name for the vaccine used in infants against a bacteria called meningococcus, group C. Group C strains of meningococcus cause meningitis and blood stream infections. Two other similar vaccines are available in Canada: NeissVac-C and Meningitech.
Menactra is the brand name for the new vaccine against groups A, C, Y, and W135 strains of the meningococcus. It is approved for use in children 2 years and older, adolescents, and adults.
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How Are The Bacteria Spread
These bacteria are passed from person-to-person through saliva . You must be in close contact with an infected persons saliva in order for the bacteria to spread. Close contact includes activities such as kissing, sharing water bottles, sharing eating/drinking utensils or sharing cigarettes with someone who is infected or being within 3-6 feet of an infected person who is coughing or sneezing.
Who Needs To Get Vaccinated For Meningitis
Its especially important for you to keep all of your meningitis vaccinations up-to-date if you fall into a high-risk category for getting the disease. High-risk categories include:
- Certain Ages. Infants less than one-year-old and young adults between the ages of 16 and 21 are the most likely to develop meningitis. Its most important to have all boosters and available vaccinations at these ages.
- Crowded Settings. Large group settings like college campuses are where outbreaks of meningitis are the most common. Get your vaccines up-to-date before entering into these settings for extended periods of time.
- Certain underlying conditions. Some underlying medical conditions can increase your chance of getting meningitis. These include HIV and other conditions that weaken your immune system. Not having a spleen also places you at higher risk.
- Work that involves meningitis-causing agents. Microbiologists and any other researchers that regularly come into contact with the bacteria and viruses that cause meningitis are consistently at risk.
- Travel to certain areas. Some areas in the world like sub-Saharan Africa have higher rates of meningitis and the pathogens that cause it. Check with your doctor before traveling to new parts of the world.
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Acwy Vaccination Is Free For Some People
In Victoria, immunisation against meningococcal serogroups A, C, W and Y is available for free as part of the National Immunisation Program schedule for:
- children aged 12 months
- children from 13 months to under 20 years of age, who did not have their meningococcal C vaccine at 12 months
- young people in Year 10 of secondary school
- young people not in secondary school, aged 15 to 19 years.
Young people in the 15 to 19 years age group are more likely to spread the disease to others. One in five people in this age group carry the bacteria that cause meningococcal disease. Immunisation experts have advised that immunising this age group can prevent spread to other age groups and protect the wider community.
Eligible young people who are away from school on the day the vaccine was given, or who do not attend secondary school, can attend either a local government community immunisation session, or a general practitioner to receive the free meningococcal ACWY vaccine. The GP may charge a consultation fee.
Contact your local government to find out when and where immunisation sessions are held.
- People with specified medical risk conditions can also receive free meningococcal ACWY vaccine. This includes people with:
- a poorly functioning spleen or no spleen, including sickle cell disease or other haemoglobinopathies
- defects in, or a deficiency of, a complement component, including factor H, factor D or properdin deficiency
- current or future treatment with eculizumab .
Shouldnt Meningococcal B Vaccine Be Required
CDCs Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices has reviewed the available data regarding serogroup B meningococcal disease and the vaccines. At the current time, there is no routine recommendation and no statewide requirement for meningococcal B vaccination before going to college . As noted previously, adolescents and young adults may be vaccinated with a serogroup B meningococcal vaccine, preferably at 16 through 18 years of age, to provide short term protection against most strains of serogroup B meningococcal disease. This would be a decision between a healthcare provider and a patient. These policies may change as new information becomes available.
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Is There A Vaccine For Meningitis
Yes, there is a vaccine for several types of bacterial meningitis. Meningococcal meningitis, caused by Neisseria meningitidis, is one version for which vaccines are available. While viral meningitis is more common, bacterial meningitis can be more dangerous if its not diagnosed and treated quickly.
For that reason, the two primary vaccines for meningitis are for bacterial causes. The first vaccine, the meningococcal conjugate vaccine, features a vaccine that targets four of the most common types of bacterial serotypes. It lasts longer and offers greater protection, especially if you maintain booster shots.
The second vaccine, MenB, targets one specific strain, and its protection window is much shorter. Only certain populations are recommended to get this vaccine.
Side effects of a meningitis vaccine include soreness, redness, and burning at the injection site. Some people may experience a low-grade fever for a day or two following the injection. Chills, headache, joint pain, and fatigue are also possible.
Why Are Meningococcal Vaccines Recommended
Meningococcal disease is caused by a type of bacteria. It can lead to an infection of the bloodstream or meningitis, or both, and can be life-threatening if not quickly treated. The MenACWY vaccine is very effective at protecting against four strains of the bacteria, while the MenB vaccine protects against a fifth strain.
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When To Get Vaccinations Against Viral Causes Of Meningitis
Unfortunately, there isnt a vaccine for the most common cause of viral meningitis called non-polio enteroviruses. In rare cases, other kinds of viral infections can lead to meningitis. These viral infections have vaccines that are available in the U.S. They include:
The vaccinations for these infections all have their own schedule for when you should get them the most frequent being your yearly flu shot. Measles and mumps vaccinations are first completed around the age of six then need to be updated in adolescence and adulthood. Talk to your doctor to make sure that youre up-to-date with your vaccinations.
Where Can I Get Vaccinated
The best place to go for vaccinations is your family medical clinic. They have your medical records and can check to see if youve already had a particular vaccination. Either your doctor or a nurse can give the vaccination.If you dont have a family doctor, you can go to one of the after-hour medical clinics. Ring them first to make sure they can help you with the vaccination you need.You can find a clinic near you on the Healthpoint website. Put in your address and region, and under Select a service, click on GPs/Accident & Urgent Medical Care.Vaccines on the National Immunisation Schedule are free. Other vaccines are funded only for people at particular risk of disease. You can choose to pay for vaccines that you are not eligible to receive for free.
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