Vaccination Vs Immunization Vs Inoculation
The World Health Organization says vaccination and immunization are related terms. But one describes a specific action. The other describes a process.
- Vaccination: The use of vaccines to stimulate your immune system to protect you against infection or disease
- Immunization: The process of making you immune or resistant to an infectious disease, typically via vaccination
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention offers similar definitions:
- Vaccination:The act of introducing a vaccine to give you immunity to a specific disease
- Immunization: The process by which vaccination protects you from a disease
You can become immunized to a disease by being exposed to the disease-causing organism and developing antibodies to fight it. But in modern usage, immunization almost always means immunity by vaccination, not by natural infection.
The term inoculation is often used as a synonym for vaccination or immunization.
The term was first coined in the 18th century. It described variolationintroducing a small amount of pus from someone with smallpox into the body of someone without it.
Today, though, the term almost always means immunity through vaccination. So it’s basically the same as immunization.
Effect On Other Diseases And The Pharmacy Trade
There was a report on 3 March 2021, that social distancing and common wearing of surgical masks and similar as a common precaution against COVID-19 caused a drop in the spread rate of the common cold and flu. So much so, that in Britain the sale of cough liquids and throat lozenges and from 30 November 2020 to 21 February 2021, was about a half of the sale a year earlier. Public Health England reported no cases of flu in the year 2021 to date, and that there was an 89% rise in sales of Vitamin D to try to boost immunity.
What Is A Vaccine Delivery System
A vaccine delivery system is the means by which the immune-stimulating agent constituting the vaccine is packaged and administered into the human body to ensure that the vaccine reaches the desired tissue. Examples of vaccine delivery systems include liposomes, emulsions, and microparticles.
vaccine, suspension of weakened, killed, or fragmented microorganisms or toxins or other biological preparation, such as those consisting of antibodies, lymphocytes, or messenger RNA , that is administered primarily to prevent disease.
A vaccine can confer active immunity against a specific harmful agent by stimulating the immune system to attack the agent. Once stimulated by a vaccine, the antibody-producing cells, called B cells , remain sensitized and ready to respond to the agent should it ever gain entry to the body. A vaccine may also confer passive immunity by providing antibodies or lymphocytes already made by an animal or human donor. Vaccines are usually administered by injection , but some are given orally or even nasally . Vaccines applied to mucosal surfaces, such as those lining the gut or nasal passages, seem to stimulate a greater antibody response and may be the most effective route of administration.
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Is It Time To Change The Definition Of Fully Vaccinated
By Victoria KnightDecember 3, 2021
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Viral And Host Factors
Multiple viral and host factors affect the pathogenesis of the virus. The S-protein, otherwise known as the spike protein, is the viral component that attaches to the host receptor via the ACE2 receptors. It includes two subunits: S1 and S2. S1 determines the virus-host range and cellular tropism via the receptor-binding domain. S2 mediates the membrane fusion of the virus to its potential cell host via the H1 and HR2, which are heptad repeat regions. Studies have shown that S1 domain induced IgG and IgA antibody levels at a much higher capacity. It is the focus spike proteins expression that are involved in many effective COVID-19 vaccines.
The M protein is the viral protein responsible for the transmembrane transport of nutrients. It is the cause of the bud release and the formation of the viral envelope. The N and E protein are accessory proteins that interfere with the host’s immune response.
Human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 is the host factor that SARS-COV2 virus targets causing COVID-19. Theoretically, the usage of angiotensin receptor blockers and ACE inhibitors upregulating ACE2 expression might increase morbidity with COVID-19, though animal data suggest some potential protective effect of ARB however no clinical studies have proven susceptibility or outcomes. Until further data is available, guidelines and recommendations for hypertensive patients remain.
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History And Etymology For Vaccine
earlier, “fluid from cowpox pustules used in inoculation,” noun use of vaccine“of cowpox” , borrowed from New Latin vaccina , going back to Latin, feminine of vaccnus“of or from a cow,” from vacca“cow” + -nus-ine entry 1 in extended sense, “preparation of organisms administered to produce immunity,” in part borrowed from French vaccin, masculine derivative of vaccine“cowpox, matter from cowpox pustules,” borrowed from New Latin or English
What Is In Vaccines
Some vaccines contain a very small dose of a live but weakened form of a virus. Some vaccines contain a very small dose of killed bacteria or small parts of bacteria, and other vaccines contain a small dose of a modified toxin produced by bacteria.
Vaccines may also contain either a small amount of preservative or a small amount of an antibiotic to preserve the vaccine. Some vaccines may also contain a small amount of an aluminium salt, which helps produce a better immune response.
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Definition Of Fully Vaccinated Could Change According To Dr Fauci
The definition of fully vaccinated for COVID-19 could change. Thats according to the nations leading infectious disease expert, Dr. Anthony Fauci.
Currently, the term fully vaccinated means that a person has received two doses of the mRNA COVID-19 vaccine either from Pfizer or Moderna. Or, theyve gotten Johnson & Johnsons one-shot dose. Now Dr. Fauci said that this definition could – and I quote -without a doubt change and that a full and complete regimen for COVID-19 could potentially be defined as three doses of an mRNA vaccine or two doses of Johnson & Johnsons vaccine.
I believe the definition of fully vaccinated will evolve because of scientific evidence. Right now, research shows that our vaccines are waning.
The data initially showed the elderly were losing vaccine protection, but now were seeing it across all age groups. While most healthy people are protected against hospitalization and death, there are plenty of folks who are getting symptoms when infected. Older folks and those with underlying health conditions are now at high risk for severe disease. Thats why booster shots are recommended for people 18 and up.
Studies found they amp up virus-fighting antibodies and provide high protection rates against asymptomatic disease even from the highly contagious Delta variant. Its not surprising that the term fully vaccinated could be redefined in the future to include booster shots.
Additional Coronavirus information and resources:
Cdc Removes Critical Words From Vaccine Definition
To fully understand the importance of the change, its crucial to note that, before the COVID pandemic, the definition of a vaccine had been relatively stable for nearly a couple decades with minor word changes occurring every few years. All through that time the intent of a vaccine to give you immunity by protecting you from a specific disease had remained basically the same.
For example, according to an archived snapshot of the CDCs website, the definition of a vaccine February 24, 2011, was:7
A product that produces immunity therefore protecting the body from the disease. Vaccines are administered through needle injections, by mouth and by aerosol.
A product that stimulates a persons immune system to a specific disease, protecting the person from that disease. Vaccines are usually administered through needle injections, but can also be administered by mouth or sprayed in the nose.
The wording was the same in June 20179 and likewise in June 201910 and June 2020.11 By August 26, 2021,12 however, the definition had changed slightly to add the words to produce immunity:13
A product that stimulates a persons immune system to produce immunity to a specific disease, protecting the person from that disease. Vaccines are usually administered through needle injections but can also be administered by mouth or sprayed into the nose.
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How Many Covid Vaccine Doses Do You Need To Be Considered ‘fully Vaccinated’
According to the CDC, you’re fully vaccinated two weeks after you receive the second dose of the Moderna or Pfizer vaccine, or two weeks after a single dose of Johnson & Johnson’s vaccine.
The CDC also considers you fully vaccinated if you received any single-dose vaccine listed for emergency use by the World Health Organization or any combination of the two-dose vaccines approved by the Food and Drug Administration or listed by the WHO for emergency use.
What About If You Got The Johnson & Johnson Vaccine
This week, the CDC recommended people get one of the mRNA vaccines — Moderna’s or Pfizer’s COVID-19 vaccine — instead of Johnson & Johnson’s. The recommendation came a few days after a preliminary study out of South Africa suggested the Johnson & Johnson COVID vaccine may produce “virtually no antibody protection,” against omicron, Bloomberg News reported.
CNET reached out to Johnson & Johnson for a comment but didn’t immediately get a response.
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Webster Dictionary Changes Defenition Of Vaccine
November 7, 2021 by Sage EdwardsLast updated on: November 7, 2021
For decades the definition of vaccine had remained the same according to the Webster Dictionary. Earlier this year Webster changed the definition.
For decades the definition of Vaccine had been: A preparation of killed microorganisms, living attenuated organisms or living fully virulent organisms that is administered to produce or artificially increase immunity to a particular disease
The definition now reads a preparation that is administered to stimulate the bodys immune response against a specific infectious agent or disease: such as a: an antigenic preparation of a typically inactivated or attenuated pathogenic agent or one of its components or products
Additionally, the definition of the word anti-vaxxer was changed. The definition now reads A person who opposes the use of vaccines or regulations mandating vaccination
While the term anti-vaxxer has always been extremely controversial and politicized, it appears that anyone who opposes the covid-19 vaccine, or mandates in any way is now considered anti-vaxx.
Vaccines And Immunization: What Is Vaccination
Vaccination is a simple, safe, and effective way of protecting you against harmful diseases, before you come into contact with them. It uses your bodys natural defenses to build resistance to specific infections and makes your immune system stronger.
Vaccines train your immune system to create antibodies, just as it does when its exposed to a disease. However, because vaccines contain only killed or weakened forms of germs like viruses or bacteria, they do not cause the disease or put you at risk of its complications.
Most vaccines are given by an injection, but some are given orally or sprayed into the nose.
Vaccines reduce risks of getting a disease by working with your bodys natural defenses to build protection. When you get a vaccine, your immune system responds. It:
Recognizes the invading germ, such as the virus or bacteria.
Produces antibodies. Antibodies are proteins produced naturally by the immune system to fight disease.
Remembers the disease and how to fight it. If you are then exposed to the germ in the future, your immune system can quickly destroy it before you become unwell.
The vaccine is therefore a safe and clever way to produce an immune response in the body, without causing illness.
If you have missed any recommended vaccinations for you or your child, talk to your healthcare worker about catching up.
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If The Definition Changes How Does That Work
Like so much else since the pandemic started, expect a period of confusion as a patchwork of local, national and international governments evolve at different speeds. Any places that have so far required proof of vaccination offices, schools, airlines, concerts, sporting events, entire countries are likely to soon face questions about how and when to change the rules for admission.
Businesses are already facing uncertainty amid challenges to existing vaccine mandates, and the addition of boosters along with rapidly rising case counts have further confused things.
At BlackRock, an investment management company, the vaccination requirement at its New York offices has not evolved to include booster shots, Brian Beades, a company spokesman, said on Monday. But, as with vaccination policies around the world, he said, people are thinking about new considerations all the time.
Elian Peltier contributed reporting.
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Transmission And Prevention Research
Modelling research has been conducted with several objectives, including predictions of the dynamics of transmission, diagnosis and prognosis of infection, estimation of the impact of interventions, or allocation of resources. Modelling studies are mostly based on compartmental models in epidemiology, estimating the number of infected people over time under given conditions. Several other types of models have been developed and used during the COVID-19 including computational fluid dynamics models to study the flow physics of COVID-19, retrofits of crowd movement models to study occupant exposure, mobility-data based models to investigate transmission, or the use of macroeconomic models to assess the economic impact of the pandemic. Further, conceptual frameworks from crisis management research have been applied to better understand the effects of COVID-19 on organizations worldwide.
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This Was Always Going To Change
As it became clear that the immunity conferred by the initial rounds of vaccines was waning, Israel announced in October that it would make a booster dose a requirement for its vaccine passport. It was believed to be the first country to do so, though it wouldnt be the last.
Some of the E.U.s member nations, like Austria, had already enacted an expiration date for their residents. In France, where the certificates expire seven months after a second dose, all adults have until Jan. 15 to receive a booster, or their passes will no longer allow them access to places like restaurants and museums.
Why Would The Definition Of ‘fully Vaccinated’ Change From Two Doses Of The Mrna Vaccines To Three
This month, as preliminary studies showed omicron’s ability to infect those who are considered fully vaccinated, the definition began shifting, if not formally, then practically, from two doses of the Pfizer and Moderna COVID vaccine to three.
“As far as I’m concerned — I make it very clear — if you want to be optimally protected, get boosted,” Fauci said Sunday on CNN’s State of the Union, when asked if three shots will become the standard.
Robert Wachter, chair of the University of California, San Francisco’s department of medicine, said he thinks the definition change is coming soon. “It’s increasingly clear that if you have three shots, you’re in pretty good shape,” Wachter said during an online discussion about COVID-19 hosted by the San Francisco Chronicle on Dec. 10.
“I think we will stop calling people with two shots fully vaccinated within a week or two,” he said. “Omicron is going to make that case quite vividly.”
How many shots to be protected from omicron?
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Face Masks And Respiratory Hygiene
The WHO and the US CDC recommend individuals wear non-medical face coverings in public settings where there is an increased risk of transmission and where social distancing measures are difficult to maintain. This recommendation is meant to reduce the spread of the disease by asymptomatic and pre-symptomatic individuals and is complementary to established preventive measures such as social distancing. Face coverings limit the volume and travel distance of expiratory droplets dispersed when talking, breathing, and coughing. A face covering without vents or holes will also filter out particles containing the virus from inhaled and exhaled air, reducing the chances of infection. But, if the mask include an exhalation valve, a wearer that is infected would transmit the virus outwards through it, despite any certification they can have. So the masks with exhalation valve are not for the infected wearers, and are not reliable to stop the pandemic in a large scale. Many countries and local jurisdictions encourage or mandate the use of face masks or cloth face coverings by members of the public to limit the spread of the virus.
As Omicron Spreads Officials Ponder What It Means To Be Fully Vaccinated
The contagious new variant has companies and government officials wondering whether Americans can really be considered vaccinated without booster shots.
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Goldman Sachs and Jefferies, the investment banks, are demanding that employees get booster shots. The University of Oregon and other institutions are requiring that students and staff members get boosters. New York State has said it plans to stop considering residents fully vaccinated unless theyve gotten the shots.
As the highly transmissible Omicron variant spreads from coast to coast, corporations, schools, governments and even sports leagues are reconsidering what it means to be fully vaccinated.
Now federal health officials, too, have taken on the question. Although top policymakers want to encourage Americans to get three doses, some would like to avoid changing the definition of a phrase that has become pivotal to daily life in much of the country, according to officials who spoke on condition of anonymity to describe internal deliberations.
Dr. Rochelle P. Walensky, the C.D.C. director, said in an interview on Tuesday that she and other health officials were working through that question now.
The guidance has to change when the science changes, he added.
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