How To Soothe Baby After Vaccinations
“The impact of repeated pain during injections can lead even healthy babies to develop a fear of doctors and needles,” says Dr. Taddio. Proactive pain control can go a long way toward preventing medical phobias later on. Here are the best tactics for easing the pain of vaccines in babies.
Cuddling and Feeding
Studies have discovered an efficient strategy for reducing the pain of shots: hold your baby on your lap and let her nurse, drink a bottle, or suck on a pacifier dipped in a sugar-water solution. “Physical comfort, sweet taste, and sucking reduce pain in young children,” says Anna Taddio, Ph.D., professor of pharmacy at the University of Toronto, who researches pain reduction during vaccinations. “Often, babies are soothed so quickly by feeding that they stop crying before they even leave the exam room,” adds Wendy Sue Swanson, M.D., community pediatrician at Seattle Children’s Hospital.
Haemophilus Influenzae Type B
Although the name may sound similar, it is not the same as influenza . The disease most often occurs in children between 6 months and 5 years old. Symptoms include fever, seizures, vomiting, and a stiff neck.Vaccination: The first dose of the Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine is given at 2 months old with 2 or 3 more doses given in the following months.
How Does Immunisation Work
Immunisation is a simple, safe and effective way to protect children against certain diseases. The serious health risks of these diseases are far greater than the very small risks of immunisation.
Immunisation protects children against harmful infections before they come into contact with them in the community.
It uses the bodys natural defence mechanism the immune system to build resistance to specific infections. Generally it takes about 2 weeks after vaccination for the immune system to respond fully.
Vaccination is the term used for getting a vaccine that is, getting the injection or taking an oral vaccine dose. Immunisation refers to the process of both getting the vaccine and becoming immune to the disease after vaccination.
Learn more about the difference between vaccination and immunisation.
Vaccines for babies and young children are funded under the Department of Health’s National Immunisation Program.
In Australia, babies and children are immunised against the following diseases:
The hepatitis A vaccine is free for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children living in high-risk areas .
Children aged 6 months to under 5 years can have the flu vaccine for free each year. It is available in autumn. Children aged 12 to 13 should be vaccinated against human papillomavirus through their schools.
Most vaccines recommended in the program are given by injection. Some combine several vaccines in the one injection.
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What Do You Suggest Expecting Parents Do If Family Members Are Hesitantor Outright Refuseto Get Vaccinated
I personally take a strong stanceif a family member is not willing to get vaccinated, I dont let them near my children until my kids have been adequately vaccinated and are a bit older .
The issue of vaccines should be brought up the same way that an expecting parent speaks to family members about other illnesses.
Just as you would ask them to wash their hands, check themselves for signs/symptoms of illness , anyone wanting to be close to a newborn should be willing to vaccinate themselves against infections that could seriously harm the baby.
Why Its Important To Follow The Immunization Schedule
Itâs crucial that your child is protected from the diseases that vaccines help fight at the appropriate times. Sticking to the recommended immunization schedule is important to ensure your little one becomes or remains protected. Skipping or putting off vaccinations until later can leave your child vulnerable to dangerous diseases that a vaccine could easily have protected her against. Some of these diseases can make your little one very sick, and may require hospitalization in some cases the diseases may even result in death. Not vaccinating your child can also contribute to the spread of disease in your area.
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Haemophilus Influenzae Type B And Pneumococcus
Although these vaccines are not given together, both protect against bacteria that can make children younger than 2 years of age very sick with meningitis , pneumonia, or bloodstream infections. Young babies have a limited ability to make antibody responses to bacteria like Haemophilus influenzae type b , pneumococcus, and meningococcus.
Hib and pneumococcus were the most frequent causes of severe illness in young children before vaccines were available. Because of the limitations of making an immune response against them, vaccine technology had to be developed that could overcome this. Researchers found a solution by adding a harmless protein, called a conjugate protein, to the parts of the bacteria that cause disease. Healthcare providers were ecstatic when they had a way to protect babies from the illnesses caused by these two diseases.
Because meningococcus does not occur as frequently, only babies considered to be at highest risk typically receive a meningococcal vaccine in infancy.
Measles Mumps And Rubella Vaccination
- 2-dose series at 1215 months, 46 years
- Dose 2 may be administered as early as 4 weeks after dose 1.
- Unvaccinated children and adolescents: 2-dose series at least 4 weeks apart
- The maximum age for use of MMRV is 12 years.
- Infants age 611 months: 1 dose before departure revaccinate with 2-dose series at age 1215 months and dose 2 as early as 4 weeks later.
- Unvaccinated children age 12 months or older: 2-dose series at least 4 weeks apart before departure
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Newborn Vaccines Your Baby Needs
Is your baby protected from vaccine-preventable diseases? Here’s the newborn vaccine schedule recommended by the CDC and AAP for your baby’s first months of life.
Your baby will be given a handful of vaccines and supplements in the first months of life. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends the carefully-planned childhood vaccine schedule. Following the schedule in the coming months and years will put your infant on track for life-long immunity to dangerous diseases.
The vaccines recommended for your young baby are closely monitored by the CDC and the Food and Drug Administration for safety and effectiveness. Here are the vaccines that your baby will receive from birth through two months.
Benefits Of The Hepatitis B Vaccine
The main benefit of the vaccine is its effectiveness. The AAP note that if doctors give the first dose of the hepatitis B vaccine within 24 hours of the babys delivery, it is 75 to 95 percent effective in preventing the passage of hepatitis B from the birth mother to the baby.
If the newborn also receives the medication hepatitis B immune globulin at the correct time and a series of follow-up vaccines, the AAP estimate that the infection rate drops to between 0.7 and 1.1 percent.
For the best possible protection, the baby will need to complete the full series of vaccines.
state that the vaccine is very safe. The full series of the vaccine provides the highest possible level of protection from the infection.
Some people still express concern about the safety of vaccination. The reasons for this worry may vary.
Part of the fear may be due to older research. For example, a 2009 study indicated an association between the Engerix B vaccine, a specific type of hepatitis B vaccine, and an increased risk of damage to the central nervous system later in life.
However, the researchers note that this was the exception, not the rule. They also highlight the need for more studies to validate this finding.
On the whole, their research indicates that hepatitis B vaccination generally does not increase the risk of damage to the CNS.
The majority of research indicates that hepatitis B vaccines are a safe and effective way to prevent the infection.
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Do Vaccinations Have Risks Or Side Effects
Like any medicine, vaccinations can cause side effects. A side effect is an effect of a drug or treatment that is not the intended result. For example, a side effect of some cold medicines is that they make you sleepy. Most of the time, side effects from vaccinations are mild, go away on their own and last only a few days. Most side effects are a good sign that your babys immune system is building up protection against the disease he was vaccinated against. Your babys immune system helps protect him from infection.
Ask your babys provider about possible side effects of vaccinations, including:
- Low fever
- Redness, swelling or soreness at the spot where your baby got the shot
Severe allergic reactions to vaccines are rare. An allergic reaction is a reaction to something you touch, eat or breathe in. About 1 in 1 million doses of vaccines causes a severe allergic reaction. A severe allergic reaction happens within minutes or a few hours of the vaccination. If your baby has signs of a severe allergic reaction or a reaction that you think is an emergency, call 911. Signs of a severe allergic reaction include:
- Breathing problems
- Swelling of the throat and face
- Hives. These are red bumps on your skin that sometimes itch.
- Fever, sleepiness and not wanting to eat
- Weakness, dizziness and fast heartbeat
There Are Risks To Falling Behind On The Schedule
The CDCs vaccine schedule is recommended for a reason: It works. For some shots, more than one dose is required to build up full immunity for others, immunity wanes with time. Skipping or delaying shots puts your baby at risk of getting sick from the illnesses they protect against starting early in your child’s life. So be sure to stick to the schedule and attend all of your babys postnatal follow-up appointments.
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Signs Of A Serious Reaction To Vaccinations
As mentioned earlier, severe reactions after vaccination are pretty rare however, you should immediately consult a paediatrician in case the baby shows the following symptoms:
- Visible rash on any part of the body
- Swollen face or eyelids
If your baby has no allergic reaction but shows the signs that are deemed normal for babies to show after vaccination, you can soothe his discomfort/pain with some remedies. Read on to know how you can soothe your baby after vaccination.
How Vaccines Are Given
Most vaccines are given by needle in the upper arm or thigh. Some vaccines, like the rotavirus vaccine, are given by mouth. There’s also a flu vaccine for children that’s sprayed into the nose.
Some vaccines are given separately. Others, like the MMR vaccine, protect against 3 diseases in one vaccine.
Your child’s immune system can learn from more than 1 vaccine at a time. For instance, babies can respond to 10,000 different antigens at any one time.
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Visitors After Your Baby Is Born
After your baby is born, friends and family may want to visit and meet your baby. Visitors should be limited to reduce the risk of possible exposure to COVID-19. This can be very difficult, but it’s important to keep your family safe.
Consider celebrating the birth of your baby by having virtual visits and using online tools.
If you do plan to have in-person visits, continue to follow:
- the advice of your local public health authority on gathering size limits
- other recommended public health measures, including personal preventive practices
Ensure in-person visits occur in lower-risk settings, such as outdoors or in a well-ventilated indoor space. Ask visitors to:
- stay home if they’re sick
- wear a mask
- maintain as great a distance as possible from you and your baby
- wash their hands when visiting
Layering personal preventive practices is the best way right now to protect yourself and your family from COVID-19, regardless of everyones vaccinations status.
What Is The Hepatitis B Vaccine
Immunizations start at birth. The first immunization given is the hepatitis B vaccine. Listed below are some facts about hepatitis B:
Hepatitis B is a disease of the liver caused by hepatitis B virus .
Potentially, there may not be any symptoms present when first infected the likelihood of early symptoms decreases with the person’s age. If present, yellow skin or eyes, tiredness, stomachache, loss of appetite, nausea, or joint pain may occur.
The younger the person is when infected with HBV, the greater the likelihood of staying infected and having life-long liver problems, such as scarring of the liver and liver cancer.
The disease can be spread from an infected pregnant mother to her baby, through contact with the blood of an infected person, or by having sex with an infected person. It can also be spread by sharing objects, such as toothbrushes or razors.
The HBV vaccine will prevent this disease. This vaccine is given to nearly all newborns. Additional doses are given before age 18 months. If newborns are exposed to HBV before, during, or after birth, both the vaccine and a special HBV immune globulin dose are given within 12 hours of birth. The CDC recommends that all babies complete the HBV vaccine series between age 6 months and 18 months to be fully protected against HBV infection. This full series gives long-term protection against HBV and booster shots are typically not needed in people who have a healthy immune system.
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What Is A Vaccination Schedule
A vaccination schedule is a plan with recommendations for which vaccines your children should get and when they should get them. Vaccines are one of the most important ways to prevent children from getting some dangerous diseases. By exposing you to a germ in a controlled way, vaccines teach your body to recognize and fight it.
Government vaccine recommendations are just that — recommendations. You arent forced to get them. But state laws require your kids to have certain vaccines before they can go to daycare, school, or college, with some exceptions. Vaccines protect not just your child, but everyone they come in contact with. The more people who get vaccinated, the harder it is for a disease to spread.
Before theyre approved for use and added to the schedule, vaccines go through years of testing to make sure they work and that theyre safe. The government keeps track of any reports of side effects to make sure no problems come up.
Live Weakened Viral Vaccines: Mmr And Varicella
Four of the five vaccines given at this age are live, weakened viral vaccines, including measles, mumps and rubella in the MMR vaccine, and varicella, more commonly known as chickenpox. This means that immunity is the result of the vaccine virus replicating after the vaccine is given. Because the vaccine virus has been grown in the laboratory, it does not replicate as efficiently. The result is development of a robust immune response without actually being ill.
Because these vaccines rely on viral replication, the timing for their receipt has been carefully determined. Like threading a needle, public health officials have to, on one hand, protect babies before they are likely to be exposed, while on the other hand, delay vaccination until maternal antibodies are less likely to interfere with the development of immunity. This balance is one of the reasons healthcare providers were so scared during the recent measles outbreaks. They understand just how vulnerable their patients less than 1 year old are. Measles is one of if not the most contagious of infectious diseases, making it very adept at finding the non-immune among us.
Experience has also shown that people who received the chickenpox vaccine are less likely to develop shingles as adults. And if they do, their cases are less severe because the virus that is reactivating is the vaccine strain, which is less damaging.
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Precautions Are Still Important Even After Vaccinations
Even if people are vaccinated, they should wear a mask, wash their hands when they come into the home, and most importantly, not come around if theyre having any symptoms of illness, Mills said.
Limiting the number of visitors reduces the risk of exposing your newborn to COVID-19 or other serious infections in the first few months.
If someone is fully vaccinated against COVID-19, it is less likely they will transmit the virus to the newborn or the family, Bhargava said. But the vaccine may not protect fully against some variants. Additionally, a person could still transmit another non-COVID virus or infection to the newborn.
She noted that she was very careful when her children were newborns and limited unnecessary exposure to others until they were 4-6 months of age.
In the pandemic, it is best to be extra careful and try to limit this until they are even a bit older, Bhargava said. If people would like to visit, make sure they are vaccinated, masked and remain socially distanced. Safety and prevention is the best way to prevent your baby from getting sick.
Vaccines Given At Birth
Hepatitis B Vaccine is given before taking your baby home from the hospital. Hepatitis B can cause slow, persistent liver damage in a child. The virus, found in blood and body fluids, can last on a surface for up to a month. Doctors recommend this vaccine for all babies as a preventative to liver disease and cancer from the virus.
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Vaccines Given At Two Months
Hepatitis B Vaccine is given to your baby for the second time during the two month check-up.
DTaP Vaccine protects your baby from three life-threatening, toxin-releasing bacterial diseases: diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis . Often found in unsanitary conditions or from improper wound care, tetanus is a severe disease of the nerves that can cause the jaw to lock. Diphtheria affects breathing and the throat in small children and may cause nerve, heart, and kidney damage. Pertussis is a highly contagious disease that mostly affects babies under six months and causes coughing spells that can become severe and potentially deadly. Getting the vaccine between 27 and 36 weeks of pregnancy is also a great way to help prevent your infant from contracting pertussis.