Who Should Not Get The Vaccine
You should not receive the vaccine if you have had:
- A serious allergic reaction to any of the vaccine ingredients in the past
- A coma or seizures within a week of receiving childhood vaccinations for pertussis , unless the vaccine was not the cause Td can be used in these cases.
If you have had any of the following, talk to your doctor about whether the Tdap or Td vaccine is right for you:
- Epilepsy or another nervous system problem
- Guillain-BarrÃÂ© syndrome
- A history of severe swelling or pain after receiving a pertussis, tetanus, or diphtheria vaccination in the past
- If you are moderately to severely ill the CDC says you can still get the vaccine if you have a mild illness such as a cold or low-grade fever.
Concomitant Influenza Vaccine Administration
The concomitant use of Adacel and trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine was evaluated in a multi-center, open-labeled, randomized, controlled study conducted in 720 adults, 19-64 years of age inclusive. In one group, participants received Adacel and TIV vaccines concurrently . The other group received TIV at the first visit, then 4-6 weeks later received Adacel . Sera were obtained prior to and 4-6 weeks after Adacel, as well as 4-6 weeks after the TIV. The immune responses were comparable for concurrent and separate administration of Adacel and TIV vaccines for diphtheria , tetanus , pertussis antigens and influenza antigens . Although tetanus booster response rates were significantly lower in the group receiving the vaccines concurrently versus separately, greater than 98% of participants in both groups achieved seroprotective levels of 0.1 IU/mL.
Scientists Are Starting To Wonder Whether They Can Come Up With Something Better Than Those Accidental Adjuvants
One way MF59 is thought to work is by triggering the release of chemokines signalling chemicals by nearby cells, which then encourage other cells to produce yet more chemokines. Eventually, this cascade attracts immune cells, which ingest the vaccine including recognisable parts of the pathogen it protects against and transport the lot to the lymph nodes, which filter pathogens out of the body and help to identify infections.
The next generation
In the vaccine industry, people are very conservative, says Sun. So whenever they try to find an adjuvant for a new type of vaccine, most of the ones under investigation are the traditional ones, which we know are safe and effective.
However, scientists are starting to wonder whether they can come up with something better than those accidental adjuvants from the 1920s and 1950s, discovered before the structure of DNA was known, or man had set foot on the Moon, when computers either didnt exist or were the size of a house.
Vaccines could be made using parts of bacteria such as salmonella
This is particularly important, because of a tragic irony: people who are the most vulnerable to infections also tend to have the weakest responses to vaccines. For example, one flu vaccine was 58% effective at preventing hospitalisation in frail people over the age of 65, but 77.6% effective in those who were not.
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The Scandal Spurred Scientists To Look For New Ways To Make Vaccines
Back in the 1970s, a paediatric neurologist gave a speech at the Royal Society of Medicine which caused controversy that lasted a decade. John Wilson claimed that 36 children had acquired brain damage and erroneously blamed it on the vaccine for pertussis.
The story was picked up by journalists, and before long it was a full scandal complete with prime-time specials and front page headlines. Over the coming years, the rates of pertussis vaccination plummeted by more than half in the UK, while in some countries it stopped altogether.
Although some initial studies appeared to indicate there was a link, their validity has been questioned and a number of large scale studies have subsequently failed to find sufficient evidence to support it. But the vaccine did produce some mild immediate side-effects, such as a fever, and this was easy to confuse with something more sinister. More serious side effects were considered to be extremely rare.
What the pertussis scandal did achieve, however, was to spur scientists to look for new ways to make vaccines.
Previously, most vaccines had been made using live microorganisms, which had been weakened in some way to make them less infectious or harmful while still helping the body to recognise them or killed and included whole. The latter was the case for the pertussis vaccine, which was administered along with tetanus and diphtheria .
The aluminium in vaccines is always in the form of salts such as aluminium hydroxide
Fetal Tissue From Elective Abortions In Medical Research
The human embryonic kidney 293 cell line, derived from an elective abortion in the 1970s, is routinely used for production of proteins and cultivation of viruses due to the ease of transfection with gene constructs that are efficiently translated into appropriately folded proteins . A PubMed search with the term HEK, lists more than thirty thousand citations, testifying to the extensive use of this cell line. The Catholic Churchs position on the use of HEK293 cells, or other cell lines generated from elective abortions, in medical research is that they should be avoided because other-wise this creates a contradiction in the attitude of the who says that he does not approve of the injustice perpetrated by others, but at the same time accepts for his own work the biological material which the others have obtained by means of that injustice .
Again, alternatives should be explored. Utilization of fetal tissue from spontaneous abortion is licit. In addition, COS-1 cells that are not derived from elective abortions are effective for production of proteins that could be utilized in some studies . Unfortunately, COS-1 cells are of monkey origin. Hence, xenogeneic differences between monkey and human proteins limit their use in the generation of vac cines.
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Your Record Of Protection
After any immunization, make sure your personal immunization record is updated. If your child is attending child care or school, inform your local public health unit each time your child receives an immunization. An immunization record is required for child care and school attendance and for certain types of travel and work, so keep it in a safe place.
What Do Vaccines Do
Vaccines work by preparing the body to fight illness. Each contains either a dead or a weakened germ that causes a particular disease.
The body practices fighting the disease by making antibodies that recognize specific parts of that germ. This permanent or longstanding response means that if someone is ever exposed to the actual disease, the antibodies are already in place and the body knows how to combat it and the person doesn’t get sick. This is called immunity.
Since the start of widespread vaccinations in the United States, cases of once common childhood illnesses like measles and diphtheria have dropped dramatically. Immunizations have protected millions of kids from dangerous diseases and saved thousands of lives.
In fact, some diseases are so rare now that parents sometimes ask if vaccines for them are even needed. But most diseases that can be prevented by vaccines do still exist in the world, even in the United States, although they happen very rarely.
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Is Tdap Vaccine Safe
DTaP and Tdap vaccine are safe and effective at preventing diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis. Vaccines, like any medicine, can have side effects. The most common side effects are usually mild and go away on their own. Severe allergic reactions following vaccination are rare, but can be life threatening.
Is Tdap A Live Attenuated Vaccine
Both vaccines contain inactivated forms of the toxin produced by the bacteria that cause the three diseases. Inactivated means the substance no longer produces disease, but does trigger the body to create antibodies that give it immunity against the toxins. DTaP is approved for children under age 7.
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How Is Tetanus Treated
Someone who has tetanus will be treated in a hospital, usually in the intensive care unit . There, they usually get antibiotics to kill bacteria and tetanus immune globulin to neutralize the toxin already released. They’ll also get medicines to control muscle spasms and may need treatment to support vital body functions.
Preparations Authorized For Use In Canada
- ADACEL®, Sanofi Pasteur Ltd.
- ADACEL®-POLIO , Sanofi Pasteur Ltd.
- BOOSTRIX® , GlaxoSmithKline Inc.
- BOOSTRIX®-POLIO , GlaxoSmithKline Inc.
- INFANRIX®-IPV , GlaxoSmithKline Inc.
- INFANRIX®-IPV/Hib , GlaxoSmithKline Inc.
- INFANRIX hexaTM® , GlaxoSmithKline Inc.
- PEDIACEL® , Sanofi Pasteur Ltd.
- QUADRACEL® , Sanofi Pasteur Ltd.
In Canada, pertussis vaccine is only available as an acellular preparation in a combination vaccine. The amount of acellular pertussis antigen present varies by product. Preparations containing higher concentrations of acellular pertussis antigen are administered for primary immunization of infants and young children less than 7 years of age and may be administered as a booster for children 4 years to less than 7 years of age. Preparations containing a lower concentration may also be administered as a booster dose to children 4 years to less than 7 years of age and are the recommended product for older children, adolescents and adults .
For complete prescribing information, consult the product leaflet or information contained within Health Canada’s authorized product monographs available through the Drug Product Database. Refer to Table 1 Contents of Immunizing Agents Available in Canada in Part 1 for a list of all vaccines available for use in Canada and their contents.
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Immunogenicity And Vaccine Efficacy
Today, diphtheria and tetanus are at historic low rates in the United States. No one has ever studied the efficacy of tetanus toxoid and diphtheria toxoid in a vaccine trial. However experts infer efficacy from protective antitoxin levels. A complete vaccine series has a clinical efficacy of virtually 100% for tetanus and 97% for diphtheria. A complete series is 3 doses for people 7 years or older and 4 doses for children younger than 7.
In regard to pertussis, there has been an overall increasing trend in reported cases since the 1980s. In spite of this, pertussis affects many fewer people today than before pertussis-containing vaccines became widely available in the 1940s. There are several reasons to help explain why we are seeing more cases recently:
- Increased awareness
- More circulation of the bacteria
- Waning immunity
The acellular pertussis vaccines now used in the United States do not protect for as long as the prior whole cell pertussis vaccine. CDC is looking into whether molecular changes to may also be contributing to the resurgence.
In studies demonstrating the efficacy of the pertussis component for children who get all 5 doses on schedule, DTaP fully protects:
- 98% of children within the year following the last dose
- About 71% of children 5 years after getting the last dose of DTaP
In studies demonstrating the efficacy of the pertussis component, Tdap fully protects:
Subunit Recombinant Polysaccharide And Conjugate Vaccines
Subunit, recombinant, polysaccharide, and conjugate vaccines use specific pieces of the germlike its protein, sugar, or capsid .
Because these vaccines use only specific pieces of the germ, they give a very strong immune response thats targeted to key parts of the germ. They can also be used on almost everyone who needs them, including people with weakened immune systems and long-term health problems.
One limitation of these vaccines is that you may need booster shots to get ongoing protection against diseases.
These vaccines are used to protect against:
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Should Babies Who Cry Uncontrollably After Dtap Vaccine Receive Additional Doses
Babies who experience uncontrollable crying after the DTaP vaccine are considered to have a precaution to getting future doses of the vaccine, meaning that they can still receive future doses of the DTaP vaccine however, the relative risks and benefits should be discussed with the childs doctor before the vaccination is given.
Because pertussis, in particular, circulates in many parts of the country each year and young infants are most susceptible to complications from the disease, the relative benefits of the vaccine may still outweigh the risks. Previous experience has shown that in most cases, infants who experience inconsolable crying after the first dose of DTaP do not experience the same reaction after subsequent doses.
Should Teenagers And Adults Get The Pertussis Vaccine
Pertussis is common in teenagers and adults. Therefore, a vaccine to prevent pertussis in teenagers and adults is of great benefit. However, the old whole cell pertussis vaccine and the “acellular” pertussis vaccine for young children had a high rate of side effects when given to people older than 7 years of age. A newer “acellular” pertussis-containing vaccine is available for older children and adults .
Because adolescents and adults can transmit this disease to infants who are too young to have received their series of the DTaP vaccine, it is imperative that adults around the baby are immune. Parents, grandparents and childcare providers should all have received a dose of Tdap vaccine.
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What Are The Possible Reactions After The Tdap Vaccine
Vaccines are very safe. It is much safer to get the vaccine than to get the disease.
Common reactions to the vaccine may include soreness, redness and swelling in the arm where the vaccine was given. Headache, fatigue, muscle or joint soreness, and mild fever may also occur.
It is important to stay in the clinic for 15 minutes after getting any vaccine because there is an extremely rare possibility, less than 1 in a million, of a life-threatening allergic reaction called anaphylaxis. This may include hives, difficulty breathing, or swelling of the throat, tongue or lips. Should this reaction occur, your health care provider is prepared to treat it. Emergency treatment consists of the administration of epinephrine and transfer by ambulance to the nearest emergency department. If symptoms develop after you leave the clinic, call 9-1-1 or the local emergency number.
It is important to always report all serious or unexpected reactions to your health care provider.
Adult Household Contacts And Carers Of Infants
Adult household contacts and carers of infants < 6 months of age are recommended to receive dTpa vaccine at least 2 weeks before they have close contact with the infant if their last dose was more than 10 years ago.27,28 Pertussis infection in infants < 6 months of age is associated with significant morbidity. The infection source in infants is often a household contact.29 See Epidemiology.
It is safe to give pertussis-containing vaccine to children, adolescents or adults who have had laboratory-confirmed pertussis infection. These people should receive all routinely scheduled pertussis-containing vaccines because natural immunity does not provide lifelong protection.
This is particularly important for infants < 6 months of age who develop pertussis because they may not mount an adequate immune response after infection.
See also Vaccine information and Variations from product information for more details.
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Fetal Tissue From Elective Abortions In Zika Virus Research
Recently, two articles were published in the New England Journal of Medicine that char acterized fetuses of elective abortions, one being thirty-two weeks old, from mothers who contracted Zika virus in the first trimester of pregnancy . These studies identified Zika virus in the microcephalic brains of the fetuses indicating an association between in utero Zika virus infection and microcephaly. More research on human subjects with similar experimental designs has been proposed to better understand fetal infection .
These studies would also involve pregnant women who have been exposed to Zika virus infection that are followed for microcephaly by ultrasound throughout pregnancy. They would be informed of ultrasound results and, if microcephaly was demonstrated, would receive counsel on the prognosis of their child and options available, including termination of the pregnancy. If the mother elects to abort her child and provides her consent, the aborted fetal tissue would then be utilized in research procedures.
This experimental design denies the intrinsic right to life of unborn human beings as the success of the study is predicated on the decisions of mothers to abort their babies. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Code of Federal Regulations Title 45 Part 46 Subpart B, Additional Protections for Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses, and Neonates involved in Research, indicates that:
Recommendations For Tdap Immunization For Adolescents 11 Through 18 Years Of Age
Adolescents 11 through 18 years of age should receive a single dose of Tdap instead of Td for booster immunization against tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis if they have completed the recommended childhood DTP/DTaP vaccination series and have not received Tdap.8 The preferred age for Tdap vaccination is 11 to 12 years of age .
Adolescents 11 through 18 years of age who received Td, but not Tdap, are encouraged to receive a single dose of Tdap to provide protection against pertussis if they have completed the recommended childhood DTP/DTaP vaccination series.84,110 If more doses of tetanus and diphtheria toxoids are needed to complete the primary series in such older children, Td should be used.
Contraindications, Precautions, and Reasons to Defer Tdap or Td Among Adolescents 11 Through 18 Years of Age.
Contraindications to Tdap include a history of serious allergic reaction to vaccine components or encephalopathy not attributable to an identifiable cause within 7 days of administration of a vaccine with pertussis components. This is a contraindication to use of the pertussis components Td can be used.
Special Situations for Tdap and Td Use Among Adolescents 11 Through 18 Years of Age.
Larry K. Pickering, Walter O. Orenstein, in, 2008
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