Monday, September 25, 2023

What Is The Whooping Cough Vaccine Called

Where Can I Learn More

Whooping cough can be deadly for infants, 61 percent of adults don’t know their vaccine status
  • Talk to your immunizing health care provider.

About pertussis

  • Pertussis, also known as whooping cough, is a serious infection of the airways caused by pertussis bacteria.
  • The bacteria are easily spread by coughing, sneezing, or close face-to-face contact.
  • Pertussis starts like a common cold with symptoms such as sneezing, runny nose, mild fever, and a mild cough. Over the next two weeks, the cough gets worse, leading to severe, repeated, and forceful coughing spells that often end with a whooping sound before the next breath.
  • The cough of pertussis can last several months and occurs more often at night.
  • The cough can make a person gag or spit out mucus and make it hard to take a breath.
  • In babies, pertussis can cause periods of apnea in which their breathing is interrupted.
  • Pertussis can cause pneumonia, seizures, brain damage, or death. These complications are seen most often in infants.
  • About 1 in 170 infants who get pertussis may die.

Who Should Not Get A Pertussis Vaccine

Some people may need to wait to get vaccines. If you or your child has a mild illness, such as a cold, you still may be able to get the vaccine. If you have a more severe illness, you may need to wait until you recover.

If you are not a good candidate for a pertussis vaccine, your healthcare provider will give you instructions and information about vaccination options. In general, people should talk to their healthcare provider if they have:

  • Guillain-Barré syndrome, a rare disorder where your immune system attacks your nerves.
  • History of serious allergic reactions to pertussis vaccines.
  • History of severe pain, fever above 105 degrees Fahrenheit or swelling after a pertussis vaccine.
  • Seizures or other nervous system diseases.
  • Severe allergies to any vaccine ingredients.

Vaccination Of Specific Populations

Persons with inadequate immunization records

Children and adults lacking adequate documentation of immunization should be considered unimmunized and started on an immunization schedule appropriate for their age and risk factors. There are no established serologic correlates for protection against pertussis. Refer to Immunization of Persons with Inadequate Immunization Records in Part 3 for additional general information.

Pregnancy and breastfeeding

Table 1 – Considerations and decision points for determining optimal timing of maternal Tdap immunization

  • Clinical opportunities for vaccination exist with frequent routine prenatal visits towards the end of pregnancy.

The strongest safety and effectiveness data are from the third trimester. This option may not allow sufficient time for the development and transfer of maternal antibodies before delivery. Late immunization will not provide protection for most preterm births. There may be fewer clinical opportunities to offer vaccination in late pregnancy compared to earlier vaccination.

Infants born prematurely

Patients/residents in health care institutions

Residents of long-term care facilities should receive all routine immunizations appropriate for their age and risk factors, including acellular pertussis-containing vaccine. Refer to Immunization of Patients in Health Care Institutions in Part 3 for additional general information.

Persons with chronic diseases


Persons new to Canada


Outbreak control

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When Should I See My Doctor

See your doctor as soon as possible if you think you or your child may have whooping cough.

If a young baby has suspected whooping cough, they need to be tested for it straight away. Your doctor may refer them to hospital. This is because the disease can be severe in babies.

Preparations Authorized For Use In Canada

How the Whooping Cough Vaccine Was Created During the ...

Pertussis-containing vaccines

  • ADACEL®, Sanofi Pasteur Ltd.
  • ADACEL®-POLIO , Sanofi Pasteur Ltd.
  • BOOSTRIX® , GlaxoSmithKline Inc.
  • BOOSTRIX®-POLIO , GlaxoSmithKline Inc.
  • INFANRIX®-IPV , GlaxoSmithKline Inc.
  • INFANRIX®-IPV/Hib , GlaxoSmithKline Inc.
  • INFANRIX hexaTM® , GlaxoSmithKline Inc.
  • PEDIACEL® , Sanofi Pasteur Ltd.
  • QUADRACEL® , Sanofi Pasteur Ltd.

In Canada, pertussis vaccine is only available as an acellular preparation in a combination vaccine. The amount of acellular pertussis antigen present varies by product. Preparations containing higher concentrations of acellular pertussis antigen are administered for primary immunization of infants and young children less than 7 years of age and may be administered as a booster for children 4 years to less than 7 years of age. Preparations containing a lower concentration may also be administered as a booster dose to children 4 years to less than 7 years of age and are the recommended product for older children, adolescents and adults .

For complete prescribing information, consult the product leaflet or information contained within Health Canada’s authorized product monographs available through the Drug Product Database. Refer to Table 1 Contents of Immunizing Agents Available in Canada in Part 1 for a list of all vaccines available for use in Canada and their contents.

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Why Are Pregnant Women Advised To Have The Vaccine

Getting vaccinated while you’re pregnant is highly effective in protecting your baby from developing whooping cough in the first few weeks of their life.

The immunity you get from the vaccine will pass to your baby through the placenta and provide passive protection for them until they are old enough to be routinely vaccinated against whooping cough at 8 weeks old.

Should Teenagers And Adults Get The Pertussis Vaccine

Pertussis is common in teenagers and adults. Therefore, a vaccine to prevent pertussis in teenagers and adults is of great benefit. However, the old whole cell pertussis vaccine and the “acellular” pertussis vaccine for young children had a high rate of side effects when given to people older than 7 years of age. A newer “acellular” pertussis-containing vaccine is available for older children and adults .

Because adolescents and adults can transmit this disease to infants who are too young to have received their series of the DTaP vaccine, it is imperative that adults around the baby are immune. Parents, grandparents and childcare providers should all have received a dose of Tdap vaccine.

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Available Vaccines And Vaccination Campaigns

Immunization against pertussis is available for children via the combination DTaP vaccine. The DTaP vaccination replaced the previously used DTP shot, which protected against the same three diseases but used a whole-cell preparation in the pertussis componentthat is, it contained inactivated, but complete, Bordetella pertussis bacteria. For the DTaP combination vaccine, the whole-cell preparation was removed aP stands for acellular pertussis. This vaccine provides protection against the disease by using only pieces of the pertussis bacteria, which results in fewer side effects than the whole-cell preparation.

A similar combination vaccine called Tdap offers booster protection against tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis for adolescents and adults in certain situations.

What If There Is A Serious Reaction

Large Increase in Whooping Cough Cases This Year

An allergic reaction could occur after the vaccinated person leaves the clinic. If you see signs of a severe allergic reaction , call 9-1-1 and get the person to the nearest hospital.

For other signs that concern you, call your health care provider.

Adverse reactions should be reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System . Your health care provider will usually file this report, or you can do it yourself. Visit the VAERS website at or call .VAERS is only for reporting reactions, and VAERS staff members do not give medical advice.

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Do You Need Tdap If Youve Had Dtap

Yes. Tdap is often used as a booster. Anyone over age 7 who needs diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough vaccines gets Tdap.

A persons immunity against these diseases tends to decrease over time. This is why a booster shot is needed at

27 and 36 weeks in every pregnancy. Even if a pregnant person has had a Tdap vaccine in the past 10 years, it should be given again.

Babies dont get their first dose of DTaP until theyre 2 months old. Pertussis can be very severe in newborns. Giving Tdap in pregnancy provides the newborn with some protection.

Both DTaP and Tdap contain vaccines against tetanus, diphtheria, and whooping cough, which is also called pertussis. The vaccine names come from the first letter of each disease it protects against.

When an upper-case letter is used, the vaccine for that disease is full strength . Lower-case letters mean it contains a lower dose of the vaccine.

DTaP contains full doses of diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough vaccines. Tdap contains a full dose of the tetanus vaccine and a lower dose of diphtheria and whooping cough vaccines.

The lower-case a before the p in both vaccine names stands for acellular. This means broken down parts of the bacterium Bordetella pertussis that causes whooping cough is used to make the vaccine.

In the past, the whole bacterium was used in the vaccine, but it tended to cause more

Diphtheria Tetanus And Whooping Cough Combination Vaccines

Diphtheria, tetanus and whooping cough combination vaccines help protect you against the following diseases:

  • Diphtheria – commonly causes a thick membrane to grow in the throat restricting breathing and can damage the bodys tissues, such as the heart and nerves.
  • Tetanus – causes stiffness in the muscles of the body, affecting the jaw and causes severe muscle spasms which can affect breathing.
  • Whooping cough – causes episodes of severe coughing, causing difficulty with breathing and oxygen supply to the brain.

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What Are Tetanus Diphtheria And Pertussis

They are all very serious diseases for children, adolescents and adults. Tetanus : Bacteria in soil enter through a cut, creating an infection. Sufferers experiences painful tightening of muscles and may be unable to open mouth and swallow. Diphtheria: Highly contagious infection of respiratory tract. Leads to weakness, sore throat, swollen glands. Severe cases can affect the heart. Pertussis : Highly contagious infection of respiratory tract. Causes excessive coughing fits. Infants are most at risk for life-threatening complications.

What Happens If I Miss A Dose Of The Whooping Cough Vaccine

Whooping Cough (Pertussis)

If your child misses one of the five doses of the whooping cough vaccine, speak with your healthcare provider. Your child may be able to get the vaccine at their next healthcare appointment.

Teenagers who miss the Tdap booster should get it at their next visit with a healthcare provider. Likewise, adults who have never gotten the pertussis vaccine or have missed a dose should get the Tdap shot at their next healthcare provider appointment.

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Any Risks I Should Know About

“People will get a sore arm for about a day — anyone who has ever received a tetanus shot knows this is a common reaction.”

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William Schaffner, MD, president, National Foundation for Infectious Diseases professor, chairman, department of preventive medicine, professor of medicine, division of infectious diseases, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine.

Can Whooping Cough Be Prevented

Although a vaccine has been developed against whooping cough, which is routinely given to children in their first year of life, cases of the disease still occur, especially in infants younger than age 6 months.

Since the 1980s, a dramatic increase in the number of cases of pertussis has occurred, especially in children and teenagers, ages 10 to 19, and in babies younger than age 6 months. This is because the decline in vaccination in some communities. The CDC recommends that children get 5 DTaP shots for maximum protection against pertussis. A DTaP shot is a combination vaccine that protects against 3 diseases: diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis. The first 3 shots are given at ages 2, 4, and 6 months. The fourth shot is given between ages 15 and 18 months the fifth shot is given when a child enters school at ages 4 to 6 years. At their regular checkups, preteens ages 11 or 12 years should get a dose of Tdap. The Tdap booster contains tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis. If an adult did not get a Tdap as a preteen or teen, he or she should get a dose of Tdap instead of the Td booster. All adults should get a Td booster every 10 years, but it can be given before the 10-year mark. Pregnant women should have the booster late in the second trimester, or in the third trimester of each pregnancy. Always consult your health care provider for advice.

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What Is The Outlook If You Have Whooping Cough

The health outlook for people with whooping cough depends on the persons age, with children of a certain age being more likely to catch whooping cough.

  • Infants younger than 1 year old are 30 times more likely than adults to get whooping cough.

  • Children and young adults between the ages of 1 and 20 years are 8 times more likely than adults to get whooping cough.

Children, especially infants less than 1 year old, are more likely to get seriously sick, too. About half of babies under 1 year old need to be hospitalized if they get whooping cough. Of these babies:

  • 75% will have trouble breathing

  • 25% will get pneumonia

By contrast, less than 5% of teens and adults get sick enough to be hospitalized.

Who Should Be Immunised Against Pertussis

Doctors urge parents to make sure kids get whooping cough vaccine

Anyone can get whooping cough, but it causes the most severe, sometimes life-threatening, symptoms in babies, young children and elderly people.

Immunisation against pertussis is recommended at different ages and stages.

As part of the New Zealand childhood immunisation schedule, the pertussis vaccine is offered free to:

  • babies at 6 weeks, 3 months and 5 months of age
  • children 4 years and 11 years of age
  • pregnant women in their second or third trimester .

If you are pregnant, you can reduce the risk of your baby catching whooping cough by being immunised before your baby is born. However, your baby still needs to be immunised at 6 weeks, 3 months and 5 months of age.

Immunisation is recommended but not funded for:

  • adults who live with, care for or work in regular contact with infants under 12 months of age, even if the baby has been fully immunised.
  • adults with weakened immune systems who are at high risk of severe illness or complications.

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How Does Whooping Cough Spread

Whooping cough spreads easily through the air when a person who has whooping cough breathes, coughs, or sneezes. Almost everyone who is not immune to whooping cough will get sick if exposed to it. A person can spread the disease from the very beginning of the sickness and for at least 2 weeks after coughing starts.

Since symptoms can be mild for some people, your baby can catch whooping cough from adults, grandparents, or older brothers or sisters who dont know they have the disease.

Treating Babies And Young Children

If your child is admitted to hospital for whooping cough, it is likely they will be treated in isolation. This means they will be kept away from other patients to prevent the infection spreading.

If your child is admitted to hospital for whooping cough, it is likely they will be treated in isolation. This means they will be kept away from other patients to prevent the infection spreading.

Your child may need to be given antibiotics or steroids intravenously .

If your child needs additional help with breathing, they may be given extra oxygen through a facemask. A handheld device called a bulb syringe may also be used to gently suction away any mucus that is blocking their airways.

If an antibiotic is given, the infectious period will continue for up to 5 days after starting treatment.

Visit Pregnancy, Birth and Baby for more information on whooping cough in babies and children.

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Tetanus Diphtheria Pertussis Vaccine

  • This vaccine is offered to all students in Grade 9. This is a booster dose for children immunized against these diseases at a younger age.
  • The Tdap vaccine can also be given to children 7 years of age and older who have not been fully immunized, and to adults or immigrants who have not been immunized or whose immunization history is unknown.
  • People born in 1989 or later who missed their adolescent dose of Tdap are eligible for one free dose of this vaccine.
  • A booster dose of the Tdap vaccine is recommended for adults who were immunized in childhood but is not provided for free in B.C.
  • Canada’s National Advisory Committee on Immunization recommends that all pregnant people get the pertussis vaccine in every pregnancy to help protect the baby after birth. Learn more about the Tdap vaccine and pregnancy in our pregnancy section.

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What Exactly Is Whooping Coughâand Can Adults Get It?

Yes. Serious side effects are rare. Mild pain, swelling and redness for a few days are common at the spot where the needle was given. Some children get a fever, rash, lose their appetite or are fussy or drowsy for a day or two after the needle. Your doctor may suggest that you give your child a medicine called acetaminophen to prevent pain and fever.

An extremely rare side effect, which occurred in about one out of every million children who received the pertussis vaccine used before July 1997, , was encephalopathy. Encephalopathy, , results in a range of symptoms which may include headaches, stiff neck, changes in behaviour, confusion or irritability, or speech disturbances. Those who had this side effect recovered completely, in a short period of time, with no permanent damage.

This newer vaccine causes even fewer of the minor reactions and chances of brain irritation following this vaccine remain extremely rare. The benefits of this vaccine are much greater than the risks.

There is no risk of a pregnant woman or anyone else catching any disease from a child who has been vaccinated recently. You should always discuss the benefits and risks of any vaccine with your doctor.

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