The Hpv Vaccine Protects Against Cancer The Vaccine Is Safe And Effective
What are HPV vaccines?
- The HPV vaccines protect against infection from certain types of human papillomavirus that cause cancers of the anus, cervix, mouth and throat, penis, vagina, and vulva as well as genital warts
- There are two HPV vaccines available in Canada: Cervarix® and Gardasil®9 . The HPV9 vaccine is approved for use in both males and females. The HPV2 vaccine is only approved for use in females.
Both vaccines protect against 2 types of HPV that cause about 70% of cases of cervical cancer and 80% of cases of anal cancer. The HPV9 vaccine protects against 5 additional types of HPV that cause 15% to 20% of cervical cancers and 11% of anal cancers in women and 4% in men.
The HPV9 vaccine also protects against 2 types of HPV that cause about 90% of cases of genital warts.
Messenger Rna Vaccinesalso Called Mrna Vaccines
Researchers have been studying and working with mRNA vaccines for decades and this technology was used to make some of the COVID-19 vaccines. mRNA vaccines make proteins in order to trigger an immune response. mRNA vaccines have several benefits compared to other types of vaccines, including shorter manufacturing times and, because they do not contain a live virus, no risk of causing disease in the person getting vaccinated.
mRNA vaccines are used to protect against:
The Impact Of The Hpv Programme
In clinical trials, the HPV vaccine was over 99% effective at preventing pre-cancer caused by HPV types 16 or 18 in young women, which are linked to 70% of cervical cancers. It is estimated that by 2058 after 50 years of this vaccination programme, 64,000 cervical cancers and 50,000 other cancers will have been prevented.
The World Health Organization have declared a global strategy to eliminate cervical cancer completely, through vaccination and cervical screening. It is important that women who have been vaccinated continue to take up the offer of cervical smear testing later in life, so that other kinds of cervical cancer can be picked up.
HPV vaccine programmes around the world are currently being evaluated. Evidence from a recent study of 66 million young men and women showed an 83% reduction in high-risk HPV in teenage girls, and 66% reduction in women aged 20-24. The study also showed precancerous cervical lesions declined by 51% in teenage girls and 31% in women up to age 24 30298-3/fulltext” rel=”nofollow”> Analysis of HPV Vaccine Effectiveness).
In the graph below, the prevalence of high-risk HPV types 16 and 18 has reduced with the increasing number of women who have received the vaccine in England. Studies have shown that protection against HPV lasts at least 10 years, and this is expected to be long-term. More information about how the vaccine works is below.
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Essentially The Study Shows That The Hpv Vaccination In Combination With Cervical Cancer Screening Reduces The Cancer To A Point Where Almost No One Develops It
A new research, funded by Cancer Research UK, has foundthat the human papillomavirus vaccine, which protects against cervical cancer in women, reduced the risk of developing the cancer by 62 per cent in women between the ages of 14 and 16.
It reduced the risk by 34 per cent in women who were aged 16-18 years when they were offered the jab. The paper was published in the journal Lancet this week and looked at all cervical cancers diagnosed in England in women aged between 20 and 64 years, between January 2006 and June 2019.
The results are important because the vaccine was introduced in the 2000s and studies confirming that it is effective against cancer have come up only recently.
Essentially, the study shows that the HPV vaccination in combination with cervical cancer screening reduces the cancer to a point where almost no one develops it. It also shows that over a period of 11 years , the vaccine prevented around 450 cervical cancers and around 17,200 cases of precancerous conditions. England extended administration of the vaccine to boys aged 12-13 years in 2018.
How Many Doses Of The Hpv Vaccine Will I Get
The vaccine’s offered in 2 or 3 doses over a period of 12 months, depending on what age you were when you received the first dose.
The first dose is offered to all pupils in S1 at secondary school. The second dose is usually offered in S2.
If you receive your first dose before you turn 15 years old, you’ll only need 2 doses of the HPV vaccine. You’ll be offered the second dose at least 6-12 months after the first.
If you receive your first dose after you turn 15 years old, you’ll need 3 doses of the vaccine. You’ll be offered the second dose at least 1 month after the first dose, and the third dose at least 3 months after the second dose.
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Immunogenicity In Females And Males < 16 Years Of Age
Pre-market trials did not assess the efficacy of HPV vaccines in females or males < 16 years of age because these studies need genital samples. The trials used immunobridging studies to ensure that antibody responses in the target age of young adolescents were equivalent to those known to be protective in older women.
Young adolescents had higher antibody titres than older women.1 Later studies confirmed that a widely spaced 2-dose HPV vaccine schedule for those aged 914 years at the time of the 1st dose also produced non-inferior antibody titres.120
For the , 4vHPV and 9vHPV vaccines, antibody responses in pre-adolescent and adolescent females and males after 2 vaccine doses were equivalent to those in adult women, in whom clinical efficacy has been demonstrated.1,2,121
How Can You Avoid Getting Hpv
Sometimes people can be infected with HPV and not know it. So HPV can be difficult to avoid. The best way to avoid genital infection with HPV is abstinence. You can also decrease your chance of getting HPV by having sex with only one other person who isn’t infected with HPV. While condoms may also decrease the chance of getting HPV, they do not always work to prevent the spread of the infection. Because other than abstinence, none of these measures can completely protect someone from becoming infected or prevent the spread of this infection, the development of a vaccine was an important tool for preventing future generations from experiencing the devastation caused by HPV.
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At What Age Should Kids Get The Hpv Vaccine
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that all kids receive the HPV vaccine at 11 or 12 years old, or as early as 9 years old. That may seem young, but the age range is important for several reasons.
First, 11- and 12-year-olds have a stronger immune response to the vaccine than older teens. Their immune systems pump out more virus-fighting antibodies compared to older kids, according to the University of Utah Health. In fact, to achieve the immune response needed to protect against infection, kids younger than 15 only need two doses, but older teens need three shots. Tweens and teens younger than 15 need to wait at least six months between doses, while older teens need to wait 1-2 months before their second vaccine and another six months before their third.
Theres also the fact that during those tween years, puberty is just around the corner, if it hasnt hit yet. Its important that tweens and teens get vaccinated against HPV well before they start having sex. HPV is common enough that most adults pick it up soon after first becoming sexually active, according to the CDC.
But getting the HPV vaccine doesnt need to involve a conversation about sex. Instead, parents can simply explain to kids that the vaccine is protecting them against HPV infection and up to six types of cancer.
Safety Of The Vaccine
Gardasil 9 was shown to have a good safety profile during large clinical trials in which more than 15,000 people took part. HPV vaccines are licensed for use in more than 125 countries, including New Zealand, Australia, the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada and the European Union.In New Zealand, as in other countries, there is ongoing monitoring of vaccine safety.All applications for consent to distribute a medicine in New Zealand are evaluated by Medsafe. This evaluation is performed to internationally defined standards and requirements. Gardasil 9 was evaluated by Medsafe and formal approval of the vaccine was notified in the New Zealand Gazette on 11 February 2016.
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Who Should Be Vaccinated For Hpv
Females between 9 and 45 years of age can be vaccinated with Cervarix, Gardasil or Gardasil 9 to prevent cervical cancer and precancerous cervical changes. Gardasil and Gardasil 9 may also prevent vaginal, vulvar and anal cancers and their precancers, as well as anogenital warts.
Its important to know that HPV vaccines do not replace cervical cancer screening. Your doctor will still. HPV vaccines prevent infection from the most common types of HPV related to cancer, but not all.
The American Cancer Societys Recommendations For Hpv Vaccine Use
- Girls and boys should get 2 doses of the HPV vaccine between the ages of 9 to 12.
- Teens and young adults age 13 through 26 who have not been vaccinated, or who havent gotten all their doses, should get the vaccine as soon as possible. Vaccination of young adults will not prevent as many cancers as vaccination of children and teens.
- The ACS does not recommend HPV vaccination for persons older than age 26 years.
The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in health care check-ups and annual physicals being put on hold, including visits for routine vaccinations. Learn important information that can help you plan a safe return to well-child visits in Getting Essential Childhood and Adolescent Vaccines During the COVID-19 Pandemic.
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What Types Of Hpv Vaccines Are There
Three HPV vaccines9-valent HPV vaccine , quadrivalent HPV vaccine , and bivalent HPV vaccine have been licensed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration . All three HPV vaccines protect against HPV types 16 and 18 that cause most HPV cancers.
Since late 2016, only Gardasil-9 is distributed in the United States. This vaccine protects against nine HPV types .
How Much Does The Hpv Vaccine Cost
Each dose of the vaccine can cost about $250. Luckily, many health insurance companies cover the HPV vaccine. There are also programs that help some people without insurance get the vaccine for low or no cost.
You deserve to be healthy, regardless of whether you have health insurance. Talk with the staff at your local Planned Parenthood health center or another nurse or doctor to get more information about ways to make the vaccine more affordable.
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What Hpv Testing Is Available
HPV tests for men are not available, and most HPV infections clear on their own without causing problems. However, health problems caused by HPV, which can include genital warts, anal cancer, penile cancer or cancers of the head and neck, can be checked by visiting your doctor.
Women can get HPV tests and/or Pap tests to determine whether they have an HPV infection that can lead to cancer. Both tests detect early health problems that can lead to cervical cancer, but neither checks for warning signs of other cancers, fertility or other STDs. Although both tests have a common goal, they do have their differences:
- Recommended for women 21 and older.
- Involves scraping the cervix to identify any abnormal changes in cells of the cervix that could later develop into cancer.
- Results are typically reported as normal, unclear, or abnormal:
- Normal means that no changes were found in the cells
- Unclear indicates that the cells look like they could be abnormal
- Abnormal means that changes in cervical cells were found
If both tests are normal, it is highly unlikely that serious cervical cell changes will develop in the next three years however, regular wellness visits should not be skipped.
Immunizing Agents Authorized For Use In Canada
- CERVARIX® , GlaxoSmithKline Inc. .
- GARDASIL® , Merck Canada Inc. .
- GARDASIL®9 , Merck Canada Inc.
For complete prescribing information, consult the product leaflet or information contained within the product monograph available through Health Canada’s Drug Product Database.
Refer to Contents in Immunizing Agents Available for Use in Canada in Part 1 for a list of vaccines available for use in Canada and their contents.
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How Is Gardasil 9 Vaccine Given
Gardasil 9 vaccine is given as an injection into a muscle in your upper arm or thigh. A healthcare provider will give you this injection.
Gardasil 9 vaccine is given in a series of 2 or 3 shots. You may have the first shot at any time as long as you are between the ages of 9 and 45 years. The second dose is given 2 to 6 months after your first shot. A third dose may be given 6 to 12 months after your first shot.
Be sure to receive all recommended doses of this vaccine or you may not be fully protected against disease.
Gardasil 9 vaccine should not be used in place of having a routine pelvic exam, Pap smear, anal, or head and neck exam to screen for cervical, anal, or head and neck cancer.
How Does Hpv Cause Cancer
HPV infection causes cells to undergo changes. If not treated these cells can, over time, become cancer cells.
Once high-risk HPV infects cells, it interferes with the ways in which these cells communicate with one another, causing infected cells to multiply in an uncontrolled manner. These infected cells are usually recognized and controlled by the immune system. However, sometimes the infected cells remain and continue to grow, eventually forming an area of precancerous cells that, if not treated, can become cancer. Research has found that it can take 10 to 20 years, or even longer, for HPV-infected cervical cells to develop into a cancerous tumor.
Among women whose cervical cells are infected with high-risk HPV, several factors increase the chance that the infection will be long lasting and lead to precancerous cervical cells. These include:
- Having a very aggressive HPV type, particularly HPV 16 or HPV 18. If you have either of these HPV types, make sure you receive diagnostic testing with a colposcopy.
- Smoking cigarettes. Quitting smoking can help your body to fight HPV.
- Having a weakened immune system. If you have HIV or are taking medicines that suppress your immune system, talk to your health care provider about diagnostic testing and follow-up.
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Does The Hpv Vaccine Protect Me For Life
The vaccine appears to offer long-term protection from HPV. But, even women who have received the vaccine should see their gynecologist regularly for a Pap test to check for cervical cancer. The vaccine doesnât protect against all HPV types that can cause cervical cancer.
If you missed part of the HPV vaccine series, talk to your doctor about getting the missing dose.
Who Should Get Hpv Vaccination
The Centers for Disease Control and Preventions Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices develops recommendations regarding all vaccination in the United States, including HPV vaccination. The current ACIP recommendations for HPV vaccination are :
- Children and adults ages 9 through 26 years. HPV vaccination is routinely recommended at age 11 or 12 years vaccination can be started at age 9 years. HPV vaccination is recommended for all persons through age 26 years who were not adequately vaccinated earlier.
- Adults ages 27 through 45 years. Although the HPV vaccine is Food and Drug Administration approved to be given through age 45 years, HPV vaccination is not recommended for all adults ages 27 through 45 years. Instead, ACIP recommends that clinicians consider discussing with their patients in this age group who were not adequately vaccinated earlier whether HPV vaccination is right for them. HPV vaccination in this age range provides less benefit because more people have already been exposed to the virus.
- Persons who are pregnant. HPV vaccination should be delayed until after pregnancy, but pregnancy testing is not required before vaccination. There is no evidence that vaccination will affect a pregnancy or harm a fetus.
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Are There Different Types Of Hpv Vaccines
HPV is a group of more than 200 viruses. About 40 of these are spread through sexual contact. Of these 40, about 12 types can cause certain cancers. There are three safe and effective HPV vaccines available worldwide:
- Gardasil® 9: This is the only vaccine currently being used in the United States. Gardasil 9 protects against nine types of cancer-causing HPV, including high-risk strains. It can prevent up to 90% of cervical cancers.
- Cervarix® and Gardasil®: These two HPV vaccines are used in other countries and treat certain high-risk strains of HPV. They can prevent around 70% of cervical cancer.
Why Is Hpv Vaccination Important
The combination of HPV vaccination and cervical screening can provide the greatest protection against cervical cancer. Also, HPV vaccination reduces the risk of developing cancers caused by HPV at sites other than the cervix.
Not only does vaccination protect vaccinated individuals against infection by the HPV types targeted by the vaccine that is used , but vaccination can also reduce the prevalence of the vaccine-targeted HPV types in the population, thereby reducing infection in individuals who are not vaccinated . For example, in Australia, where a high proportion of girls are vaccinated with Gardasil, the incidence of genital warts went down during the first 4 years of the vaccination program among young maleswho were not being vaccinated at the timeas well as among young females .
Further evidence that large-scale HPV vaccination confers protection for unvaccinated individuals comes from a 2019 meta-analysis of girls-only HPV vaccination programs in 14 high-income countries that included 60 million vaccinated people . That analysis showed that, up to 8 years after the start of vaccination, diagnoses of anogenital warts decreased by 31% among women aged 2529 years, by 48% among boys aged 1519 years, and by 32% among men aged 2024 years, compared with the period before vaccination began.
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