Thursday, March 23, 2023

What Types Of Meningitis Does The Vaccine Prevent

Who Should Get Meningococcal Vaccines

Meningococcal meningitis: Doctor discusses causes, symptoms, treatment, prevention

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends vaccination with meningococcal conjugate vaccine for all preteens and teens. MenACWY is a routine recommendation for all children aged 11 to 12 years, with a booster shot for teens at 16 years of age. Babies, young children, and adults at high risk are also recommended to get this vaccine.

People should get MenACWY vaccine if they fall into these high-risk categories:

  • Have a rare type of autoimmune disorder
  • Are taking the medicine called eculizumab
  • Have asplenia , including sickle cell disease
  • Have HIV infection
  • For more information, see the CDC Travelers’ Health website
  • Are part of a group of people identified to be at increased risk because of a meningococcal disease outbreak
  • Are a microbiologist who is routinely exposed to the bacteria Neisseria meningitides
  • Are not up to date with this vaccine and are a first-year college student living in a residence hall
  • Are a military recruit
  • People who are at increased risk for meningococcal disease should get revaccinated every five years with MenACWY as long as the person remains at increased risk. Protection from the vaccine decreases within five years, which is why booster shots are recommended.

    People should get MenB vaccine if they:

    Find out what other vaccines adolescents need, and how meningococcal vaccines fit into the recommended vaccine schedule for preteens and teens. College students need some vaccines, too.

    Other Vaccines To Prevent Meningitis

    Vaccines can prevent many of the diseases that could lead to meningitis. Most of these shots are routinely given to young children. Some of these include:

    Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine. It prevents infections that cause pneumonia, meningitis, and other problems. Kids get it when they’re between 2 months and 15 months old. It’s also given to children over age 5 or adults with certain medical conditions. While Hib used to be the most likely cause of bacterial meningitis in children under age 5, the vaccine has made it very rare.

    Pneumococcal vaccines. They protect against bacterial meningitis. There are two types. Doctors give the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine to children under age 2. The pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine is recommended for all adults over 65. Some younger adults and children with a missing spleen, weakened immune systems, and certain long-term diseases may also need it.

    MMR vaccine. Children need it to protect them from meningitis that can develop from measles and mumps.

    Varicella vaccineand shingles vaccine. They target the varicella virus, which can potentially lead to viral meningitis.

    Getting Your Meningococcal Vaccine

    If you think you may need a meningococcal vaccine, talk to your healthcare provider. They will help you figure out if the meningococcal vaccine is right for you.

    Your primary care providers office usually carries meningococcal vaccines and many retail pharmacies may carry them as well. Its a good idea to call ahead to make sure its in stock.

    Its also a good idea to check your insurance coverage to see if the vaccine will be covered better at a providers office or at a pharmacy. Other places to get meningococcal vaccines can include community health clinics and public health departments.

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    What Are Meningitis And Meningococcal Disease

    Meningitis is an inflammation of the linings around the brain and spinal cord. Meningitis can be caused by viruses or bacteria. Often, the symptoms of viral meningitis and bacterial meningitis are the same. Diagnosis of both viral and bacterial meningitis is confirmed by a lumbar puncture .

    Viral meningitis is serious but rarely fatal in persons with normal immune systems. Usually, symptoms last 7-10 days and the person recovers completely. Many different viruses can cause meningitis. About 90% of cases of viral meningitis are caused by members of a group of viruses known as enteroviruses, such as coxsackieviruses and echoviruses. Herpes viruses and the mumps virus can also cause viral meningitis. There is no vaccination or treatment for viral meningitis .

    Bacterial meningitis is of greater concern than viral meningitis, because it is associated with a significant risk of brain damage and death. Meningococcal meningitis, one type of bacterial meningitis, is of particular concern because while uncommon, it does affect college-age students and the disease may progress rapidly if untreated.

    How Common Is Meningococcal Disease

    Treatment and Prevention of Community

    Meningococcal disease is rare, striking annually about 1 in every 100,000 people in the general population. Rates in adolescents and young adults have increased over the last 10 years. The rate of meningococcal infection for students living in residence halls in the U.S. is about 2 in every 100,000 students. The rate of infection is highest among first year students living in residence halls, with about 5 in every 100,000 freshmen infected.

    U-M reported a case of meningococcal meningitis in December 2014, November 2005 and in October 1995.

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    Ingredients In Menb Vaccines

    Meningitis B vaccines, like Bexero and Trumenba, are made up of three proteins found on the surface of one subtype of the Neisseria meningitidis bacteria. The specific proteins differ, depending on whether you receive Bexsero or Trumenba.

    These vaccine contains very small amounts of other ingredients, like aluminum hydroxide, sucrose , histidine , and sodium chloride .

    Understanding The 5 Types Of Meningitis

    Meningitis is an umbrella term for five types of the disease, each characterized by its underlying cause. Find out what distinguishes these types of meningitis and the steps you can take to avoid or treat them.

    How much do you know about meningitis? You may have heard that the disease involves an inflammation of the protective membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord, and you may know that it can be life-threatening.

    And while meningitis is most often caused by bacteria or a virus, did you know that physical injury, illness, and certain medications can also lead to the condition? There are actually five types of meningitis bacterial, viral, parasitic, fungal, and non-infectious each classified by the cause of the disease.

    Symptoms are similar for each type of meningitis, but there are some differences, says Lorene Cathey, RN, MSN, manager of infection prevention at The University of Tennessee Medical Center in Knoxville. The severity and treatment of the disease differs depending on the cause, so identifying which type a person has is important so he can get the right treatment.

    Heres what you should know about the different types of meningitis.

    Bacterial Meningitis

    Viral Meningitis

    Parasitic Meningitis

    Fungal Meningitis

    Non-Infectious Meningitis

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    What Are The Causes Of Meningitis

    Each type of meningitis has a slightly different cause, but each ultimately acts in the same way: A bacterium, fungus, virus, or parasite spreads through the bloodstream until it reaches the brain, or spinal cord. There, it sets up in the lining or fluids around these vital body parts and starts developing into a more advanced infection.

    Non-infectious meningitis is the result of a physical injury or other condition it doesnt involve an infection.

    Common And Local Adverse Events

    Meningococcal vaccine explained – Dr Peter Richmond

    Conjugate meningococcal vaccines

    Men-C-ACYW vaccines

    Injection site reactions occur in up to 59% of vaccinees. Fever is reported in up to 5% of recipients and systemic reactions, such as headache and malaise, are reported in up to 60% of recipients.

    Men-C-C vaccines

    Mild reactions, including injection site reactions , occur in up to 50% of vaccine recipients. Irritability occurs in up to 80% of infants and fever in up to 9% when other vaccines were administered. Headaches and malaise occur in up to 10% of older children and adults. These reactions last no more than a few days.

    Serogroup B Meningococcal vaccines

    4CMenB vaccine

    Solicited local and systemic reactions have been commonly reported in clinical trials and include injection site tenderness, induration, sleepiness and irritability. Higher rates of fever have been observed with simultaneous administration of 4CMenB vaccine and routine infant vaccines therefore, routine prophylactic administration of acetaminophen or separating 4CMenB vaccination from routine vaccination schedule has been proposed for preventing fever in infants and children up to three years of age.

    MenB-fHBP vaccine

    Solicited local and systemic reactions have been commonly reported in clinical trials and include injection site tenderness, induration and irritability.

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    How Effective Is It

    A 2021 study examined Bexsero using data from Quebec, Italy, the United Kingdom, Portugal, and South Australia to determine its safety and effectiveness.

    The researchers found that meningitis B rates decreased by 50 to 100 percent in vaccine-eligible populations. The vaccines were found to be 79 to 100 percent effective in people who received two or more doses.

    Clinical trials have found promising results for Trumenba as well. is needed to understand its true effectiveness, but researchers believe that it can also provide a high level of protection.

    What Are The Meningococcal Vaccine Side Effects

    As with any other vaccine, you may have side effects after getting a meningococcal vaccine. The most common reactions are mild and go away after a few days without any problems.

    Mild reactions to MenB vaccines seem to last slightly longer than mild reactions to MenACWY vaccines .

    Common side effects of the MenACWY vaccines include:

    • Skin irritation at the location of the shot

    • Headache

    • Chills or fever

    • Diarrhea or nausea

    Serious but rare side effects from any injected vaccine include severe allergic reactions and fainting. Sit or lay down for about 15 minutes after receiving a vaccine if youre feeling dizzy or lightheaded.

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    How Does Meningococcal Disease Occur

    Approximately 10% of the general population carry meningococcal bacteria in the nose and throat in a harmless state. This carrier state may last for days or months before spontaneously disappearing, and it seems to give people who harbor the bacteria in their upper respiratory tracts some protection from developing meningococcal disease.

    During meningococcal disease outbreaks, close to 95% of people may carry the bacteria, yet less than 1% of people develop meningococcal disease. This low occurrence of disease following exposure suggests that a person’s own immune system, in addition to bacterial factors, plays a key role in allowing the disease to develop.

    Meningococcal bacteria cannot usually live for more than a few minutes outside the body. As a result, they are not easily transmitted in water supplies, swimming pools, or by routine contact with an infected person in a classroom, dining room, bar, rest room, etc.

    Healthy Infants And Children

    Meningococcal Disease

    One dose of Men-C-C vaccine is recommended in unimmunized children less than 5 years of age. One dose of Men-C-C vaccine may be considered for children 5 to 11 years of age if they have not previously been immunized as infants or toddlers. Immunization with 4CMenB vaccine or MenB-fHBP may be considered on an individual basis, depending on individual preferences, regional serogroup B epidemiology and strain susceptibility.

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    Why Do Teens Need A Meningococcal Vaccine

    Of the 1,000-2,600 people who get meningococcal disease each year, one-third are teens and young adults. Ten percent to 15% of those who get sick with the disease will die, even with antibiotic treatment. As many as 20% of the survivorswill have permanent side effects, such as hearing loss or brain damage.

    The immunization can help prevent this serious disease.

    Meningococcal B Vaccine Bexsero

    Bexsero is broadly protective against meningococcal group B disease. Bexsero can be used to protect babies, children, adolescents and adults. Infants younger than twelve months of age need three doses to be fully protected. Older children, adolescents, and adults need two doses to be protected.

    From 1 July 2021, Bexsero vaccine will be provided free of charge to close contacts of meningococcal cases of any meningococcal group , or people who are at higher risk of contracting meningococcal B disease because they:

    • are pre- or post-splenectomy

    • are pre- or post-solid organ transplant

    • are post-bone marrow transplant

    • are pre- or post-immunosuppression that will be/is longer than 28 days.

    For others wishing to be protected against meningococcal B disease, Bexsero is available through your family doctor. The cost is approximately $150 per dose.

    Bexsero is different to the MeNZB vaccine used in New Zealand between 2004 and 2011. The MeNZB vaccine was designed to target a specific type of meningococcal group B bacterium that only caused disease here in New Zealand. MeNZB was not meant for long term use. The vaccine was withdrawn once the rate of disease was significantly reduced. However, the active component of the MeNZB vaccine has contributed to the successful development of Bexsero.

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    H Influenzae Type B Vaccine

    This vaccine protects against H. influenzae type b bacteria, which can cause a range of mild to severe illnesses. These include throat swelling, blood infections and pneumonia.

    Before the vaccine, Hib was a leading cause of bacterial meningitis in children under age 5.

    • Hib vaccine is to infants in three to four doses, starting at 2 months old. In rare cases, it may be recommended for older children and young adults with HIV. The vaccine can be given with other vaccines.

    What Are The Side Effects Of Meningococcal Vaccines

    What is bacterial meningitis and how to protect yourself

    Mild side effects happen in about half those who get the vaccine. They may include redness or pain where the skin was injected. These side effects last no longer than 1 or 2 days.

    Serious side effects are rare and can include high fever, weakness, and changes in behavior.

    Severe allergic reactions may happen within minutes or hours of having the vaccination. These are signs of an allergic reaction:

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    Types Of Meningococcal Vaccines

    The first category of vaccine is called the meningococcal conjugate vaccines or MenACWY vaccines. This vaccine protects against four strains of bacteria that fall into serogroups A, C, W, and Y.

    Serogroups are closely related groups of bacteria that all present the same calling cards to the immune system. The MenACWY vaccine protects against meningitis-causing bacteria that present with the A, C, W, or Y calling cards.

    Three types of MenACWY vaccines are currently available:

    • Menactra
    • Menveo
    • MenQuadfi

    The second category of meningococcal vaccines protects against bacteria that fall into serogroup B. These are called MenB vaccines and are sold under the brand names Bexsero and Trumenba.

    The MenB vaccine is fairly new. The FDA approved Trumenba in 2014. Bexsero was approved in 2015. MenB vaccine is not currently part of the U.S. standard childhood vaccine immunization schedule. But in other countries, like the United Kingdom, Bexsero is routinely given during infancy.

    Who Shouldn’t Get Vaccinated

    According to the CDC, some people should speak to their healthcare provider before receiving a meningococcal vaccine. Specifically, people who have had life-threatening allergic reactions to meningococcal vaccines or their ingredients should not receive it.

    Growing evidence suggests that it is safe for pregnant people to receive a MenACWY vaccine. The CDC notes that pregnancy shouldn’t preclude a person from seeking a MenACWY vaccine and that they should contact a healthcare provider for more information.

    As for MenB vaccines, the CDC notes that there have been no randomized controlled trials evaluating this vaccine’s safety for pregnant or lactating people. The agency suggests that vaccination can wait until after this period. But if the person is at increased risk of meningococcal disease, a vaccine should still be considered.

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    What Are The Risks From Meningococcal Vaccine

    Most people have mild side effects from the vaccine, such as redness or pain where the shot was given. A vaccine, like any medicine, may cause serious problems, such as severe allergic reactions. This risk is extremely small. Getting the meningococcal vaccine is much safer than getting the disease.

    You can learn more on the Vaccine Information Statements for meningococcal ACWY and meningococcal B.

    Two Types Of Meningitis Vaccine:

    Interim Estimates of Vaccine Effectiveness of BNT162b2 and ...

    Two categories of meningitis vaccine are available at UHS, quadrivalent vaccine and meningitis B vaccine.

    Quadrivalent vaccine is routinely recommended for our incoming first-year students, especially for those living in residence halls:

    • Protects against four strains , which cause 2/3 of meningitis cases
    • Brand names are Menactra, Menomune and Menveo
    • Recommended for adolescents 11-18 years old and certain others first-year college students living in residence halls are at increased risk of disease
    • For more information including side effects and contraindications, see CDC Vaccine Information Statement

    Meningitis B vaccine expands protection against this serious but rare infection.

    • People ages 16 -23 years old are eligible to receive this vaccine, and ages 16 -18 years are the preferred ages for vaccination.

    • People 10 years or older who are at increased risk are recommended to receive the vaccine, including:

    • People at risk because of a serogroup B meningococcal disease outbreak
    • Anyone whose spleen is damaged or has been removed
    • Anyone with a rare immune system condition called persistent complement component deficiency
    • Anyone taking a drug called eculizumab
    • Microbiologists who routinely work with isolates of N. meningitidis

    The vaccine:

    • Protects against strain B, which causes 1/3 of meningitis cases
    • Brand names are Bexsero and Trumenba, which are both offered at UHS.
    • Is relatively expensive, so be sure to check whether it is covered by your health insurance.

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    Is Meningococcal Disease Serious

    Meningococcal meningitis and bloodstream infections can be very serious, even deadly. The infections progress quickly. Someone can go from being healthy to very ill in 48 hours or less. Even if they get treatment, about 10 to 15 out of 100 people with meningococcal disease will die from it. Long-term disabilities from having meningococcal disease include loss of limbs, deafness, nervous system problems, and brain damage.

    Haemophilus Influenzae Type B/hib

    Hib vaccines protect against Haemophilus Influenzae Type B.

    The Hib vaccine is on the National Immunisation Plan in Australia and is given at 2months, 4 months, 6 months and 18 months.

    Conjugated Hib vaccines are highly effective in preventing Hib disease and are recommended for routine use in all infants.

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    Simultaneous Administration With Other Vaccines

    Men-C-C and 4CMenB vaccine may be administered concomitantly with routine childhood vaccines, and Men-C-ACYW vaccine may be administered concomitantly with adolescent and adult age appropriate vaccines. MenB-fHBP can be given concomitantly with quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine meningococcal serogroup A, C, Y, W conjugate vaccine and tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccine adsorbed. The concomitant administration of MenB-fHBP has not been studied with other vaccines.

    Men-C-ACYW-CRM can be administered with routine paediatric vaccines however, further studies are needed with regard to concomitant administration with pneumococcal 13-valent conjugate vaccine. Co-administration of Men-C-ACYW-CRM and combined tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccine may result in a lower immune response to the pertussis antigens than when Tdap vaccine is given alone however, the clinical significance of this is unknown. Tdap vaccine given one month after Men-C-ACYW-CRM induces the strongest immunologic response to pertussis antigens.

    If vaccines are to be administered concomitantly with another vaccine, a separate injection site and a different syringe must be used for each injection.

    Refer to Timing of Vaccine Administration in Part 1 for additional general information.

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