Measles Mumps Rubella And Varicella Vaccine
The Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care recently introduced a new measles, mumps, rubella and varicella vaccine to the Publicly Funded Immunization Schedules for Ontario.
Immunization against measles, mumps and rubella is required by law for all children attending school in Ontario, unless exempted. Immunization against varicella is also required for children born in 2010 or later.
What is measles?
Measles can be a serious infection. It causes high fever, cough, rash, runny nose and watery eyes. Measles lasts for one to two weeks. Ear infections or pneumonia can happen in one out of every 10 children with measles. Measles can also be complicated by encephalitis, an infection of the brain, in about one out of every 1,000 children with measles. This may cause brain damage and developmental delays. Measles can also make a pregnant woman have a miscarriage or give birth prematurely.
Measles spreads from person to person very easily and quickly. People can get measles from an infected person coughing or sneezing around them or simply talking to them.
What is mumps?
Mumps can cause very painful, swollen testicles in about one out of four teenage boys or adult men, and painful infection of the ovaries in one out of 20 women. Mumps infection during the first three months of pregnancy may increase the risk of miscarriage. Mumps can cause deafness in some people.
What is rubella ?
What is varicella ?
Does An Adult Get The Same Amount Of Vaccine Than A Baby
Does an adult get the same amount of vaccine than a baby? how do you decide how much to give if not by weight? if a child is underweight would waiting make more sense?
Vaccines do not work like medications so in many cases the same vaccine dose can be given to different age groups however, in some cases, different versions of vaccines are available for different age groups. There are specific adult and pediatric versions of hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis vaccines. With hepatitis A and hepatitis B vaccines, adults receive greater quantities of the components that give protection in order to produce a protective response. However, in the case of the latter vaccines, the quantities of components of the diphtheria and pertussis vaccines used in adults are less than those found in pediatric doses because adults are more likely to experience side effects from these vaccines.
People are sometimes concerned about the dosing of vaccines because they compare them with medications, which are given in different doses based on body weight. This is like comparing apples and oranges. Medications work when a certain level is present in the bloodstream so, the weight of a person is important. It takes more of a medicine to see the same effect in a larger person than it does in a smaller person. This is similar to the effects of alcohol on a large man and a small woman.
Tetanus Toxoid Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid And Acellular Pertussis Vaccine Adsorbed
- Brand Names: Adacel and Boostrix
- What it’s for: Booster shot for kids at 10 or 11 years of age to prevent the bacterial infections diphtheria, tetanus , and pertussis . In addition, Boostrix is approved for all individuals 10 years of age and older, . Adacel is approved for use in people ages 10 through 64 years.
- Common side effects may include: Pain, redness and swelling at the injection site, headache, and tiredness.
- Tell your healthcare provider beforehand if: The child is moderately or severely ill, has had swelling of the brain within 7 days after a previous dose of pertussis vaccine, or any allergic reaction to any vaccine that protects against diphtheria, tetanus or pertussis diseases.
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Vaccination And Your Child
Vaccination is the best way to protect your child against many dangerous diseases. In Canada, vaccines prevent illnesses such as diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis , polio, Haemophilus influenzae type B , rotavirus, hepatitis B, measles, mumps, rubella, chickenpox, pneumococcal and meningococcal diseases, human papillomavirus virus , and influenza.
Do Vaccinations Have Risks Or Side Effects
Like any medicine, vaccinations can cause side effects. A side effect is an effect of a drug or treatment that is not the intended result. For example, a side effect of some cold medicines is that they make you sleepy. Most of the time, side effects from vaccinations are mild, go away on their own and last only a few days. Most side effects are a good sign that your babys immune system is building up protection against the disease he was vaccinated against. Your babys immune system helps protect him from infection.
Ask your babys provider about possible side effects of vaccinations, including:
- Low fever
- Redness, swelling or soreness at the spot where your baby got the shot
Severe allergic reactions to vaccines are rare. An allergic reaction is a reaction to something you touch, eat or breathe in. About 1 in 1 million doses of vaccines causes a severe allergic reaction. A severe allergic reaction happens within minutes or a few hours of the vaccination. If your baby has signs of a severe allergic reaction or a reaction that you think is an emergency, call 911. Signs of a severe allergic reaction include:
- Breathing problems
- Swelling of the throat and face
- Hives. These are red bumps on your skin that sometimes itch.
- Fever, sleepiness and not wanting to eat
- Weakness, dizziness and fast heartbeat
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During What Trimester Should I Get The Vaccine
Scientists who looked at people who got vaccinated earlier than 20 weeks pregnant didn’t find an increased risk of miscarriage compared to those who didn’t, according to a report from the V-safe pregnancy registry. Earlier data that was available reflected vaccination during the later stages of pregnancy.
Some people holding out on getting vaccinated during the first trimester may be due to the naturally high rate of miscarriage in the first three months, and patients being more cautious because of that. About 10% of known pregnancies end in miscarriage, according to the ACOG, but the risk also increases with age. About 80% of miscarriages happen in the first trimester.
“Most people feel concerned in the first trimester because there’s such a high risk of miscarriage in general,” Speichinger said. “Conflating the miscarriage with vaccine administration is what leads to vaccine hesitancy in the first trimester.”
Research shows that parents vaccinated during the third trimester of pregnancy may pass antibodies onto their newborns.
Less Than 10% In Nigeria
Nigeria is an African country that sits on the coast of Guinea on the east coast. It contains many wildlife parks and natural reserves because of its location. Among these are Cross River National Park, Yankari National Park, and Zuma Rock. These things can attract tourist interest. The area is known for being in poverty, however the people have a lot of culture. They practice a lot of music, create art, and make amazing food.
Nigeria also has the lowest vaccination rates in the world. Less than ten percent of the population in Nigeria will receive a measles vaccine over the course of the year. Because of this, the infant mortality rate is higher in Nigeria than in most modern countries. The main reason for the low vaccine is a lack of vaccine policy in the country, and therefore the vaccines are more difficult to access. Accessible, affordable vaccines are harder to come by.
Keeping Track Of Immunizations
Most of your childs vaccinations are completed between birth and 6 years. Many vaccines are given more than once, at different ages, and in combinations. This means that youll need to keep a careful record of your child’s shots. Although your doctor’s office will also keep track, people change doctors, records get lost, and the person ultimately responsible for keeping track of your child’s immunizations is you.
Ask your child’s doctor for an immunization record form. Think about your child’s record as you would a birth certificate and keep it with your other essential documents. You can also download an easy-to-read immunization schedule and record form at the CDC website.
Even though most parents and doctors do a good job of keeping up with immunizations, studies show that about one-fourth of preschool children are missing at least one routine vaccination. Most states will not let your child start school without a complete immunization record. Sometimes a vaccination is missed when a child is sick. No matter what the reason, its important to make up missed immunizations.
If your child has missed an immunization, you don’t have to go back and start over for most vaccines. The previous immunizations are still good. Your doctor will just resume the immunization schedule. If, for any reason, your child receives additional doses of a vaccine, this is also not a concern, although your child will still need any future doses according to the recommended schedule.
How Does Immunisation Work
Immunisation is a simple, safe and effective way to protect children against certain diseases. The serious health risks of these diseases are far greater than the very small risks of immunisation.
Immunisation protects children against harmful infections before they come into contact with them in the community.
It uses the bodys natural defence mechanism the immune system to build resistance to specific infections. Generally it takes about 2 weeks after vaccination for the immune system to respond fully.
Vaccination is the term used for getting a vaccine that is, getting the injection or taking an oral vaccine dose. Immunisation refers to the process of both getting the vaccine and becoming immune to the disease after vaccination.
Learn more about the difference between vaccination and immunisation.
Vaccines for babies and young children are funded under the Department of Health’s National Immunisation Program.
In Australia, babies and children are immunised against the following diseases:
The hepatitis A vaccine is free for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children living in high-risk areas .
Children aged 6 months to under 5 years can have the flu vaccine for free each year. It is available in autumn. Children aged 12 to 13 should be vaccinated against human papillomavirus through their schools.
Most vaccines recommended in the program are given by injection. Some combine several vaccines in the one injection.
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What Are The Types Of Vaccines
There are a few different types of vaccines. They include:
- Attenuated live germs are used in some vaccines such as in the measles, mumps, and rubella and chickenpox vaccines.
- Killed germs are used in some vaccines, such as in the flu shot or the inactivated poliovirus vaccine.
- Toxoid vaccines contain an inactivated toxin made by the germ. For example, the diphtheria and tetanus vaccines are toxoid vaccines.
- Conjugate vaccines contain small pieces of the germ combined with proteins that help trigger a strong immune response. Many commonly used vaccines are made this way, including those that protect against hepatitis B, HPV, whooping cough, and meningitis.
- mRNA vaccines use a piece of the germs RNA, which is part of its genetic material. Some of the COVID-19 vaccines are this type.
The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that kids get combination vaccines whenever possible. Many vaccines are offered in combination to help lower the number of shots a child gets. This has been shown to be very safe. From the day a baby is born, their immune system is exposed to countless germs every day. A few more in a combination vaccine is very easy for the immune system to handle.
What To Know About Covid Vaccines And Boosters During Pregnancy
Research finds that a COVID-19 diagnosis is associated with an increased risk of stillbirth. Here’s what to know about vaccines, fertility and more.
In September, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended “urgent action” to get pregnant people, and those who want to be pregnant in the future, vaccinated against COVID-19. The alert was issued after mounting evidence demonstrated how COVID-19 affected the outcomes of pregnancy and the overall health of the pregnant person. As of mid-September, only 31% of pregnant people were vaccinated against COVID-19 — a much lower rate than the general US adult population — but they had a 70% increased risk of dying from symptomatic COVID-19 compared to people who weren’t pregnant.
Now, research is showing that pregnant people with COVID-19 have a higher risk of their baby being stillborn, according to a November report by the CDC. While the overall rate of stillbirths was low from March 2020 to September 2021, people who had COVID-19 during their delivery had a 1.26% chance of stillbirth, compared to people without COVID-19 at .64% — roughly double the risk. This risk was even higher, the CDC said, during the months the delta variant was circulating.
The World Health Organization says COVID-19 vaccines approved by the WHO can be taken by people who are on their period , pregnant, planning to get pregnant and breastfeeding.
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Why Childhood Immunizations Are Important
Childhood vaccines or immunizations can seem overwhelming when you are a new parent. Vaccine schedules recommended by agencies and organizations, such as the CDC, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the American Academy of Family Physicians cover about 14 different diseases.
Vaccinations not only protect your child from deadly diseases, such as polio, tetanus, and diphtheria, but they also keep other children safe by eliminating or greatly decreasing dangerous diseases that used to spread from child to child.
A vaccine is a dead, or weakened version, or part of the germ that causes the disease in question. When children are exposed to a disease in vaccine form, their immune system, which is the body’s germ-fighting machine, is able to build up antibodies that protect them from contracting the disease if and when they are exposed to the actual disease.
Over the years, vaccines have generated some controversy over safety, but no convincing evidence of harm has been found. And although children can have a reaction to any vaccine, the important thing to know is that the benefits of vaccinations far outweigh the possible side effects.
Immunisation And Young Children
In the first months of life, a baby might have some protection from infectious diseases that their mother has had or been immunised against. This is known as passive immunity. It occurs when antibodies are transferred from mother to baby during pregnancy. The level of antibody protection for the baby can be low and wears off quickly. This puts them at risk of diseases that can be prevented with vaccination.Most childhood immunisations are given as an injection in the arm or leg, except rotavirus vaccine, which is given by mouth. A vaccination dose may contain a vaccine against one specific disease, or several diseases. This is known as a combination injection, and it helps to reduce the number of injections your child needs.
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Are There Any Reasons My Child Should Not Be Vaccinated
In special situations, children should not be vaccinated. For example, some vaccines shouldnt be given to children who have certain types of cancer or certain diseases. Vaccines should not be given to children who are taking drugs that lower the bodys ability to resist infection.
If your child has had a serious reaction to the first shot in a series of shots, talk to your family doctor about the pros and cons of giving your child the rest of the shots in the series.
Tetanus Diphtheria And Pertussis Vaccine
Tdap is a three-in-one vaccine. It protects people against tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis.
Immunization against tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis is required by law for all children attending school in Ontario, unless exempted.
What is tetanus?
Tetanus or lockjaw is a serious disease that can happen if dirt with the tetanus germ gets into a cut in the skin. Tetanus germs are found everywhere, usually in soil, dust and manure. It does not spread from person to person. Tetanus causes cramping of the muscles in the neck, arms, leg and stomach, and painful convulsions which can be severe enough to break bones. Even with early treatment, tetanus kills two out of every 10 people who get it.
What is diphtheria?
Diphtheria is a serious disease of the nose, throat and skin. It causes sore throat, fever and chills. It can be complicated by breathing problems, heart failure and nerve damage. Diphtheria kills about one out of every 10 people who get the disease. It is most often passed to others through coughing and sneezing.
What is pertussis?
Some immunizations are required for children to attend school in Ontario. Please see the school immunization checklist for more information.
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What Is The Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine
The meningococcal conjugate vaccine protects against four strains of bacterial meningitis caused by the bacteria N. meningitidis. Bacterial meningitis is an infection of the fluid around the brain and spinal cord. It is a serious illness that can cause high fever, headache, stiff neck, and confusion. It can also cause more serious complications, such as brain damage, hearing loss, or blindness.
Children should get the MCV4 vaccine at 11 to 12 years of age. Children older than 12 years of age who have not received the vaccine should receive it before starting high school.
Managing Fever After Immunisation
Common side effects following immunisation are usually mild and temporary . Specific treatment is not usually required.
There are a number of treatment options that can reduce the side effects of the vaccine including:
- giving extra fluids to drink and not overdressing if there is a fever
- although routine use of paracetamol after vaccination is not recommended, if pain or fever is present, or baby is crying and unsettled paracetamol can be given check the label for the correct dose or speak with your pharmacist .
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