Who Should Get Meningococcal Vaccines
CDC recommends meningococcal vaccination for all preteens and teens. In certain situations, CDC also recommends other children and adults get meningococcal vaccines. Below is more information about which meningococcal vaccines, including booster shots, CDC recommends for people by age.
Talk to your or your childs doctor about what is best for your specific situation.
Meningococcal Vaccine: Canadian Immunization Guide
For health professionals
Latest partial content update :
: The chapter has been updated to align with the National Advisory Committee on Immunization Statement : The Use of Bivalent Factor H Binding Protein Meningococcal Serogroup B Vaccine for the Prevention of Meningococcal B Disease.
MenB-fHBP vaccine may be considered as an option for use in individuals 10 years of age and older in situations when a serogroup B meningococcal vaccine should be offered:
MenB-fHBP vaccine may be considered as an option for individuals 1025 years of age who are not at higher risk of meningococcal disease than the general population, but who wish to reduce their risk of invasive serogroup B meningococcal disease.
Last complete chapter revision: May 2015
Meningitis Rash Glass Test
Meningococcal meningitis is a kind of bacterial meningitis that is caused by the bacterium strain of Neisseria meningitidis. M.meningitis can lead to the development of septicemia which is an infection of blood in the body. This is also called as Meningococcal septicemia or meningococcemia. This causes a weird rash on the skin surface which is characterized by small, non- bulged, purple reddish scrape. Meningococcemia causes bleeding outside the capillary tubes which results in the appearance of rashes on the skin.
Meningococcal meningitis can result in rash or inflammation in about 50% of people with this problem.
It is possible to detect the origin of rash that is from meningococcemia by pressing a glass tumbler against the rash. If the rash doesn’t disappear after the test, it indicates that the person may have meningococcemia.
Note – A person should not depend on the glass test for the identification of rash as it can also result from other factors. A proper consultation from a doctor is recommended for the disease.
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What Is Meningococcal Disease
Meningococcal disease can refer to any illness caused by a type of bacteria called Neisseria meningitidis, also known as meningococcus . Meningococcal disease is not very common in the United States, but teens and young adults are at increased risk.
The two most common types of infections are
Who Gets Bacterial Meningitis
Children between the ages of 1 month and 2 years are the most susceptible to bacterial meningitis.
Additionally, if you have had brain or spinal surgery or have had a widespread blood infection you are also a higher risk for bacterial meningitis.
Outbreaks of bacterial meningitis also occur in living situations where you are in close contact with others, such as college dormitories or military barracks.
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Global Public Health Response Elimination Of Meningococcal A Meningitis Epidemics In The African Meningitis Belt
In the African meningitis belt, meningococcus serogroup A accounted for 8085% of meningitis epidemics before the introduction of a meningococcal A conjugate vaccine through mass preventive campaigns and into routine immunization programmes . As of April 2021, 24 of the 26 countries in the meningitis belt have conducted mass preventive campaigns targeting 1-29 year olds , and half of them have introduced this vaccine into their national routine immunization schedules. Among vaccinated populations, incidence of serogroup A meningitis has declined by more than 99% – no serogroup A case has been confirmed since 2017. Continuing introduction into routine immunization programmes and maintaining high coverage is critical to avoid the resurgence of epidemics.
Cases of meningitis and outbreaks due to other meningococcal serogroups, apart from serogroup B, continue to strike. The roll out of multivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccines is a public health priority to eliminate bacterial meningitis epidemics in the African Meningitis Belt.
The pneumococcus has over 97 serotypes, 23 causing most disease.
Haemophilus influenzae has 6 serotypes, serotype b causing most meningitis.
- Conjugate vaccines protect specifically against Haemophilus influenzae serotype b . They are highly effective in preventing Hib disease and are recommended for routine use in infant vaccine schedules.
Group B streptococcus
Are There Times You Shouldn’t Get The Vaccine
Typically, you want to avoid getting it if you:
- Are very sick. A mild cold is OK, but for anything more than that, it’s better to hold off.
- Had a severe, life-threatening allergy to a meningitis vaccine or some part of it. Your doctor can tell you what’s in the vaccine.
- Had a severe reaction to the DTap vaccine or latex
- Have Guillain-Barre syndrome. Ask your doctor if the vaccine is safe for you.
- Have a latex allergy
May be pregnant or are breastfeeding. It’s typically best to avoid the vaccine in this case, but if it’s needed, your doctor can help weigh the pros and cons.
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Exemptions To The Vaccination Requirement
A student is not required to submit evidence of receiving the vaccination against bacterial meningitis if the student meets any of the following criteria:
- the student is 22 years of age or older by the first day of the start of the semester or
- the student is enrolled only in online or other distance education courses or
- the student is enrolled in a continuing education course or program that is less than 360 contact hours, or continuing education corporate training or
- the student is enrolled in a dual credit course which is taught at a public or private K-12 facility not located on a higher education institution campus or
- Note: Students in Texas are required to receive an MCV4 vaccine on or after the students 11th birthday.
A student is not required to submit evidence of receiving the vaccination against bacterial meningitis if the student submits to the institution:
For public junior college students only: the secure on-line exemption form is available at DSHS exemption form. According to DSHS rules, a copy of the form must be submitted to the designated school official at the institution the student will be attending.
Other Vaccines To Prevent Meningitis
Vaccines can prevent many of the diseases that could lead to meningitis. Most of these shots are routinely given to young children. Some of these include:
Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine. It prevents infections that cause pneumonia, meningitis, and other problems. Kids get it when they’re between 2 months and 15 months old. It’s also given to children over age 5 or adults with certain medical conditions. While Hib used to be the most likely cause of bacterial meningitis in children under age 5, the vaccine has made it very rare.
Pneumococcal vaccines. They protect against bacterial meningitis. There are two types. Doctors give the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine to children under age 2. The pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine is recommended for all adults over 65. Some younger adults and children with a missing spleen, weakened immune systems, and certain long-term diseases may also need it.
MMR vaccine. Children need it to protect them from meningitis that can develop from measles and mumps.
Varicella vaccineand shingles vaccine. They target the varicella virus, which can potentially lead to viral meningitis.
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Do I Have To Get The Meningitis Vaccination
- Entering students 22 years of age or older by the first day of class for the semester are exempt.
- Students taking online classes only should submit an Online Enrollment Only Exemption Request form
- If your physician recommends that for health reasons the student not receive the immunization, the student should submit a Vaccine Requirement Form and submit a note from the physician. The signed note should be on either office letterhead or on prescription paper.
- If for reasons of conscience, including religious belief you are declining the vaccination, students should submit a completed Vaccine Requirement Form and an Affidavit from the Texas Department of State Health Services. Initiate your request to TDSHS well before your intended orientation date. It may take several weeks to receive your form during peak times.
How Does Meningococcal Disease Occur
Approximately 10% of the general population carry meningococcal bacteria in the nose and throat in a harmless state. This carrier state may last for days or months before spontaneously disappearing, and it seems to give people who harbor the bacteria in their upper respiratory tracts some protection from developing meningococcal disease.
During meningococcal disease outbreaks, close to 95% of people may carry the bacteria, yet less than 1% of people develop meningococcal disease. This low occurrence of disease following exposure suggests that a person’s own immune system, in addition to bacterial factors, plays a key role in allowing the disease to develop.
Meningococcal bacteria cannot usually live for more than a few minutes outside the body. As a result, they are not easily transmitted in water supplies, swimming pools, or by routine contact with an infected person in a classroom, dining room, bar, rest room, etc.
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Is There A Vaccine For Bacterial Meningitis
Yes, there are two kind of vaccines available for meningitis in the United States. One type is called a meningococcal conjugate brand names are MentactraÂ® and MenveoÂ®. The other type is a Serogroup B meningococcal vaccine brand names are BexseroÂ® and TrumenbaÂ®. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention agency has specific guidelines regarding who should receive the vaccine.
The CDC recommends MenACWY vaccine for:
- All children aged 11-12 years old, with a booster dose at 16 years old.
- Children and adults who are at higher risk of disease due to:
- Complement component deficiency
The CDC recommends the MenB vaccine be given to people who are 10 years old or older who have risk factors for meningococcal disease.
The CDC does not recommend the vaccine for:
- Anyone who has ever had a severe allergic reaction to a previous dose of meningococcal vaccine.
- Anyone who has a severe allergy to any vaccine component. Tell your doctor if you have any severe allergies.
The CDC recommends that the following individuals wait before receiving the vaccine or talk further with their doctor about the need for the vaccine:
- Anyone who is moderately or severely ill at the time of their scheduled appointment to receive their shot should wait until they recover.
- Anyone who has ever had Guillain-Barre syndrome should discuss getting the vaccine with his or her doctor.
- Pregnant women should only get the vaccine if it is clearly needed. Discuss the need with your doctor.
Where Can Students Get The Bacterial Meningitis Vaccine
Students with insurance The bacterial meningitis vaccine is available at most doctors’ offices and private clinics, many large pharmacy chains, and some minor emergency centers or medi-clinics. It is recommended that the student call to schedule an appointment to confirm that the facility offers the vaccine and accepts their insurance. The UH Health Center offers the bacterial meningitis vaccine for a cost to admitted students, but the health care providers mentioned above may be able to provide the vaccine at a lower cost.
Students with Medicaid or CHIP The first option for students who have Medicaid or CHIP should be to contact his/her established healthcare provider to see if they offer the vaccine.
Students without insurance or whose insurance doesnt cover the bacterial meningitis vaccine
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Is It Too Late To Get Vaccinated
The answer to this question isnt so clear-cut. If you have an unvaccinated teen headed off to college, there is still time for them to get their vaccines. Your child may also need another shot if they had the vaccine as a preteen. Meningitis vaccines are thought to only last for about five years, according to the Center for Young Womens Health.
Adults can also get the meningitis vaccine if their doctors recommend it. Certain situations can warrant the use of meningitis vaccinations. Examples include spleen removal, going to military camp, or traveling overseas.
Once I Submit My Documentation How Do I Know If It Has Been Approved
Students can log in to the myUH self-service account and access their student account. From the left-hand navigation menu, select “Student Center”. Any holds on a student’s account are always listed in the right-hand column of the Student Center page. The student can be assured that the documentation was approved once the “Bacterial Meningitis” hold is removed.
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What Happens After The Immunization
Your child might have a fever, soreness, and some swelling and redness at the injection area. Check with your doctor to see if you can give either acetaminophen or ibuprofen for pain or fever and to find out the right dose.
A warm, damp cloth or a heating pad on the injection site may help reduce soreness, as can moving or using the arm.
What Causes Bacterial Meningitis
The bacteria most often responsible for bacterial meningitis are common in the environment and can also be found in your nose and respiratory system without causing any harm.
Sometimes meningitis occurs for no known reason. Other times it occurs after a head injury or after you have had an infection and your immune system is weakened.
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Common And Local Adverse Events
Conjugate meningococcal vaccines
Injection site reactions occur in up to 59% of vaccinees. Fever is reported in up to 5% of recipients and systemic reactions, such as headache and malaise, are reported in up to 60% of recipients.
Mild reactions, including injection site reactions , occur in up to 50% of vaccine recipients. Irritability occurs in up to 80% of infants and fever in up to 9% when other vaccines were administered. Headaches and malaise occur in up to 10% of older children and adults. These reactions last no more than a few days.
Serogroup B Meningococcal vaccines
Solicited local and systemic reactions have been commonly reported in clinical trials and include injection site tenderness, induration, sleepiness and irritability. Higher rates of fever have been observed with simultaneous administration of 4CMenB vaccine and routine infant vaccines therefore, routine prophylactic administration of acetaminophen or separating 4CMenB vaccination from routine vaccination schedule has been proposed for preventing fever in infants and children up to three years of age.
Solicited local and systemic reactions have been commonly reported in clinical trials and include injection site tenderness, induration and irritability.
What Are The Options For Meningococcal Vaccine
Meningococcal vaccine is highly effective at protecting against four strains of the meningococcal bacteria. Three strains are common in the United States and the fourth strain protects travelers to certain countries where the disease is more common.
The MenACWY vaccine does not contain the meningococcal B strain that is more commonly found in infants and may cause some cases in adolescents. There is an additional vaccine, meningococcal B vaccine , that contains the B strain. If your clinic does not carry the MenB vaccine, you can ask them to order it for you, or to refer you to another clinic that has the vaccine. Talk to your health care provider about getting this additional vaccine.
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Meningococcal B Vaccine Bexsero
Bexsero is broadly protective against meningococcal group B disease. Bexsero can be used to protect babies, children, adolescents and adults. Infants younger than twelve months of age need three doses to be fully protected. Older children, adolescents, and adults need two doses to be protected.
From 1 July 2021, Bexsero vaccine will be provided free of charge to close contacts of meningococcal cases of any meningococcal group , or people who are at higher risk of contracting meningococcal B disease because they:
are pre- or post-splenectomy
are pre- or post-solid organ transplant
are post-bone marrow transplant
are pre- or post-immunosuppression that will be/is longer than 28 days.
For others wishing to be protected against meningococcal B disease, Bexsero is available through your family doctor. The cost is approximately $150 per dose.
Bexsero is different to the MeNZB vaccine used in New Zealand between 2004 and 2011. The MeNZB vaccine was designed to target a specific type of meningococcal group B bacterium that only caused disease here in New Zealand. MeNZB was not meant for long term use. The vaccine was withdrawn once the rate of disease was significantly reduced. However, the active component of the MeNZB vaccine has contributed to the successful development of Bexsero.