Vaccines For Adolescents: A New Generation Of Vaccines
Adolescents, like adults, were recommended to get tetanus boosters every 10 years most requiring their first booster dose around age 11. Other than this, however, most adolescents did not require additional vaccines unless they missed one in childhood. By 2005, vaccines specifically recommended for adolescents were only recommended for sub-groups based on where they lived or medical conditions that they had. However, a new group of vaccines became available in the latter part of the decade.
- New vaccines: Tdap, 2005, meningococcal conjugate , HPV , meningococcal serogroup B vaccine
- Additional recommendations for existing vaccines: HPV , intranasal influenza vaccine
- New versions of existing vaccines: HPV
- Discontinuation of vaccine: intranasal influenza vaccine
How Well Might A Fourth Dose Protect Against Omicron
In the general population, it appears that booster doses which are third doses protect against severe disease when it comes to the very transmissible variant Omicron.
Vaccines do not necessarily prevent infection, but should make them milder, says Dr. Sparks. It appears this is the case with Omicron. It is very possible that even boosted patients may experience infection, but they are much less likely to require hospital admission or experience other poor outcomes.
However, it gets more complicated when it comes to the immunocompromised population.
If you have generated any antibody responses in the past, the fourth dose is likely to generate protective antibodies against Omicron, says researcher Alfred Kim, MD, Assistant Professor of Medicine, Pathology, and Immunology at Washington University. But if you havent made any antibodies in the past three doses, the chances are much lower that protective antibodies will be made with the fourth dose.
In other words: If you havent already produced antibodies with previous shots, you might not now, either which could leave you more susceptible to Omicron. However, this isnt a hard and fast rule, and some early research is promising.
Plus, antibodies arent the only measure of immune protection, which is why its important to still get the fourth vaccine dose. Experts are working to determine if other parts of the immune system, such as T cells, can provide protection in the absence of protective antibodies.
Vaccine For Hepatitis B
Hepatitis B Vaccine
It takes only a few shots to protect yourself and your loved ones against hepatitis B for a lifetime.
The hepatitis B vaccine is a safe and effective vaccine that is recommended for all infants at birth and for children up to 18 years. The hepatitis B vaccine is also recommended for adults living with diabetes and those at high risk for infection due to their jobs, lifestyle, living situations, or country of birth. Since everyone is at some risk, all adults should seriously consider getting the hepatitis B vaccine for a lifetime protection against a preventable chronic liver disease.
The hepatitis B vaccine is also known as the first anti-cancer vaccine because it prevents hepatitis B, the leading cause of liver cancer worldwide.
You cannot get hepatitis B from the vaccine. All hepatitis B vaccines that have been used since 1986 are made synthetically meaning the hepatitis B vaccines do not contain any blood products. Learn more.
If you have a current HBV infection or have recovered from a past HBV infection, the hepatitis B vaccine series will not benefit you or clear the virus. However, the vaccine can provide a lifetime of protection for loved ones who do not have hepatitis B and get the vaccine as soon as possible. Testing is the only way to know if you or your loved ones have a current infection or have recovered from a past infection.
Hepatitis B Vaccine Recommendations
Three-Dose Hepatitis B Vaccine Schedule
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Most Vaccines Can Be Given During Pregnancy
Like most inactivated vaccines, pertussis and influenza vaccines can be given during pregnancy. They are safe and provide adequate protection to pregnant women.
Only live vaccines such as the measles, mumps and rubella vaccine and live influenza vaccines are generally contraindicated.
All pregnant women should be vaccinated for pertussis and influenza.
Why Do Children Need Vaccination
Vaccines protect children from contracting and spreading many infectious diseases that have led to severe illness, disability and death in the past. Young children are more susceptible to microbial infections than adults, as their immune systems are not fully developed.
Since the advent of vaccination, the incidence of many debilitating childhood diseases is drastically reduced. Some deadly diseases such as smallpox and polio have been eradicated in most parts of the world, thanks to the availability of vaccination.
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Texas Newborn Screening Program
Often referred to as the heelstick because blood is taken from the babys heel, these panels screen for diseases that range from common, such as sickle cell or cystic fibrosis, to much less common, such as phenylketonuria or congenital hypothyroidism. As of 2015, Texas program includes 53 diseases on its panel.
The first test is performed 24 to 48 hours after birth, and a second at one to two weeks at the pediatric care providers office. As with any screen, the goal is to find as many babies at risk as possible. When we detect these conditions early, it allows us to provide appropriate medical care such as altering the diet or providing medicine.
Its important to keep in mind that a positive screen will need to be confirmed with more specific testing.
What Are Pediatric Vaccines
Pediatric vaccines are injections given to children to immunize them to certain diseases caused by germs. Administration of pediatric vaccines begins at birth and continues until 18 years, based on the immunization schedule recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention .
Vaccines are prepared from disease-causing germs, and contain a weakened form of the pathogens or their inactivated components. Vaccines activate the immune system, which generates antibodies to the specific diseases and protect children from contracting those diseases if exposed to them in their daily lives.
Most of the pediatric vaccines are administered in three or four doses spread over a specified time period. In addition to routine childhood vaccines, children also require travel vaccines before travelling to certain countries, to protect them from diseases that are prevalent in those regions.
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Persons With Chronic Diseases
Refer to Immunization of Persons with Chronic Diseases in Part 3 for additional general information about vaccination of people with chronic diseases.
Chronic renal disease and patients on dialysis
People with chronic renal disease may respond sub-optimally to HB vaccine and experience more rapid decline of anti-HBs titres, and are therefore recommended immunization with a higher vaccine dose. Individuals undergoing chronic dialysis are also at increased risk for HB infection. In people with chronic renal disease anti-HBs titre should be evaluated annually and booster doses using a higher vaccine dose should be given as necessary.
People with conditions such as autism spectrum disorders or demyelinating disorders should receive all routinely recommended immunizations, including HB-containing vaccine.
Chronic liver disease
HB immunization is recommended for non-immune persons with chronic liver disease, including those infected with hepatitis C, because they are at risk of more severe disease if infection occurs. Vaccination should be completed early in the course of the disease, as the immune response to vaccine is suboptimal in advanced liver disease. Post-immunization serologic testing may be used to confirm vaccine response.
Non-malignant hematologic disorders
Persons with bleeding disorders and other people receiving repeated infusions of blood or blood products are considered to be at higher risk of contracting HB and should be offered HB vaccine.
When Should A Child Not Be Vaccinated
In a few cases, it’s better to wait to get a vaccine. Some children who are very sick should not get a vaccine at all. Reasons that you should wait or not get a vaccine may include:
- Being sick with something more serious than a cold.
- Having a bad reaction after the first dose of a vaccine.
- Having a convulsion that is thought to be caused by a vaccine.
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Managing Fever After Immunisation
Common side effects following immunisation are usually mild and temporary . Specific treatment is not usually required.
There are a number of treatment options that can reduce the side effects of the vaccine including:
- giving extra fluids to drink and not overdressing if there is a fever
- although routine use of paracetamol after vaccination is not recommended, if pain or fever is present, or baby is crying and unsettled paracetamol can be given check the label for the correct dose or speak with your pharmacist .
Gonorrhea And Chlamydia Test
Some Ob/Gyn practices recommend routine testing at 32 weeks for gonorrhea and chlamydia. Texas is among the states with the highest rate of these sexually transmitted diseases. You may not even know you have these diseases because they dont always present with symptoms. However, the diseases can be passed to the baby during delivery and can cause an infection called ophthalmia neonatorum that may lead to blindness.
If you have been in a long-term, mutually monogamous relationship, you may feel comfortable declining this test. There is a chance the test will return a false-positive result, meaning it may show you have one of these diseases when you actually dont. Remember this before you panic that your partner is cheating on you.
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Annual Updates To The Immunization Schedule 1995 To 2010
As more vaccines became available, an annual update to the schedule was important because of changes that providers needed to know, such as detailed information about who should receive each vaccine, age of receipt, number of doses, time between doses, or use of combination vaccines. New vaccines were also added.
Important changes to the schedule between 1995 and 2010 included:
- New vaccines: Varicella , rotavirus hepatitis A pneumococcal vaccine
- Additional recommendations for existing vaccines: influenza hepatitis A
- New versions of existing vaccines: acellular pertussis vaccine intranasal influenza
- Discontinuation of vaccine: Oral polio vaccine
2000 | Recommended Vaccines
* Given in combination as DTaP** Given in combination as MMR
Immunisation Schedule For Victorian Babies And Young Children
The Victorian immunisation schedule outlines the vaccines that are routinely provided free of charge to all Victorian children under the National Immunisation Program and the Victorian funded program. It also outlines the age at which each vaccination should be given. New vaccines against serious infections continue to be developed and the schedule might be updated in the future.
Fever, feeling unwell, muscle aches, injection site pain, redness and swelling
Additional vaccines are given to children with certain medical risk conditions that put them at increased risk of complications from vaccine preventable diseases, such as:
- babies that are born prematurely or low birth weight
- children with chronic medical risk conditions. Talk with your doctor to see if your child should get extra vaccines.
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Vaccines For Adults Increasing Opportunities For Health
Historically, vaccines were deemed to be only for children. However, vaccines for adults are becoming increasingly common and necessary. Most adults think only of the tetanus booster recommended every 10 years and even then, many adults only get the vaccine if they injure themselves. In 2005, the Tdap vaccine was licensed as an improved version of the typical tetanus booster, Td. The newer version also contains a component to protect against pertussis . All adults, especially those who are going to be around young infants, should get the Tdap vaccine. Adults often unwittingly pass pertussis to young infants for whom the disease can be fatal. In 2012, the CDC recommended that pregnant women get a dose of Tdap during each pregnancy between 27 and 36 weeks gestation. In 2019, the CDC recommended that Tdap or Td vaccine could be used for booster dosing every 10 years.
Influenza vaccines, available since the 1940s, are now recommended for most adults. Vaccines like MMR and chickenpox are recommended for adults who have not had the diseases, and vaccines including hepatitis A, hepatitis B, pneumococcus, and meningococcus are recommended for sub-groups of the adult population. The HPV vaccine became available in 2006. In 2018, the license was expanded to include people up to 45 years of age.
The first formal adult immunization schedule was published in 2002 and is updated annually.
Tetanus Diphtheria And Pertussis Vaccination
- Adolescents age 1112 years: 1 dose Tdap
- Pregnancy: 1 dose Tdap during each pregnancy, preferably during the early part of gestational weeks 2736
- Tdap may be administered regardless of the interval since the last tetanus- and diphtheria-toxoid-containing vaccine.
- Adolescents age 1318 years who have not received Tdap: 1 dose Tdap, then Td or Tdap booster every 10 years
- Persons age 718 years not fully vaccinated* with DTaP: 1 dose Tdap as part of the catch-up series if additional doses are needed, use Td or Tdap.
- Tdap administered at age 710 years
- Children age 79 years who receive Tdap should receive the routine Tdap dose at age 1112 years.
- Children age 10 years who receive Tdap do not need the routine Tdap dose at age 1112 years.
*Fully vaccinated = 5 valid doses of DTaP OR 4 valid doses of DTaP if dose 4 was administered at age 4 years or older.
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Vaccination And Your Child
Vaccination is the best way to protect your child against many dangerous diseases. In Canada, vaccines prevent illnesses such as diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis , polio, Haemophilus influenzae type B , rotavirus, hepatitis B, measles, mumps, rubella, chickenpox, pneumococcal and meningococcal diseases, human papillomavirus virus , and influenza.
Common And Local Adverse Events
HB vaccine is well tolerated. Reactions are generally mild and transient, and include: irritability, headache, fatigue and injection site reactions in 10% or more of recipients.
There is no increase in adverse events when HAHB vaccine is compared with HA vaccine given alone or concomitantly with HB vaccine at a different injection site. When the adult formulation of HAHB vaccine is given to children in the 2 dose schedule, there is no increase in adverse events compared with those occurring after administration of the pediatric formulation of HAHB vaccine.
Reactions are usually mild and transient, and include fever, irritability, restlessness and injection site reactions .
Headache, diarrhea, fever, urticaria, angioedema and injection site reactions may occur.
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Concurrent Administration Of Vaccines
HB-containing vaccines may be administered concomitantly with other vaccines or with HBIg. Different injection sites and separate needles and syringes must be used for concurrent parenteral injections.
Refer to Timing of Vaccine Administration in Part 1 for additional information about concurrent administration of vaccines.
What To Do If You Move
If you move to another province or territory, your child’s vaccination schedule may change. Once you have moved, contact your new health care provider or local public health office. They will tell you which vaccines may be needed in that province or territory.
Remember to take your child’s vaccination record to the appointment with you.
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Are The Vaccines Safe
Yes. Vaccines for childhood diseases are very safe. Sometimes, a vaccine will cause mild side effects like a sore arm/leg or low fever. A bad side effect is not likely to happen. Childhood diseases are a greater health risk to children than the vaccines. Ask your healthcare provider to tell you about risks and side effects.
List Of Vaccines Used In United States
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Immunizations Essential For Your Newborn’s Health
Hi, Im Dr. Emily Bendlin, a pediatrician at Methodist Physicians Clinic Hawthorne Court. I get to work with families, kids and babies every single day.
I recently had my first baby isnt he cute!!!!
When he was delivered at Methodist Womens Hospital a few months ago, right after delivery, I was given the option of three important medications I knew were essential to his health.
Today, I wanted to talk to you about those medications, and just why we here at Methodist recommend that you consider them for your child.
The first is a Vitamin K injection.
All babies are born with very low levels of Vitamin K, which is essential in blood clotting. While babies can produce some Vitamin K, its simply not enough.
Giving newborns injectable Vitamin K at birth immediately gives them enough Vitamin K to prevent their risk of a problem called Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding or VKDB. VKDB is a clotting disorder that causes spontaneous bleeding. It is often internal and can cause brain damage or even death.
A Vitamin K injection at birth will prevent VKDB for six months when they are old enough to eat foods which can provide enough daily Vitamin K to prevent this spontaneous bleeding.
Now, some parents ask about oral Vitamin K medication instead of an injection. There is an oral option, but your baby will need more than one dose. Talk with the hospital and your childs health care provider about options for oral vitamin K.