Thursday, March 23, 2023

What Vaccines Are Newborns Given

Which Countries Have Mandatory Childhood Vaccination Policies

What vaccines are given to a newborn baby at Intermountain hospitals?

With the widespread rollout of COVID-19 vaccines globally, some countries have started to consider mandatory vaccination, although no country has yet to make vaccines mandatory for its population.47 While COVID-19 has resurfaced the debate on vaccination policies, it has been an important topic for many other diseases. The World Health Organization estimates that vaccines save two to three million lives each year . The development of vaccines against vaccine-preventable childhood diseases has been a key driver in the decline of child mortality.

Despite it being such an important topic, it is surprising that information about which countries have mandatory vaccine policy is lacking, and it is childhood vaccines under a countrys national immunization schedules that are most commonly made mandatory.

In this article we present a new global dataset which looks at childhood vaccination policies across the world.

Measles Mumps Rubella And Varicella Vaccine

The Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care recently introduced a new measles, mumps, rubella and varicella vaccine to the Publicly Funded Immunization Schedules for Ontario.

Immunization against measles, mumps and rubella is required by law for all children attending school in Ontario, unless exempted. Immunization against varicella is also required for children born in 2010 or later.

What is measles?

Measles can be a serious infection. It causes high fever, cough, rash, runny nose and watery eyes. Measles lasts for one to two weeks. Ear infections or pneumonia can happen in one out of every 10 children with measles. Measles can also be complicated by encephalitis, an infection of the brain, in about one out of every 1,000 children with measles. This may cause brain damage and developmental delays. Measles can also make a pregnant woman have a miscarriage or give birth prematurely.

Measles spreads from person to person very easily and quickly. People can get measles from an infected person coughing or sneezing around them or simply talking to them.

What is mumps?

Mumps can cause very painful, swollen testicles in about one out of four teenage boys or adult men, and painful infection of the ovaries in one out of 20 women. Mumps infection during the first three months of pregnancy may increase the risk of miscarriage. Mumps can cause deafness in some people.

What is rubella ?

What is varicella ?

Is It Mandatory To Vaccinate A Newborn

Yes, there are some vaccines that are mandatory for every newborn in India to take. The National Immunization Schedule mentions the necessary vaccines that your child needs and the age-wise timings as well. Vaccinations are important to protect your child from viruses out there, so you ideally shouldnt miss your childs vaccination as far as possible.

Recommended Reading: Cvs Tdap Shot

Rotavirus Vaccine Given At 2 And 4 Months

What is rotavirus?

Rotavirus is a common infection that causes vomiting and diarrhea in infants and children. Rotavirus is very contagious, spreading easily from children who are already infected to other infants, children and sometimes adults. Most children are infected with rotavirus at least once by five years of age. Serious but rare symptoms commonly seen in children less than two years of age include severe diarrhea, leading to hospitalization.

Rotavirus infection is a major cause of visits to health care providers and hospital stays for infants and children under five years of age in Ontario. Deaths in Ontario due to rotavirus are rare.

Some immunizations are required for children to attend school in Ontario. Please see the school immunization checklist for more information.

Measles Mumps And Rubella Vaccine

Bid to Lift Flu Jabs in Under

Measles, mumps and rubella vaccine – given at 12 months

The MMR vaccine is a three-in-one needle that protects against measles, mumps and rubella . It should be given to children soon after their first birthday and a second dose at 4-6 years of age with the measles, mumps, rubella and varicella vaccine.

Immunization against measles, mumps and rubella is required by law for all children attending school in Ontario, unless exempted.

This vaccine should also be given to adults who are not protected against measles, mumps or rubella. Pregnant women who have been told that they are not protected against rubella, should receive MMR vaccine as soon as they are no longer pregnant.

What is measles?

Measles can be a serious infection. It causes high fever, cough, rash, runny nose and watery eyes. Measles lasts for one to two weeks. Ear infections or pneumonia can happen in one out of every 10 children with measles. Measles can also be complicated by encephalitis, an infection of the brain, in about one out of every 1,000 children with measles. This may cause brain damage and developmental delays. Measles can also make a pregnant woman have a miscarriage or give birth prematurely.

Measles spreads from person to person very easily and quickly. People can get measles from an infected person coughing or sneezing around them or simply talking to them.

What is mumps?

What is rubella ?

Don’t Miss: Tdap Shot Cvs

How Can I Minimize The Pain

Needles can hurt. To lessen the pain you can:

  • Apply a topical anesthetic an hour before getting the needle. You may have to confirm with your doctor what part of your childs body the shot will be given . Your pharmacist can help you find the cream.
  • Nurse your baby while they get the needle, or give your baby sugar water just before the shot.
  • Use distractions , suggest deep breathing, remain calm and physically comfort your child during the needle.

Do not give your child ibuprofen or acetaminophen before or around the time of vaccination as it does not prevent the pain of injection and it could have an impact on how well the vaccine works. These medications can be used to treat fever, pain, or other bothersome side effects if they develop after vaccination.

For tips on how to make vaccines as pain-free as possible:


  • In some provinces, children get a 5 in 1 vaccine and will receive hepatitis B as a separate vaccine, either in infancy or early adolescence.
  • In other provinces, children receive a 6 in 1 vaccine, which protects against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis , poliomyelitis , Haemophilus influenzae type b and hepatitis B. Your doctor will tell you which vaccine is used in your province or territory. Your child will need 2 or 3 doses depending on the vaccine. Doses are given at least 4 weeks apart.
  • In some jurisdictions, a dose is also given at 6 months. The booster may be given at 12 to 15 months of age.
  • A second dose is given 6 to 12 months after the first.
  • The Schedule From 2011 To Present

    Annual updates to both the childhood and adult immunization schedules offer guidance to healthcare providers in the form of new recommendations, changes to existing recommendations, or clarifications to assist with interpretation of the schedule in certain circumstances. The schedules are reviewed by committees of experts from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the American Academy of Family Physicians.

    Important changes to the schedule:

    • New vaccines: meningococcal serogroup B vaccine
    • Additional recommendations for existing vaccines: HPV , intranasal influenza vaccine
    • Discontinuation of vaccine: intranasal influenza vaccine

    2020 | Recommended Vaccines

    * Given in combination as DTaP** Given in combination as MMR

    You May Like: Tdap Vaccine Cvs

    Tetanus Toxoid Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid And Acellular Pertussis Vaccine Adsorbed

    • Brand Names: Adacel and Boostrix
    • What it’s for: Booster shot for kids at 10 or 11 years of age to prevent the bacterial infections diphtheria, tetanus , and pertussis . In addition, Boostrix is approved for all individuals 10 years of age and older, . Adacel is approved for use in people ages 10 through 64 years.
    • Common side effects may include: Pain, redness and swelling at the injection site, headache, and tiredness.
    • Tell your healthcare provider beforehand if: The child is moderately or severely ill, has had swelling of the brain within 7 days after a previous dose of pertussis vaccine, or any allergic reaction to any vaccine that protects against diphtheria, tetanus or pertussis diseases.

    What If We Missed A Shot

    Newborn Vaccination in The First 24 Hours

    Life with young children can be very busy. You may not be able to make every vaccination appointment for your child. But it is important to get back on schedule.

    You should book an appointment with your healthcare provider as soon as possible. They can help you figure out what vaccines your child has already had and which ones are needed.

    Also Check: Where To Get Tdap Vaccine Cvs

    How Will You Know When Your Babys Immunisations Are Due

    Your doctors surgery or clinic will send you an appointment for you to bring your baby for their immunisations. Most surgeries and health centres run special immunisation or baby clinics. If you cant get to the clinic, contact the surgery to make another appointment. All childhood immunisations are free.

    When Should My Child Be Vaccinated

    Your child needs to be vaccinated at several stages in order to be fully protected. Some vaccines need to be given more than once to build up your child’s immune system.

    Immunization schedules could be different depending in which province or territory you live in. This means that some provinces or territories will give the same vaccine at different ages. But don’t worry, your healthcare provider will give you a vaccination schedule that will tell you which vaccines are needed and at what age. Another way to find your child’s immunization schedule is to check where the schedule for each province and territory is listed.

    Hereâs an example of a typical schedule to be fully protected, your child will be vaccinated starting at birth or age two months, then at four months, six months, between 12 months and 18 months-and also between ages four to six years. Additional vaccinations are needed for school age children.

    Also Check: Can You Get Tdap At Cvs

    Why Does Your Baby Need The Same Vaccination More Than Once

    Your baby needs more than one of every vaccination in the vaccination schedule. For some vaccinations, your baby needs more than one dose to build up enough immunity to protect her from disease. Immunity is her bodys protection from disease. For other vaccinations, immunity decreases over time, so your child needs another dose to boost her immunity. Some vaccinations help protect your child against germs that are always changing, like the flu. This is why your child needs a flu shot every year. To get the best protection from disease, your baby needs all the recommended doses of each vaccine.

    Vaccines For Adults Increasing Opportunities For Health

    What is chickenpox and why do we vaccinate against it ...

    Historically, vaccines were deemed to be only for children. However, vaccines for adults are becoming increasingly common and necessary. Most adults think only of the tetanus booster recommended every 10 years and even then, many adults only get the vaccine if they injure themselves. In 2005, the Tdap vaccine was licensed as an improved version of the typical tetanus booster, Td. The newer version also contains a component to protect against pertussis . All adults, especially those who are going to be around young infants, should get the Tdap vaccine. Adults often unwittingly pass pertussis to young infants for whom the disease can be fatal. In 2012, the CDC recommended that pregnant women get a dose of Tdap during each pregnancy between 27 and 36 weeks gestation. In 2019, the CDC recommended that Tdap or Td vaccine could be used for booster dosing every 10 years.

    Influenza vaccines, available since the 1940s, are now recommended for most adults. Vaccines like MMR and chickenpox are recommended for adults who have not had the diseases, and vaccines including hepatitis A, hepatitis B, pneumococcus, and meningococcus are recommended for sub-groups of the adult population. The HPV vaccine became available in 2006. In 2018, the license was expanded to include people up to 45 years of age.

    The first formal adult immunization schedule was published in 2002 and is updated annually.

    Read Also: How Much Is Tdap Vaccine At Cvs

    Newborn Vaccines Your Baby Needs

    Is your baby protected from vaccine-preventable diseases? Here’s the newborn vaccine schedule recommended by the CDC and AAP for your baby’s first months of life.

    Your baby will be given a handful of vaccines and supplements in the first months of life. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends the carefully-planned childhood vaccine schedule. Following the schedule in the coming months and years will put your infant on track for life-long immunity to dangerous diseases.

    The vaccines recommended for your young baby are closely monitored by the CDC and the Food and Drug Administration for safety and effectiveness. Here are the vaccines that your baby will receive from birth through two months.

    Does Vaccine Skepticism Affect Immunization Coverage

    The crucial question to ask when considering the importance of vaccine skepticism is: does it actually have an effect on behaviour? Does it really affect the share of children who are vaccinated?

    In the chart we see the comparison of vaccination rates here as the share of children who were immunized against diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus in 2015, the latest year available to the share of respondents in a given country who disagreed that vaccines are safe.

    You can also see this relationship for measles vaccine coverage.

    Overall we see that widespread public concern for vaccine safety does not appear to be strongly correlated with vaccination rates. While one-third of the French public disagrees with their safety, 97% of children in France are vaccinated.

    There are numerous other reasons, however, why vaccination rates in some countries are low: in low-to-middle income countries the availability, affordability and access to vaccines can be poor. Having low coverage rates often doesnt reflect the populations view of them. As the chart shows, in many poor countries the situation is the opposite as in France: the vast majority of the population considers vaccine safe, but only about every second child receives the DTP vaccine.

    One country which stands out is Ukraine: there we see that vaccination rates are uncharacteristically low for its income level less than 1-in-4 children receive the DTP vaccine. Skepticism of vaccine safety in Ukraine is high at 15%.

    You May Like: Tdap Shots Cvs

    Why Do Vaccine Schedules Differ

    The chickenpox example

    Chickenpox is an example of a vaccine that some countries adopt into their routine childhood vaccination schedules, while others do not. The question that follows is why there is a difference in opinion for introducing widespread uptake of a vaccine or not. Japan was one of the first countries to adopt universal chickenpox vaccination.46

    Australia, Canada, Germany, Qatar, Republic of Korea, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Uruguay, U.S., Italy and Spain followed afterwards and adopted universal chickenpox vaccination. When extreme cases of chickenpox have occurred there have been calls for the vaccine to become available for free through the National Health Service in the UK. However, most European countries do not vaccinate against chickenpox, except for at risk groups. The main reason for not adopting universal vaccination is the high cost. Additional supporting justifications are that it is usually a mild disease and the benefit of fewer cases of shingles as explained here.

    What Are The Side Effects Of Vaccinations

    Mayo Clinic: Rotavirus Vaccine Given to Newborns in Africa is Effective

    Many children get minor side effects such as redness, soreness and swelling where the needle went in, mild fever, and being irritable or unsettled. If your child has any of these side effects, give them extra fluids to drink, dont overdress them if they feel hot, and consider giving them paracetamol to help ease any fever or soreness. Most side effects are short-lasting and the child recovers without any problems.

    For young children about to receive their meningococcal B vaccination, you can give them the recommended dose of paracetamol beforehand. This can help reduce the chance of your child developing a fever. Talk to your doctor or child health nurse before your appointment about how to do this.

    Serious reactions to vaccinations are very rare. However, if they do occur, take your child to the doctor immediately.

    You May Like: Can I Get A Tdap Shot At Cvs

    Some Diseases Have Disappeared From This Country Why Do We Need To Immunise Against Them

    In the UK, these diseases are kept at bay by high immunisation rates. Around the world, millions of people a year die from infectious diseases with more than 5 million of these being children under the age of 5.

    Many of these deaths could be prevented by immunisation. As more people travel abroad and more people come to visit this country, there is a risk that they will bring these diseases into the UK. The diseases may spread to people who havent been immunised so your baby is at greater risk if he or she has not been immunised.

    Immunisation doesnt just protect your child it also helps to protect your family and the whole community, especially those children who, for medical reasons, cant be immunised.

    Why Children Are Vaccinated At Such A Young Age

    Children are vaccinated at a very young age because this is when they are most vulnerable to diseases. At this point their immune system is not developed enough to be able to fight serious infections.

    The vaccination schedule is based on infants’ ability to create an immune response. Vaccines are given to protect them against 14 serious diseases at a time when they are most at risk.

    Medical experts do not advise delaying or spreading out the recommended vaccines. This does not provide any added benefit to your child.

    Read Also: Cvs Tdap Booster

    What Vaccinations Does Your Baby Need

    In the first 2 years of life, your baby gets several vaccinations to help protect her from diseases. Our vaccination schedule shows each vaccination your baby gets up to 6 years. It shows how many doses your baby gets of each vaccine and when she gets them. Its based on the schedule from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . The CDC has done lots of research to make sure vaccination schedules are safe for children.

    Your provider may recommend a different vaccination schedule if your baby is at risk of getting certain diseases. For example, your baby may need a different schedule if:

    • Your baby has health conditions, like HIV, sickle cell disease , heart disease and certain cancers. HIV is a virus that attacks the bodys immune system. In a healthy person, the immune system protects the body from infections, cancers and some diseases. An infection is a sickness you get from bad germs. SCD is a condition in which the red blood cells in your babys body are shaped like a sickle . This causes the blood cells to be stiff and block blood flow, which can increase your babys risk of infection.
    • Your baby is travelling outside the United States. Some diseases are more common in other parts of the world than in the U.S., so check with your babys provider if your baby is travelling outside this country.
    • Theres a disease outbreak. An outbreak is the sudden start or increase of a disease in a certain time and place.

    Popular Articles
    Related news