Funded Vaccines For High Risk Groups
Publicly funded hepatitis A, hepatitis B, haemophilus influenzae type b, human papillomavirus, influenza, meningococcal, pertussis , pneumococcal, tuberculosis and varicella vaccines are available for children and adults at high risk of some diseases due to other medical conditions. For more details see the Additional Funded vaccines for special groups page of the Immunisation Handbook.
Meningococcal ACWY vaccine available to certain groups 1 December 2019
From 1 December 2019 the meningococcal ACWY vaccine is fully funded for individuals aged 13 to 25 years in close-living situations.
This means that one dose of meningococcal ACWY vaccine is funded for those aged 13 years to 24 years who:
- are entering within the next three months, or are in their first year of living in boarding school hostels, tertiary education halls of residence, military barracks or prisons.
In addition, from 1 December 2019 to 30 November 2020 people already living in boarding school hostels, tertiary education halls of residence, military barracks or prisons will also have access to the vaccine.
It is important to note the ACWY vaccine does not provide protection against meningococcal B disease. As a result, it is important to consider meningococcal disease even in people who have been vaccinated if they present with symptoms consistent with meningococcal disease.
Meningococcal Serogroup B Vaccination
- Adolescents not at increased risk age 1623 years based on shared clinical decision-making:
- Bexsero: 2-dose series at least 1 month apart
- Trumenba: 2-dose series at least 6 months apart if dose 2 is administered earlier than 6 months, administer a 3rd dose at least 4 months after dose 2.
Anatomic or functional asplenia , persistent complement component deficiency, complement inhibitor use:
- Bexsero: 2-dose series at least 1 month apart
- Trumenba: 3-dose series at 0, 12, 6 months
Bexsero and Trumenba are not interchangeable the same product should be used for all doses in a series. For MenB booster dose recommendations for groups listed under Special situations and in an outbreak setting and additional meningococcal vaccination information, see .
What Is A Vaccination Schedule
A vaccination schedule is a plan with recommendations for which vaccines your children should get and when they should get them. Vaccines are one of the most important ways to prevent children from getting some dangerous diseases. By exposing you to a germ in a controlled way, vaccines teach your body to recognize and fight it.
Government vaccine recommendations are just that — recommendations. You arent forced to get them. But state laws require your kids to have certain vaccines before they can go to daycare, school, or college, with some exceptions. Vaccines protect not just your child, but everyone they come in contact with. The more people who get vaccinated, the harder it is for a disease to spread.
Before theyre approved for use and added to the schedule, vaccines go through years of testing to make sure they work and that theyre safe. The government keeps track of any reports of side effects to make sure no problems come up.
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Does Your Baby Have To Be Immunised
In the UK, parents can decide whether or not to have their children immunised. Vaccination is recommended because it gives your baby protection against serious diseases, most of which can kill. Around the world, many children are now routinely protected with vaccines. Because of this, some of the worlds most serious diseases may soon disappear.
What Are Hepb And Hepa
Hepatitis A/B vaccinations should be given to a child at three intervals. Babies are given a shot at birth, between the ages of 2 to 4 months of age, and around 15 months. Hep A/B is a terrible condition that attacks the liver. Watch for anything out of the ordinary after the shot is administered. Fevers, rashes, and any other unusual symptoms should be reported to your childs pediatrician. Infants with weakened immune systems or born prematurely are more susceptible to Hep A/B.
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A Guide To Immunisations For Babies Born On Or After 1 January 2020
This publication is licensed under the terms of the Open Government Licence v3.0 except where otherwise stated. To view this licence, visit nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/version/3 or write to the Information Policy Team, The National Archives, Kew, London TW9 4DU, or email: .
Where we have identified any third party copyright information you will need to obtain permission from the copyright holders concerned.
This publication is available at https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/a-guide-to-immunisations-for-babies-up-to-13-months-of-age/a-guide-to-immunisations-for-babies-born-on-or-after-1-january-2020
Watch Out For Meningitis And Septicaemia
Both meningitis and septicaemia are very serious. It is important that you recognise the signs and symptoms and know what to do if you see them. Early symptoms of meningitis and septicaemia may be similar to a cold or flu .
However, people with meningitis or septicaemia can become seriously ill within hours, so it is important to act fast.
Meningitis is an infection of the lining of the brain. Meningitis can be caused by several types of bacteria including pneumococcus, meningococcus and Haemophilus influenzae or by viruses.
The bacteria that cause meningitis and septicaemia , can also cause pericarditis and arthritis and other serious infections.
In babies, the main symptoms of meningitis may include:
- a high-pitched, moaning cry
- being irritable when picked up
- a bulging fontanelle
- feeling drowsy and not responding to you, or being difficult to wake
- being floppy and having no energy
- stiff with jerky movements
- refusing feeds and vomiting
- having skin that is pale, blotchy or turning blue
- a fever
- a fever
- diarrhoea and stomach cramps
The glass test
Press the side of a clear drinking glass firmly against the rash so you can see if the rash fades and loses colour under pressure. If it doesnt change colour, contact your doctor immediately.
The following charities provide information, advice and support:
Meningitis Research Foundation
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If Your Child Can’t Be Vaccinated
Some children may not be able to get some vaccines, including those with:
- specific medical conditions
- severe allergic reactions to vaccine ingredients
Examples include children who need to take high-dose steroids or who have a weakened immune system from cancer treatment . These children may need to avoid vaccines that contain a weakened live virus, such as measles, mumps, rubella and chickenpox.
These children are at risk of getting the disease that the vaccine would have prevented.
Talk to your health care provider or local public health authority if you have any concerns about your child’s health status and vaccines.
If your child can’t be vaccinated, you can help protect them by encouraging others to get vaccinated. This will help prevent the spread of disease to your child.
How Can I Minimize The Pain
Needles can hurt. To lessen the pain you can:
- Apply a topical anesthetic an hour before getting the needle. You may have to confirm with your doctor what part of your childs body the shot will be given . Your pharmacist can help you find the cream.
- Nurse your baby while they get the needle, or give your baby sugar water just before the shot.
- Use distractions , suggest deep breathing, remain calm and physically comfort your child during the needle.
Do not give your child ibuprofen or acetaminophen before or around the time of vaccination as it does not prevent the pain of injection and it could have an impact on how well the vaccine works. These medications can be used to treat fever, pain, or other bothersome side effects if they develop after vaccination.
For tips on how to make vaccines as pain-free as possible:
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When Should My Child Get Immunized
Children should get immunized during their first two years of life. Your child may need several doses of the vaccines to be fully protected. For example, healthcare providers recommend that children receive their first dose of MMR vaccination at 12 months of age or older and a second dose prior to elementary school entry . Children can get the vaccines at regularly scheduled well visits.
Recommended age at which the vaccines should be received and type of vaccine*
*Certain vaccines can be given within a range of ages. This chart represents one recommended schedule. Your child’s pediatrician may follow different guidelines. Please consult with your child’s pediatrician for specific recommendations.
**The influenza vaccine is given annually. The initial dose can be given as early as 6 months of age.
Malaria Vaccination In Children
On October 6, 2021, the World Health Organization recommended widespread use of the RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine among children in sub-Saharan Africa and in other regions with moderate to high Plasmodium falciparum malaria Malaria Malaria is infection of red blood cells with one of five species of Plasmodium, a protozoan. Malaria causes fever, chills, sweating, a general feeling of illness , and sometimes diarrhea… read more transmission.
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Diphtheria Tetanus Pertussis Polio Haemophilus Influenzae Type B Vaccine
DTaP-IPV-Hib vaccine given at 2 months, 4 months, 6 months and 18 months
DTaP-IPV-Hib vaccine is a combined vaccine that protects children against five diseases diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio and serious diseases like meningitis caused by haemophilus influenzae type b.
Immunization against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and polio is required by law for all children attending school in Ontario, unless exempted.
What is diphtheria?
Diphtheria is a serious disease of the nose, throat and skin. It causes sore throat, fever and chills. It can be complicated by breathing problems, heart failure and nerve damage. Diphtheria kills about one out of every 10 people who get the disease. It is most often passed to others through coughing and sneezing.
What is tetanus?
Tetanus or lockjaw is a serious disease that can happen if dirt with tetanus germ gets into a cut in the skin. Tetanus germs are found everywhere, usually in soil, dust and manure. It does not spread from person to person. Tetanus causes cramping of the muscles in the neck, arms, leg and stomach and painful convulsions which can be severe enough to break bones. Even with early treatment, tetanus kills two out of every 10 people who get it.
What is pertussis?
What is polio?
What is haemophilus influenzae type b disease?
Children under five years are more likely to get Hib disease. Children who attend childcare centres are even more likely to catch it. The Hib germ spreads to others through coughing and sneezing.
Immunisations Your Baby Will Have At 8 12 And 16 Weeks
At 8 weeks, your baby will have immunisations against:
- Haemophilus influenzae type b
- hepatitis B
- meningococcal group B disease
These will be given as 2 injections and drops into the mouth.
At 12 weeks, your baby will have immunisations against:
These will be given as 2 injections and drops into the mouth.
At 16 weeks, your baby will have immunisations against:
These will be given as 2 injections.
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When Should You Call For Help
anytime you think your child may need emergency care. For example, call if:
- Your child has a major allergic reaction. Symptoms include:
- Wheezing or having trouble breathing after starting a medicine.
- Swelling of the lips, throat, tongue, or face.
or seek immediate medical care if:
- Your child has significant changes in alertness.
- Your child has a fever of 104.5Â°F or higher.
- Your child cries for more than 3 hours after getting a shot.
Watch closely for changes in your child’s health, and be sure to contact your doctor if:
- Your child has a red or tender lump where he or she got a shot.
Questions Your Pediatrician May Ask:
- How’s your child’s appetite?
Beef up home safety with measures like these:
- Double-check that cords, choking hazards, and hard, sharp, or breakable objects are out of reach.
- Make sure all household cleaners and detergents are high up or in locked cabinets.
- Make sure all electrical sockets are covered.
- Keep the bathroom door closed and the toilet seat down.
- Make sure the crib mattress is at its lowest level.
To protect your child from getting too much sun:
- Try to stay out of the sun between 10 a.m. and 2 p.m.
- Cover them up with a wide-brim hat and long sleeves and pants.
- Use a child’s sunscreen with an SPF of 30 or more that says “broad spectrum” on the label. Remember to reapply it frequently.
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Reasons Why Your Baby Should Not Be Immunised
There are very few reasons why babies cannot be immunised.
Vaccines should not be given to babies who have had:
- a confirmed anaphylactic reaction to a previous dose of the vaccine
- a confirmed anaphylactic reaction to neomycin, streptomycin, or polymyxin B
In general, children who are immunosuppressed should not receive live vaccines. Children who are immunosuppressed include those:
whose immune system does not work properly because they are undergoing treatment for a serious condition such as a transplant or cancer
who have any condition which affects the immune system, such as severe primary immunodeficiency. Primary immunodeficiencies are very rare diseases that mean you are more likely to catch infections. They are usually caused by a faulty gene and are diagnosed soon after birth
If this applies to your child, you must tell your doctor, practice nurse or health visitor before the immunisation. They will need to get specialist advice on using live vaccines such as MMR, rotavirus vaccine and Bacillus CalmetteGuérin vaccine . There are no other reasons why vaccines should definitely not be given.
Children In Licensed Daycare Centres
If you want your child to attend daycare, and decide not to vaccinate them due to medical, religious or philosophical reasons, you will need to give your daycare a valid written exemption. If the disease appears in your childs daycare centre, your child may have to stay out of daycare until the disease is no longer present.
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Should My Child Receive Any Other Vaccines
The CPS recommends that all children over 6 months old get aflu shot each year. The vaccine is especially important for children less than 5 years of age, and for older children with chronic conditions who are at high risk of complications from the flu. The flu shot is also safe and highly recommended for pregnant and breastfeeding women. Since infants less than 6 months of age cannot get the flu shot , antibodies against the flu are transferred to the baby from the mother before birth and through breast milk.
The CPS also urges all children and youth age 5 years and older to get the COVID-19 vaccine.
If travelling, speak to your doctor about vaccines that can protect your child.
Diphtheria Tetanus And Pertussis Vaccination
- 5-dose series at 2, 4, 6, 1518 months, 46 years
- Prospectively: Dose 4 may be administered as early as age 12 months if at least 6 months have elapsed since dose 3.
- Retrospectively: A 4th dose that was inadvertently administered as early as age 12 months may be counted if at least 4 months have elapsed since dose 3.
- Dose 5 is not necessary if dose 4 was administered at age 4 years or older and at least 6 months after dose 3.
- For other catch-up guidance, see Table 2.
- Wound management in children less than age 7 years with history of 3 or more doses of tetanus-toxoid-containing vaccine: For all wounds except clean and minor wounds, administer DTaP if more than 5 years since last dose of tetanus-toxoid-containing vaccine. For detailed information, see www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/67/rr/rr6702a1.htm.
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What Vaccines Should My Child Receive
Your child should receive all the recommended vaccines. The timing for each shot may be slightly different depending on where you live. Here is what the Canadian Paediatric Society and the National Advisory Committee on Immunization currently recommend:
- 5-in-1 or 6-in-1 vaccine , DPT-polio, or Hib vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio, and Hib disease, as well as hepatitis B if 6-in-1.
- Rotavirus vaccine protects infants against rotavirus, the most common cause of serious diarrhea in babies and young children.
- Pneumococcal vaccine protects against infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, including meningitis , pneumonia, and ear infections.
- Meningococcal vaccine protects against diseases caused by the meningococcus bacteria, including meningitis and septicemia, a serious blood infection.
- MMR vaccine protects against measles, mumps, and rubella.
- Varicella vaccine protects against chickenpox, a very uncomfortable and sometimes serious infection.
- Hepatitis B vaccine protects against hepatitis B, a serious infection of the liver.
- dTap vaccine protects adolescents against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis .
- HPV vaccine protects against the types of HPV that cause cervical cancer, some other cancers, and genital warts.
Immunising Your Child Is Important
There are immunisation requirements that your child needs to meet in order to go to childcare, kindergarten and primary school in Victoria. By law, your childs immunisations must be up to date before they start childcare and kindergarten.
The Australian Immunisation Register will send you your child’s Immunisation History Statement on request or you can download it from your myGov account.
In Victoria, parents of children attending a childcare or kindergarten service are required to provide an updated Immunisation History Statement to the service if the child has a new vaccine. This ensures that the service always has current information about the childs immunisation status.
Parents who immunise their children at the appropriate age may be eligible for Australian Government family assistance payments. For more information, visit the Australian Government Services Australia website or visit a Centrelink.
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