Wednesday, September 27, 2023

What Vaccines Do Piglets Need

Vaccines For People Who Could Become Pregnant

Show Pig Vaccinations

Vaccination is important for everyone of reproductive age, whether planning a pregnancy or not.

During pregnancy, your immune system changes and this can put you at risk for a number of serious infectious diseases and complications. Your baby can also be affected by these infections, which can result in:

  • birth defects
  • miscarriage
  • death

Since an unplanned pregnancy can happen, it’s important to keep your vaccinations up to date at all times. This will help protect you and your baby from certain infections that could cause serious complications. Talk to your health care provider about your vaccination status.

Learn more about vaccination and pregnancy.

Health History Pig Density Logistics

Veterinarians also consider other health challenges the farm has battled and pig density when building a vaccine program. Clients located in pig-dense areas generally have faced more disease challenges than clients in locations such as the upper peninsula of Michigan.

And then there is the issue of logistics on the farm. Vaccine protocols developed by veterinarians consider how the pigs are going to be vaccinated so it will be followed, Brown said. It is imperative that everyone understands and agrees on the strategy to be implemented.

Should I Vaccinate My Pet Pig

Although adverse reactions to vaccines are rare, they can occur and may lead to potentially life-threatening anaphylactic reactions. Most reactions are mild and resolve quickly with little to no treatment, but some require immediate emergency care, and any delay in treatment could be dangerous.Dr. David Highsmith, of Highsmith Animal Hospital in Wilmington, N.C., said he once saw a patient, a pet named Stella, that was vaccinated at his clinic and, in a rare reaction, collapsed approximately five minutes after receiving the vaccination. Plan on sticking around for at least 20 minutes after your pig is vaccinated to be sure there is no negative reaction.Cathy Zolicani recommends:The Merck Veterinary Manual for pet owners:

  • Erysipelas
  • Erysipelas and tetanus

The Merck Veterinary Manual for veterinarians:Dr. Van Amstel vaccination recommendations:Vaccination:Most common vaccinations we recommend? Again, your vet will likely know what diseases are most common in your are and should recommend you to vaccinate accordingly. Erysipelas- TetanusLeptosporosisRhinitisRabies- Mycoplasma and/or Pneumonia

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Questions & Answers About Influenza In Pigs

Q. How does influenza spread among pigs?

A. Flu viruses are thought to spread among pigs in the same way that human influenza viruses spread among people. That is mainly through close contact between infected and uninfected pigs and possibly from contact by an uninfected pig with an object contaminated by an infected pig. Pigs also can be infected by flu viruses from their human caretakers.

Q. Can influenza virus infections be prevented in pigs?

A. It may be possible to lessen the risk of infections in pigs and/or severity of disease by following these management strategies:

  • Vaccinating herds
  • Vaccinating pig caretakers with seasonal influenza vaccine
  • Using proper ventilation systems
Q. What about flu vaccines for pigs?

A. Flu vaccines for pigs can help, but are not 100% effective. Sometimes the vaccine used may not protect against the virus or viruses circulating. In addition, current vaccines may not be effective in young pigs due to interference from antibodies received from the sow. Generally, protection of young pigs is achieved by vaccinating sows however, those maternal antibodies are not fully protective for the young pig and decrease by the time they are 10 to 13 weeks old or sooner. Producers may vaccinate their animals after maternal antibodies decrease.

Q. How can veterinarians help?
Q. Can people get influenza from eating pork?
Q. What about 2009 H1N1?
Q. How common are variant infections in people?

Our Immune System And Active Ingredients

Inovio says COVID

The active ingredient in a vaccine is usually made from the viral or bacterial pathogen itself. There are two different approaches to this, with the pathogen being either alive or inactivated.

Vaccines that incorporate living bacteria or viruses are called live attenuated vaccines. The pathogen is weakened to prevent it from causing the disease, but it is still able to elicit a strong immune response.

Live attenuated vaccines work very well, but they are not suitable for everyone. If a person is immunocompromised, they may contract the very disease from which the vaccine should be protecting them.

Many vaccines, therefore, use an inactivated version of the active ingredients, which can take the form of whole bacteria or viruses that have been killed.

However, most vaccines are actually acellular, which means that they do not contain the whole pathogenic organism. Instead, they are made from parts of the pathogen, such as proteins or sugar molecules. Our bodies recognize these molecules as foreign and mount an immune response.

Examples of acellular vaccines are:

  • toxoid vaccines that contain inactivated toxins from pathogenic bacteria
  • conjugate vaccines made from a combination of pathogen-specific sugar molecules and toxoid proteins, as the sugars themselves do not cause sufficiently strong immune responses
  • recombinant vaccines made by using bacteria or yeast cells to make many copies of specific molecules from the pathogen

Examples of adjuvants include:

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Ethics Approval And Consent To Participate

The study protocol, including ethical and welfare aspects was approved and authorized by the Hungarian National Food Chain Safety Office Directorate of Veterinary Medical Products according to the Decree No. 128/2009. of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development.

According to the contracts Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica has the exclusive and unlimited right to publish data and results obtained within the framework of the study or to release such information to third parties for publication.

Commonly Used Vaccines For Diseases

Pork producers should adopt technology that prevents production-limiting diseases in their pig herds. Several of these diseases can be controlled by vaccination. Vaccines for many diseases are available off the shelf . Alternatively, vaccines can also be made to suit specific herd health situations . Prevention of disease requires veterinary diagnosis. It is essential to follow any specific veterinary recommendations for controlling disease.

Vaccines are available for leptospirosis, erysipelas, porcine parvovirus, E.coli scours, mycoplasma pneumonia , actinobacillosis pleuropneumonia , Glässer’s disease , and ileitis .

The vaccination program adopted by the pork producer may in some cases depend on the vaccines used, as multivalent vaccines are available in Australia.

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So Should All Dogs And Cats Still Be Vaccinated

Absolutely, says Ronald Schultz, DVM, a pioneer in clinical immunology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. But Schulz is also very much in agreement with those who say pets are being over vaccinated, calling it a serious problem. Often, he says, pets are vaccinated by vets who just want to keep clients coming in. But too many vaccines, especially when given in combo shots, can assault immune systems.


Each Farm Needs Right Vaccination Program For Pigs And Profits

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Time is money, and vaccinations can be a necessary but costly tool in a producers toolbox. It is imperative that producers get the most value from the vaccines they choose to use, and from their employees time spent administering them.

The Pork Quality Assurance Plus Education Handbook, something producers should be familiar with, devotes a Good Production Practice section on the proper use of animal health products, including vaccines.

Paul Ruen, a veterinarian at the Fairmont Veterinary Clinic LLP in Fairmont, Minn., says, PQA does a good job of laying out the how-to of proper techniques and safety concerns relating to the use of injectable and oral delivery products, but it doesnt speak to the decision process and strategies for managing health across a wide range of production situations.

Individual management styles and system-specific disease profiles and pig flows will influence how producers manage their farms vaccination program.

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Vaccinations For Free Range Pigs

Vaccination is one of the best and simplest methods we have of managing disease in our free range pig herd yet it is often overlooked. Vaccinating the herd can prevent some pretty important diseases that have the potential to affect the productivity of your animals or even cause death. One of the most common responses to being questioned about a vaccination program is we dont need to, we dont have that disease. Unfortunately, once the disease is present it is too late and eradication can be costly and pig losses high.

Responsible Use Of Vaccines And Vaccination In Pig Production

RUMA guidelines for the responsible use of vaccines by pig farmers have been designed to give easy-to-read guiding principles that can be used by pig producers in the management of their herds.

The responsible use of medicines has always been a fundamental principle of good livestock keeping and is given further impetus by the encouragement of farm health planning under the Great Britain Animal Health and Welfare Strategy . Farm health planning represents one of the direct ways in which the livestock sector, specifically individual producers, can be persuaded of the cost benefits of adopting on-farm health strategies. Best practice in the use of veterinary medicines must be an integral part of effective health planning, and these RUMA guidelines aim to define that best practice.

The Responsible Use of Medicines in Agriculture Alliance is a growing coalition of organisations representing every stage of the farm to fork process. It has been set up to review and provide guidance on the use of medicines in all livestock. As part of this work RUMA has established practical strategies to promote the correct use of vaccines in the pig industry.

Vaccines have, from the 1960s, made a major contribution to improving pig health, welfare and productivity. They are vital components in preventing a wide variety of diseases.

This booklet summarises the responsibilities that pig farmers have as they use vaccines to safeguard the health, welfare and productivity of their herd.

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Why Do Pets Need Vaccines

Vaccines protect against contagious, potentially fatal diseases, says Margret Casal, DMV, PhD. Casal is associate professor of medical genetics at the School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania. Vaccines trigger immune responses, she says, and prepare pets to fight future infections.

Casal tells WebMD that vaccines have saved millions of pet lives. And even though some once common diseases are now rare, she says veterinary groups agree that many vaccines are still necessary.

Oregon Pork Producers Vaccination Recommendations

Veterinary Syringe 5ML Vaccine Syringe Adjustable ...

This article contains suggested vaccinations and health practices for pork producers in Oregon regardless of whether it is a commercial herd, small part time operation or a youth project. The old saying an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure really describes the value of a good swine health program.

Consultation with a veterinarian that is knowledgeable in swine diseases is helpful when developing a swine vaccination and health program.

Swine producers should vaccinate their pigs to prevent or decrease economic loss from important infectious diseases. Paying 25 to 50 cents per dose of a vaccine is much better than ending up with a 200 dollar dead pig.

Microorganisms such as bacteria or viruses cause infectious diseases. When a pig is exposed to a microorganism, antibodies are produced. Antibodies are substances produced in the pigs body as a reaction to invasion by that microorganism. Antibodies are specific to a disease and help to fight that disease. These antibodies are part of the immune system in the pig. Immunity is the resistance to disease as a result of the production of antibodies by the immune system. Pigs usually have some antibodies naturally to resist disease. Many times the natural immunity is not high enough to prevent the disease and the animal becomes sick.

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Recognizing Risks On The Farm

Even if you use the best management techniques to minimize the exposure of your show pig to disease, the pigâs dam can still pass disease-causing bacteria and viruses to each pig in its litter. The piglets can encounter these organisms while they are moving through the birth canal, when they nurse, and while they simply share the same space with the sow before weaning. Harmful bacteria, for example, may be found in the sowâs body secretions.

Before and after weaning are also times that pigs can become infected with roundworms, whipworms, mange or lice. Another way they can be exposed to disease-causing organisms is when several litters from the same farm are mixed in the nursery.

The ideal health maintenance situation is when a show pig is farrowed and raised on one farm. Even so, it can still carry disease-causing organisms in its mouth, nose, tonsils, respiratory tract and other areas. These organisms may become active later, particularly after being stressed by such activity as hauling.

Do Vaccines Contain Human Cell Material

Some vaccines are made from viruses or pathogenic molecules that are expanded in human, animal, or yeast cells.

There are two human cell lines that pharmaceutical companies use. These are called WI-38 and MRC-5. Both of these cell lines were established from cells taken from the lungs of aborted fetuses.

After expansion, viruses are harvested from these cell lines and purified. The chance of any human cell material being present in the vaccine is very small.

For some people, the fact that cells from aborted fetuses are used in this way presents a moral problem.

Other viruses are grown in animal cells before being incorporated into vaccines. Animal cells used for this purpose include kidney cells from African green monkeys and chick embryo cells.

Some recombinant vaccines may contain small trace amounts of yeast proteins or yeast DNA.

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Keeping Show Pigs Healthy

Show pigs can bring many disease organisms into a farm and spread them to other swine. However, there are things you can do to prevent yours from contracting and spreading diseases. These are some precautions:

  • Taking care that the show pigs are healthy when they arrive on the farm
  • Using isolation practices to prevent disease
  • Using good health management practices
  • Providing plenty of fresh, clean water
  • Changing rations slowly
  • Providing rations containing medication to prevent specific diseases that kill or cripple pigs
  • Taking special care during and after surgeries
  • Understanding disease risks within a well-managed farm
  • Vaccinating to prevent serious diseases
  • Deworming the pigs routinely
  • Having sick pigs promptly diagnosed and treated
  • Using prescribed drugs properly

Using Prescribed Drugs Properly

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Carelessly using an approved or unapproved product on your show hog may disqualify you from exhibition. You must carefully read and follow the label instructions when using any approved feed, oral or injectable drug, or product for swine. If you are in doubt about any vaccine, drug, or other product for your show animal, do not use it unless you have consulted a veterinarian. You must be absolutely certain that it is acceptable and know that no withdrawal periods will be violated by using the product.

Download a printer-friendly version of this publication: Keeping Show Pigs Healthy

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Figure 1 Development Of Prrs Immunity Timeline

The production system and the clinical situation of the farm are essential to define the vaccination strategy. For a reproductive outbreak, vaccinate and revaccinate all breeding animals including gilts 3-4 weeks apart. If a nursery is present, vaccination of all weaning piglets from 21 to 70 days of life is recommended in order to reduce field virus recirculation, infection pressure and minimise losses. In a farrow to finish or site 1 + 2 system and when PRRS problems occur in the nursery unit and is confirmed in the lab, vaccinate each batch of piglets at weaning for at least 16 weeks. On a multisite system , if PRRS problems occur in the nursery unit and PRRS is confirmed in the lab, the guidelines are as follows:

  • Unstable origin : Vaccinate each batch of piglets at weaning for at least 16 weeks.
  • Stable origin : Only vaccinate piglets in case of high risk of PRRS infection .
  • Unknown PRRS status: Vaccinate all piglets.

Bordetella And Canine Parainfluenza

Bordetella and canine parainfluenza virus are two agents associated with a highly contagious cough commonly known as “kennel cough,” or canine infectious respiratory disease complex .

Diseases from these agents typically resolve on their own but sometimes can lead to pneumonia or more severe respiratory disease. Because Bordetella is so contagious, boarding and doggy day care facilities across the US require your pet to have this vaccine.

Parainfluenza may or may not be included in a combination vaccine with Bordetella or the DAP.

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Why Has The Topic Of Pet Vaccination Become So Hot

Part of the intense focus on pet vaccination stems from the highly publicized debate that vaccines may cause autism in people, a discounted but widespread theory.

Also, new vaccines and research show that some of the routinely administered vaccines for dogs and cats actually immunize for much longer than one year, Ford says. Today, selected vaccines are recommended to be administered to adult pets every three years.

Some veterinarians have expressed reluctance to implement triennial vaccination, until there is more information available,” Ford says.

Does The Federal Government Require Rabies Shots

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No. Only 39 states require rabies vaccines for dogs and 31 for cats, according to a 2008 survey by the National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians.

Even within states, rabies requirements vary widely, says Charles Rupprecht, VMD, PhD. Rupprecht is chief of the rabies program at the CDC. The disease is fatal in animals but can be cured in humans who seek medical help immediately after exposure to an infected animal.

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Injecting Pigs The Correct Way

As a pig farmer, you need to know how to inject vaccines, dewormers and other medicines, says Prof Cheryl McCrindle.

Piglets kept in concrete pens often need iron injections in their first few days. Backyard pigs should be annually vaccinated against diamond skin disease and injected with Ivomectin to control internal parasites and mange.

Sick pigs may need antibiotic injections, but it is better to leave this to a vet.

For vaccinating adult or weanling pigs, use a 5ml syringe and a short 19- or 20-gauge needle. For unweaned pigs, use a short 21-gauge needle.

To avoid transferring diseases, always use a sterile syringe and a different needle for every animal. It is a good idea to take a few extra syringes and needles along the pig may struggle when it is injected and the syringe can end up in the mud.

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A small freezer box is handy for carrying medicines and syringes/needles. If you use an ice pack, put it into a plastic bag to prevent syringes or needles from getting wet. Dispose of needles and syringes carefully incineration is best.

If injecting a large sow or boar, use an old door to gently push the pig against the wall of the sty, thereby creating a crush pen.

Vaccines and deworming injections are injected subcutaneously above and behind the ear in an adult boar or sow. In younger pigs, injections can be done intramuscularly in the thick rump muscles, halfway between the hook bone and the pinbone.

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