Using Prescribed Drugs Properly
Carelessly using an approved or unapproved product on your show hog may disqualify you from exhibition. You must carefully read and follow the label instructions when using any approved feed, oral or injectable drug, or product for swine. If you are in doubt about any vaccine, drug, or other product for your show animal, do not use it unless you have consulted a veterinarian. You must be absolutely certain that it is acceptable and know that no withdrawal periods will be violated by using the product.
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Experimental Assessment: Transmission Trials
The efficacy of a vaccine regarding the reduction of transmission of an infectious agent must be assessed within homogeneous groups, which implies that all the pigs of a group, including sentinel ones, should be vaccinated, whereas pigs from the control group are not. Pigs belonging to the same group are assumed to be comparable, i.e. with a similar susceptibility to infection and a comparable infectiousness once infected. Moreover, they must move freely among the group to verify the hypothesis of homogenous contacts between pigs within groups. The transmission rate cannot be estimated properly through the involvement of pigs of heterogeneous statuses within experimental groups . Vaccination generally reduces both the susceptibility to infection and the level of pathogen shedding once infected. Inoculating non vaccinated pigs within a group of vaccinated contact pigs can potentially lead to an extended shedding of the pathogen because non vaccinated and inoculated pigs are more infectious than vaccinated and further inoculated pigs. The other case corresponding to non-vaccinated pigs in contact with vaccinated and inoculated pigs can likely lead to an extended diffusion owing to a higher susceptibility to infection of contact pigs.
Things To Know Before Adopting A Mini Pig
Mini pigs have experienced a surge in popularity over the past few years. But are mini pigs real? Mini pigs is a term used to encompass any smaller breed of pig, and is often substituted with other terms like micro-pigs,pocket pigs, and teacup pigs. They are not a distinct breed, but rather can be a variety of breeds and mixes of breeds that have been selectively bred to be smaller in size.
Leiki Salumets, manager of equine and farm animal care for the BC SPCA, understands the appeal. There is no denying how cute they are. Pigs are intelligent, curious and affectionate animals, she says. However, Salumets warns against mistaking them for easy-to-care-for house pets. How many will still be cherished pets a year from now?
Wondering if mini pigs are good pets? If you are considering a pet mini pig, here are a few things to consider first:
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Some Points To Remember:
- · Ask your vet for advice on an appropriate vaccination program
- · Always vaccinate against Erysipelas
- · Read the instructions on the label or packaging
- · Follow storage instructions as most vaccines require refrigeration
- · Use the correct size needle
- · Use clean equipment
- · Do not store unused vaccine follow product instructions
- · Complete the vaccination process as required give the second injection on time
- · Give booster shots every 6 months
- · Keep records of any treatments given to your pigs
- · Adhere to any withholding periods
Vaccination Schedule For Show And Pet Pigs
A typical vaccination schedule for newborn piglets, or gilts, begins a week after birth, according to the pig care website ValleyVet.com. It includes vaccines against rhinitis , erysipelas, mycoplasma and pneumonia. Rhinitis is a disease of the mucosa and inflames the tissues inside the nose. It is relatively common and harmless unless it progresses to atrophic rhinitis, which is much more serious as it is a progressive disease full of toxins that causes atrophy of the tissue and distorts the nose. Erysipelas is a bacterial skin infection. It’s uncommon but deadly, so vaccines are recommended. Mycoplasma and pneumonia go hand in hand — both are deadly and infect the respiratory system.
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Vaccinations For Free Range Pigs
Vaccination is one of the best and simplest methods we have of managing disease in our free range pig herd yet it is often overlooked. Vaccinating the herd can prevent some pretty important diseases that have the potential to affect the productivity of your animals or even cause death. One of the most common responses to being questioned about a vaccination program is we dont need to, we dont have that disease. Unfortunately, once the disease is present it is too late and eradication can be costly and pig losses high.
Pig Immunity To Disease
Protection from disease begins within the first hours of life. Piglets must consume colostrum as soon as possible and with 12 hours of birth to receive some immunity to some diseases from mum. This type of immunity is very short lived however and only lasts a few weeks so it is important to vaccinate your piglets at weaning or around 6 weeks of age. Vaccinating piglets too early could inter with the passive immunity that they have received in colostrum so weaning age is a good time.
Whenever a pig is vaccinated for the first time, there is a two stage process that must be carried out. After the initial injection is given, a second is usually required within four weeks . The second injection is extremely important and must not be missed or you will not have vaccinated your pigs correctly and they will not have adequate protection from the disease you are treating for.
Vaccines are not available in single doses but this should not deter you from using them because when compared to the cost of not vaccinating, disposing of any unused product is worth it. Order them through your vet or animal feed supplier who will also be able to supply you with needles and syringes or a small vaccination gun that can be fitted to the vaccine bottle.
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Diseases In Sheep And Goats
Diseases to be vaccinated against in sheep and goats include:
- Clostridial diseases
- Contagious ecthyma (soremouth, orf, scabby mouth or pustular dermatitis
- Caseous lymphadenitis
Ewes or does that lose their lambs early in pregnancy may not return to heat because they are seasonal breeders, and so may not be bred back that season. This is a significant loss for the producer both because of decreased lamb crop and because those dams will not lactate that season. Pregnancy also may be lost late in gestation or weak or deformed lambs may be born. For many diseases causing abortion in small ruminants, there is no vaccine in the United States . In the United States, the most common causes of abortion in ewes are Chlamydia / Chlamydophila and Campylobacter. Enzootic abortion is transmitted from aborting dams to other females in the flock. Ewe lambs are the most susceptible on farms where the organism is present. Abortion usually is seen late in pregnancy or lambs may be born that die shortly after birth. Campylobacteriosis causes abortion late in pregnancy or birth of stillborn or weak lambs. Infecting organisms are Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter fetus. Ewes are infected orally and the incubation time from ingestion to abortion is just 2 weeks.
Doc What Should I Vaccinate My Pigs For
One of the most common questions Daniel Brown, DVM, hears from swine clients is what vaccinations are needed and when should they be given. That topic seems to come up on almost every farm visit, he said. Brown works from the Four Star Veterinary Service clinic in Holland, Michigan.
Ultimately, the goal of any vaccination strategy is to help lessen the risk of a disease challenge that will adversely affect pig production.
The hope with any vaccine is, by exposing the pigs to a bug or even a piece of a bug, that their bodies learn how to deal with the pathogen if they come across it in the barn, Brown explained. Sometimes, we are trying to protect the pigs from a bug we know they will see, and other times, we are trying to give them protection from a bug they might see.
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Common Pig Diseases To Vaccinate For
One of the most common yet preventable diseases in pigs is Erysipelas. It is also known as Diamond Skin Disease because of the raised, blue/pink welts on the skin of infected pigs. Leptospirosis can affect your pigs if it is prevalent in your area. Porcine Parvovirus, while present in free range herds, generally shows little effect but can be a problem for pigs that are housed. All of these diseases are present in the environment in the soil, manure or urine so avoiding them is nearly impossible. You will always need to vaccinate against Erysipelas but check with your vet to see if your should be protecting your pigs from any of the other diseases mentioned.
Dont wait until disease strikes vaccinate.
Why Animals Get Sick
Figure one shows that the resistance level is high because the animals have been vaccinated and have developed immunity to the organism. Along with this, the animals need to be in good overall health and not stressed from poor nutrition or poor housing.
The challenge level is the severity of the disease organisms that the pig may encounter. Animals stay healthy when their resistance level stays above the disease challenge level that they might encounter.
Figure 2 shows what happens when a disease outbreak occurs. The challenge level is increased above the animals ability to fight off or resist the disease. Examples of situations when animals will encounter a high disease challenge are:
- When purchased animals are brought home to your farm. Two things can happen. First, the new animals could introduce a disease organism that is not found on your farm and make your pigs sick. Or the new pigs that you purchased might not be resistant to organisms on your farm and get sick.
- When animals are exposed to other animals at a gathering site such as a sales barn or at any livestock show or display. Not all animals might be immune to the organisms passed around in the barn.
- When animals are observed to be sick and not separated from the rest of the population.
Vaccinations are not a substitute for good pig management. If a pig’s immune system is weakened by a stressful environment or inadequate nutrition, an overwhelming disease challenge can cause disease even in a vaccinated pig.
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Are Pigs Compatible With Other Pets
As with any pet, pigs may or may not get along with other animals in the household. In general, pigs and cats tend to live peacefully together. Dogs and pigs, on the other hand, are an unpredictable combination, mainly because dogs are a large predator species and pigs are naturally a prey species. This may lead to unwanted bullying of your pet pig.
Dogs have been known to attack pigs even ones they have lived with for a while, says Salumets. Pigs can also behave aggressively towards dogs, especially when food is involved. Interactions between the two should always be supervised.
Though pigs may not get along with other pets, Salumets notes that they are very social animals and should be housed with other pigs.
Injecting Pigs The Correct Way
As a pig farmer, you need to know how to inject vaccines, dewormers and other medicines, says Prof Cheryl McCrindle.
Piglets kept in concrete pens often need iron injections in their first few days. Backyard pigs should be annually vaccinated against diamond skin disease and injected with Ivomectin to control internal parasites and mange.
Sick pigs may need antibiotic injections, but it is better to leave this to a vet.
For vaccinating adult or weanling pigs, use a 5ml syringe and a short 19- or 20-gauge needle. For unweaned pigs, use a short 21-gauge needle.
To avoid transferring diseases, always use a sterile syringe and a different needle for every animal. It is a good idea to take a few extra syringes and needles along the pig may struggle when it is injected and the syringe can end up in the mud.
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A small freezer box is handy for carrying medicines and syringes/needles. If you use an ice pack, put it into a plastic bag to prevent syringes or needles from getting wet. Dispose of needles and syringes carefully incineration is best.
If injecting a large sow or boar, use an old door to gently push the pig against the wall of the sty, thereby creating a crush pen.
Vaccines and deworming injections are injected subcutaneously above and behind the ear in an adult boar or sow. In younger pigs, injections can be done intramuscularly in the thick rump muscles, halfway between the hook bone and the pinbone.
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Bordetella And Canine Parainfluenza
Bordetella and canine parainfluenza virus are two agents associated with a highly contagious cough commonly known as “kennel cough,” or canine infectious respiratory disease complex .
Diseases from these agents typically resolve on their own but sometimes can lead to pneumonia or more severe respiratory disease. Because Bordetella is so contagious, boarding and doggy day care facilities across the US require your pet to have this vaccine.
Parainfluenza may or may not be included in a combination vaccine with Bordetella or the DAP.
Commonly Used Vaccines For Diseases
Pork producers should adopt technology that prevents production-limiting diseases in their pig herds. Several of these diseases can be controlled by vaccination. Vaccines for many diseases are available off the shelf . Alternatively, vaccines can also be made to suit specific herd health situations . Prevention of disease requires veterinary diagnosis. It is essential to follow any specific veterinary recommendations for controlling disease.
Vaccines are available for leptospirosis, erysipelas, porcine parvovirus, E.coli scours, mycoplasma pneumonia , actinobacillosis pleuropneumonia , Glässer’s disease , and ileitis .
The vaccination program adopted by the pork producer may in some cases depend on the vaccines used, as multivalent vaccines are available in Australia.
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Vaccinating To Prevent Serious Diseases
There are many vaccines fully approved and readily available to help with the prevention of domestic swine diseases. The best way for you to deal with this is to follow a basic or minimal vaccination program that is practical and simple.
A major problem with pigs in 4-H and FFA projects is that no vaccines are used, or they are improperly used. While vaccines do not exist for all swine diseases, there are ones that are effective against some very important disease-causing organisms that are prevalent in many swine herds. In these cases, vaccinations are recommended because the organisms might kill the pig or make it unfit for exhibition.
Whether you raise pigs from a litter or buy them, you should routinely vaccinate against erysipelas and Actinobacillus pleuropneumonia . Erysipelas is caused by the bacterium Eysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, which can result in sudden death, skin disease and lameness. APP comes from the bacterium Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, which causes pneumonia, sudden death and chronic illness with poor weight gain.
IngelvacÂ® PRRS ATP is approved for pigs that are at least 3 weeks old and should not be used on adult, breeding gilts, sows or boars. The vaccine protects against a very severe respiratory form of PRRS caused by an atypical PRRS virus strain. You vaccinate pigs for this only once.
Remember the following about IngelvacÂ® PRRS ATP or IngelvacÂ® PRRS MLV:
Factors Related To Vaccine Efficacy Decrease
Specificities of vaccination in pig production reside in the immunization of young animals when they generally still have high levels of maternally derived antibodies against the pathogen when the latter is settled enzootically within the herd or when the breeders are regularly vaccinated against this pathogen. A recent experiment showed that the PRRSv post-vaccine humoral and cellular response were considerably affected in piglets having high levels of neutralizing maternally-derived antibodies at vaccination time . Conversely to piglets without any neutralizing antibodies at vaccination time and evidencing a vaccine viremia as soon as 2 weeks post-vaccination, a rapid gamma interferon response and a fast seroconversion 7 days post-vaccination, piglets with high levels of neutralizing antibodies did not show any immune response following vaccination or a weak and delayed one . Similarly to results available for Aujeszkys disease virus or classical swine fever , other supplementary studies would be required to evaluate if this impaired immune response in vaccinated animals decreases the protection level of the vaccine and the theoretical impact it has on transmission reduction .
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Type Of Hog Operation
Several factors can influence the vaccine strategy a veterinarian develops for a hog farm. The first and most important one is the type and objective of the hog operation.
In the Four Star group, we work with a range of clients from large commercial producers focused on producing pounds of quality pork to families focused on raising a handful of good-looking pigs for the show ring, Brown said.
The different objectives of each clients hog operation are kept in mind when developing and implementing vaccine strategies.
Isolating Pigs From The Farm
If you buy show pigs directly from several farms, isolate them from each other. Use separate stalls while hauling the pigs and, once they get to your farm, isolate them in separate pens. You need to prevent them from contacting each other through the fence for 60 days.
Treat these separate isolation pens as if they were totally different farm locations. Before going from one pen to another, wash and disinfect your boots, equipment, and other items. In fact, you could continue isolating these pigs from each other for the entire feeding period before the exhibition.
If you show the pigs several times during a season, isolate them in their own pen after each return to the farm. Do not expose other swine, such as breeding stock, on the farm to the many disease-causing organisms that these show pigs may have picked up elsewhere.
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