Aboriginal And Torres Strait Islander Children
As well as the routine childhood vaccinations, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children can have the following extra free vaccines:
- additional doses of pneumococcal vaccine
- meningococcal B vaccine
- hepatitis A vaccine for children living in WA, NT, SA and Qld.
- annual influenza vaccine each year from 6 months
Find more information: Immunisations for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people
Diphtheria Tetanus Pertussis Polio Haemophilus Influenzae Type B Vaccine
DTaP-IPV-Hib vaccine given at 2 months, 4 months, 6 months and 18 months
DTaP-IPV-Hib vaccine is a combined vaccine that protects children against five diseases diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio and serious diseases like meningitis caused by haemophilus influenzae type b.
Immunization against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and polio is required by law for all children attending school in Ontario, unless exempted.
What is diphtheria?
Diphtheria is a serious disease of the nose, throat and skin. It causes sore throat, fever and chills. It can be complicated by breathing problems, heart failure and nerve damage. Diphtheria kills about one out of every 10 people who get the disease. It is most often passed to others through coughing and sneezing.
What is tetanus?
Tetanus or lockjaw is a serious disease that can happen if dirt with tetanus germ gets into a cut in the skin. Tetanus germs are found everywhere, usually in soil, dust and manure. It does not spread from person to person. Tetanus causes cramping of the muscles in the neck, arms, leg and stomach and painful convulsions which can be severe enough to break bones. Even with early treatment, tetanus kills two out of every 10 people who get it.
What is pertussis?
What is polio?
What is haemophilus influenzae type b disease?
Children under five years are more likely to get Hib disease. Children who attend childcare centres are even more likely to catch it. The Hib germ spreads to others through coughing and sneezing.
If Your Child Misses An Immunisation
To fully protect your child and avoid unnecessary costs, it is best to immunise your child at the recommended age. If you have fallen behind or missed a session, the vaccine schedule can be safely continued as if there had been no delay. Ask your doctor or immunisation provider about catch-up doses of vaccine.
There is no need to repeat doses already received before having catch-up doses.
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Keeping Track Of Vaccines
Most of your childs vaccines are completed between birth and age 6. Many vaccines are given more than once, at different ages, and in combinations. This means that youll need to keep a careful record of your child’s shots. Although your healthcare provider’s office will also keep track, people change healthcare providers and records get lost. The person ultimately responsible for keeping track of your child’s vaccines is you.
Ask your child’s healthcare provider for an immunization record form. Think about your child’s record as you would a birth certificate. Keep it with your other essential documents. You can also download an easy-to-read immunization schedule and record form at the CDC website.
Most parents and healthcare providers do a good job of keeping up with immunizations. Yet studies show that about one-fourth of preschool children are missing at least 1 routine vaccine. Most states will not let your child start school without a complete vaccine record. Sometimes a vaccine is missed when a child is sick. No matter what the reason, its important to make up missed immunizations.
If your child has missed an immunization, you don’t have to go back and start over for most vaccines. The previous vaccines are still good. Your healthcare provider will just resume the vaccine schedule. If, for any reason, your child gets additional doses of a vaccine, this is also not a concern. But your child will still need any future doses according to the recommended schedule.
Travel Advice For Children
If your child is going abroad, make sure their routine immunisations are up to date. Your child may also need extra immunisations and you may also need to take other precautions.
Contact your doctors surgery or a travel clinic well in advance for up-to-date information on the immunisations your child may need.
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What Can Happen When A Child Isnt Immunised
Due to the high number of children receiving vaccinations in Northern Ireland over the past couple of decades, many serious childhood infectious diseases have disappeared altogether, like diphtheria, polio or tetanus or been dramatically reduced, such as measles and whooping cough.
In some countries it is more difficult to receive vaccines and as a result more people die from infectious diseases every year.
Unless vaccine uptake remains high in Northern Ireland, many of these serious infectious diseases will return from parts of the world where they still occur. If this happens, then children living in Northern Ireland that are not vaccinated will be at risk of these infections, their complications and even death.
New Zealand Childhood Immunisation Schedule
The National Immunisation Schedule is the group of vaccines that are offered free to babies, children and adolescents . The schedule lists the vaccines and the age at which they should be given.
|Vaccines against the following diseases are available free-of-charge for babies and children in New Zealand|
These diseases can cause serious problems, and can sometimes be fatal. Vaccination is the best protection against them. Vaccination may not always stop these diseases, but it can reduce the problems they cause. Read more about vaccines available in New Zealand.
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Which Vaccines Do You Recommend For Patients Planning On Starting A Family
First, aspiring parents should be up-to-date on all their childhood vaccines.
Rubella is one of the most important for a mother who wishes to become pregnant, because congenital rubella infection can cause many problems with a growing baby. This vaccine should be given before getting pregnant, as it is a live-virus vaccine and shouldnt be given to pregnant women.
“The antibodies generated by the flu shot will also circulate to the baby during pregnancy and protect the baby in early life.”
Rotavirus Vaccine Given At 2 And 4 Months
What is rotavirus?
Rotavirus is a common infection that causes vomiting and diarrhea in infants and children. Rotavirus is very contagious, spreading easily from children who are already infected to other infants, children and sometimes adults. Most children are infected with rotavirus at least once by five years of age. Serious but rare symptoms commonly seen in children less than two years of age include severe diarrhea, leading to hospitalization.
Rotavirus infection is a major cause of visits to health care providers and hospital stays for infants and children under five years of age in Ontario. Deaths in Ontario due to rotavirus are rare.
Some immunizations are required for children to attend school in Ontario. Please see the school immunization checklist for more information.
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Can A Vaccine Cause My Baby To Get Sick
Vaccines are extremely safe and serious side effects are rare. Almost all sickness or discomfort after vaccination is minor and temporary, such as a soreness at the injection site or mild fever. These can often be controlled by taking over-the-counter pain medication as advised by a doctor, or applying a cold cloth to the injection site. If parents are concerned, they should contact their doctor or health care provider.
Extensive studies and research show that there is no evidence of a link between vaccines and autism.
When Should My Child Be Vaccinated
Recommendations about when to have your child vaccinated changes from time to time. You can get a copy of the most current child and adolescent vaccination schedules from the American Academy of Family Physicians and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . Or you can ask your family doctor. Your child usually receives his or her first vaccine soon after they are born.
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Access To Family Assistance Payments And Childcare Immunisation Requirements
To access family assistance payments such as Family Tax Benefit and Child Care Subsidies children are required to be vaccinated against the diseases as per the age appropriate early childhood vaccination schedule.
Additionally, some states and territories may require a child to meet the immunisation requirements, or provide an immunisation record, to enrol in early education and care services.
Find more information: Immunisations for access to family assistance payments and early childhood services.
Sharing Knowledge About Immunisation
Talking about immunisation for parents Answering your questions so you have the information you need to make a decision for your family.
Newborn Vaccines Your Baby Needs
Is your baby protected from vaccine-preventable diseases? Here’s the newborn vaccine schedule recommended by the CDC and AAP for your baby’s first months of life.
Your baby will be given a handful of vaccines and supplements in the first months of life. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends the carefully-planned childhood vaccine schedule. Following the schedule in the coming months and years will put your infant on track for life-long immunity to dangerous diseases.
The vaccines recommended for your young baby are closely monitored by the CDC and the Food and Drug Administration for safety and effectiveness. Here are the vaccines that your baby will receive from birth through two months.
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Should My Child Receive Any Other Vaccines
The CPS recommends that all children over 6 months old get aflu shot each year. The vaccine is especially important for children less than 5 years of age, and for older children with chronic conditions who are at high risk of complications from the flu. The flu shot is also safe and highly recommended for pregnant and breastfeeding women. Since infants less than 6 months of age cannot get the flu shot , antibodies against the flu are transferred to the baby from the mother before birth and through breast milk.
The CPS also urges all children and youth age 5 years and older to get the COVID-19 vaccine.
If travelling, speak to your doctor about vaccines that can protect your child.
Are There Any Reasons My Child Should Not Be Vaccinated
In special situations, children should not be vaccinated. For example, some vaccines shouldnt be given to children who have certain types of cancer or certain diseases. Vaccines should not be given to children who are taking drugs that lower the bodys ability to resist infection.
If your child has had a serious reaction to the first shot in a series of shots, talk to your family doctor about the pros and cons of giving your child the rest of the shots in the series.
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What Are The Types Of Vaccines
There are a few different types of vaccines. They include:
- Attenuated live germs are used in some vaccines such as in the measles, mumps, and rubella and chickenpox vaccines.
- Killed germs are used in some vaccines, such as in the flu shot or the inactivated poliovirus vaccine.
- Toxoid vaccines contain an inactivated toxin made by the germ. For example, the diphtheria and tetanus vaccines are toxoid vaccines.
- Conjugate vaccines contain small pieces of the germ combined with proteins that help trigger a strong immune response. Many commonly used vaccines are made this way, including those that protect against hepatitis B, HPV, whooping cough, and meningitis.
- mRNA vaccines use a piece of the germs RNA, which is part of its genetic material. Some of the COVID-19 vaccines are this type.
The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that kids get combination vaccines whenever possible. Many vaccines are offered in combination to help lower the number of shots a child gets. This has been shown to be very safe. From the day a baby is born, their immune system is exposed to countless germs every day. A few more in a combination vaccine is very easy for the immune system to handle.
Immunisations At 1 Year Of Age
Your child will need the combined Hib/MenC vaccine, PCV, and the MenB vaccine at 1 year of age to boost their protection against Haemophilus influenzae type b, meningococcal B and pneumococcal infections. These vaccines will help to protect your child through early childhood.
Your child will also have their first dose of MMR and MenC vaccine at this time to protect against measles, mumps and rubella and meningococcal C. Your child will need a second dose of MMR vaccine before starting school.
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Measles Mumps And Rubella Vaccine
Measles, mumps and rubella vaccine – given at 12 months
The MMR vaccine is a three-in-one needle that protects against measles, mumps and rubella . It should be given to children soon after their first birthday and a second dose at 4-6 years of age with the measles, mumps, rubella and varicella vaccine.
Immunization against measles, mumps and rubella is required by law for all children attending school in Ontario, unless exempted.
This vaccine should also be given to adults who are not protected against measles, mumps or rubella. Pregnant women who have been told that they are not protected against rubella, should receive MMR vaccine as soon as they are no longer pregnant.
What is measles?
Measles can be a serious infection. It causes high fever, cough, rash, runny nose and watery eyes. Measles lasts for one to two weeks. Ear infections or pneumonia can happen in one out of every 10 children with measles. Measles can also be complicated by encephalitis, an infection of the brain, in about one out of every 1,000 children with measles. This may cause brain damage and developmental delays. Measles can also make a pregnant woman have a miscarriage or give birth prematurely.
Measles spreads from person to person very easily and quickly. People can get measles from an infected person coughing or sneezing around them or simply talking to them.
What is mumps?
What is rubella ?
Final Tips On Vaccines
Keep this information in mind to help your childs immunizations go more smoothly:
Common side effects of vaccines include swelling at the site of the injection, soreness, and fever. Discuss these side effects with your healthcare provider and ask what symptoms deserve an office call.
Ask your healthcare provider’s office if it participates in an immunization registry. This is a source you can go to if your vaccine records get lost.
Ask your healthcare provider’s office if it has an immunization reminder or recall system. This type of system will call to remind you when vaccines are due. It will also warn you if an immunization has been missed.
Always bring your immunizations record with you to all of your child’s office visits. Make sure the healthcare provider signs and dates every immunization.
Vaccines are some of the safest and most effective medicines we have. They have made many dangerous childhood diseases rare today.
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Meningococcal Serogroup A C W Y Vaccination
- 2-dose series at 1112 years, 16 years
- Age 1315 years: 1 dose now and booster at age 1618 years
- Age 1618 years: 1 dose
Anatomic or functional asplenia , HIV infection, persistent complement component deficiency, complement inhibitor use:
- Dose 1 at age 8 weeks: 4-dose series at 2, 4, 6, 12 months
- Dose 1 at age 36 months: 3- or 4- dose series
- Dose 1 at age 723 months: 2-dose series
- Dose 1 at age 24 months or older: 2-dose series at least 8 weeks apart
Travel in countries with hyperendemic or epidemic meningococcal disease, including countries in the African meningitis belt or during the Hajj
- Children age less than 24 months:
- Dose 1 at age 8 weeks: 4-dose series at 2, 4, 6, 12 months
- Dose 1 at age 36 months: 3- or 4- dose series
- Dose 1 at age 723 months: 2-dose series
What Is The Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine
The meningococcal conjugate vaccine protects against four strains of bacterial meningitis caused by the bacteria N. meningitidis. Bacterial meningitis is an infection of the fluid around the brain and spinal cord. It is a serious illness that can cause high fever, headache, stiff neck, and confusion. It can also cause more serious complications, such as brain damage, hearing loss, or blindness.
Children should get the MCV4 vaccine at 11 to 12 years of age. Children older than 12 years of age who have not received the vaccine should receive it before starting high school.
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Are Some Babies Allergic To Vaccines
Very rarely, children can have an allergic reaction soon after immunisation. This reaction may be a rash or itching affecting part or all of the body. The doctor or nurse giving the vaccine will know how to treat this. It does not mean that your child should stop having immunisations.
Even more rarely, children can have a severe reaction, within a few minutes of the immunisation, which causes breathing difficulties and can cause the child to collapse. This is called an anaphylactic reaction. A recent study has shown that there is only 1 anaphylactic reaction in about a million immunisations.
An anaphylactic reaction is a severe and immediate allergic reaction that needs urgent medical attention.
The people who give immunisations are trained to deal with anaphylactic reactions and children recover completely with treatment.