Thursday, March 23, 2023

What Vaccines Does A Newborn Get

Immunisation For Babies Up To One Year Old

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Your baby will get vaccinated at two, three and four months old. Immunisation stimulates your babys body to produce antibodies, the natural defence against infection. Childhood vaccination lowers the risk of getting an infectious disease. Always keep infant paracetamol at home before you take your baby for their first vaccines.

Babies Who Should Not Have The 6

Most babies can have the 6-in-1 vaccine, but there are a few that should not, for example, those who:

  • are allergic to the vaccine
  • have a high temperature at the time of the vaccination appointment wait until they’ve recovered
  • have a neurological problem thats getting worse, including poorly controlled epilepsy wait until theyve been seen by a specialist

The 6-in-1 vaccine should not be given to babies who have had a severe allergic reaction to a previous dose of the vaccine, or a reaction to any part of the vaccine that may be present in trace amounts, such as neomycin, streptomycin or polymixin B.

There’s no need to postpone vaccination if your baby has a minor illness, such as a cough or a cold with no temperature.

If your baby has a history of fits or has had a fit within 72 hours of a previous dose of the vaccine, speak to your GP surgery, nurse or health visitor for advice.

Haemophilus Influenzae Type B And Pneumococcus

Although these vaccines are not given together, both protect against bacteria that can make children younger than 2 years of age very sick with meningitis , pneumonia, or bloodstream infections. Young babies have a limited ability to make antibody responses to bacteria like Haemophilus influenzae type b , pneumococcus, and meningococcus.

Hib and pneumococcus were the most frequent causes of severe illness in young children before vaccines were available. Because of the limitations of making an immune response against them, vaccine technology had to be developed that could overcome this. Researchers found a solution by adding a harmless protein, called a conjugate protein, to the parts of the bacteria that cause disease. Healthcare providers were ecstatic when they had a way to protect babies from the illnesses caused by these two diseases.

Because meningococcus does not occur as frequently, only babies considered to be at highest risk typically receive a meningococcal vaccine in infancy.

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Immunising Your Child Is Important

There are immunisation requirements that your child needs to meet in order to go to childcare, kindergarten and primary school in Victoria. By law, your childs immunisations must be up to date before they start childcare and kindergarten.

The Australian Immunisation Register will send you your child’s Immunisation History Statement on request or you can download it from your myGov account.

In Victoria, parents of children attending a childcare or kindergarten service are required to provide an updated Immunisation History Statement to the service if the child has a new vaccine. This ensures that the service always has current information about the childs immunisation status.

Parents who immunise their children at the appropriate age may be eligible for Australian Government family assistance payments. For more information, visit the Australian Government Services Australia website or visit a Centrelink.

Why Are Pregnant People At A High Risk Of Covid

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In May, CNET talked to Dr. Ella Speichinger, an OB-GYN at University of Missouri Health Care. She said it isn’t exactly known why pregnant people are at a higher risk, but that it may be because pregnant people’s immune systems are naturally depressed so that their bodies won’t reject the growing fetus, or because pregnancy could alter the body’s way of mounting an immune response to COVID-19.

“I’ve had many patients who have had COVID while they were pregnant, and they’ve been just fine,” she said. “But there have definitely been severe cases where patients had to get delivered early because they could no longer oxygenate their fetus.”

In these cases, Speichinger said the patients usually improved after giving birth, but that it was delayed. It’s also impossible to know who will have a bad reaction to COVID-19 while pregnant.

“It’s really unclear who of the healthy pregnant cohorts is going to be the one that gets sick,” she said.

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What If A Family Member Or Friend Refuses To Get Vaccinated

When everyones vaccinations are up to date, parents can feel more secure about the safety of their child. But what if someone refuses?

Just as they would take the common courtesy to wash their hands and stay away if they are exhibiting any signs of an illness , anyone around your baby should also protect against life-threatening infections that could harm your infant.

I would suggest that parents take a strong stand if a family member is not willing to get vaccinated, Dr. Espinoza said. I would not let them near my children until my kids have been adequately vaccinated and are a bit older .

Vaccinations can be a hot-button topic, so try and approach this topic as early as possible before the arrival of baby. If everyone takes necessary precautions, the vast majority of serious infections for newborns can be prevented.

Premature Babies And Immunisations

Premature babies are at a higher risk of infection. Its important that they are immunised following the routine immunisation schedule starting from when theyre two months old, regardless of how early they were born. It could be possible that they start their immunisation when they are still at hospital but your doctor will be able to advise you on this .

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Get These Vaccinations Before Cuddling A Newborn



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While youve anxiously been getting ready for the arrival of your baby, you might have forgotten one of the most important items to ensure their safety: getting vaccinated.

All parents, grandparents, caretakers and anyone else in your family who plan on spending time with your new bundle of joy should make sure their vaccinations are up to date.

Most newborns who catch preventable infections, such as whooping cough and influenza, caught them from inside the home. If someone in the household has a respiratory illness, other members are at risk for getting ill too. Researchers have identified siblings and parents as the most common source of preventable diseases, such as whooping cough infection in young infants, as well as grandparents, caregivers and friends of the family.

Newborns dont yet have fully developed immune systems, making them particularly vulnerable to infections, said Ruben Espinoza, MD, a pediatrician with Banner Health Clinic. When you get vaccinated, you are not only protecting your own health, but you are also helping form a protective barrier around the baby during their first few months of life when they are not yet fully protected.

If you plan on being around the new baby, Dr. Espinoza broke down the two most important vaccinations to get and when:

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I recommend two vaccines for pregnant parents: The first is the flu vaccine, and the second is pertussis .

The flu vaccine should be given to expecting parents as soon possible .

The antibodies generated by the flu shot will also circulate to the baby during pregnancy and protect the baby in early life. This is really important since the baby cant get the flu shot before they are 6 months old, and we dont have very effective treatments to care for those babies who become very ill with the flu.

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Concerns About Side Effects Of Immunisation

If a side effect following immunisation is unexpected, persistent or severe or if you are worried about yourself or your child’s condition after a vaccination, see your doctor or immunisation nurse as soon as possible or go directly to a hospital. Immunisation side effects may be reported to SAEFVIC, the Victorian vaccine safety service .

You can discuss with your immunisation provider how to report adverse events in other states or territories.

It is important to seek medical advice if you are unwell, as this may be due to other illness rather than because of the vaccination.

What Is The Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine

The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine protects against a type of bacteria that is a common cause of ear infections. This type of bacteria can also cause more serious illnesses, such as meningitis and bacteremia . Infants and toddlers are given 4 doses of the vaccine at 2, 4, 6, and 12 months of age. The vaccine may also be used in older children who are at risk for pneumococcal infection.

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Your Child’s Vaccination Schedule

Vaccination schedules are carefully studied and designed to give the best possible protection for children against serious diseases.

Canadians should consult with their health care provider or public health authority to determine when they should visit, and learn about the measures that have been put in place to safely deliver immunization services during COVID-19.

Vaccination schedules can vary slightly, depending on the province or territory you live in. This means that some provinces or territories will vaccinate at a different age.

Typically, your child will be vaccinated:

  • between birth to 2 months
  • at 4 months
  • between 12 months and 18 months
  • between 4 to 6 years of age

For some of the vaccines, your child will require more than 1 dose at different times. This is needed because for some vaccines, the first dose does not provide as much immunity as possible.

More than 1 dose is needed to build more complete immunity. The DTaP-IPV-Hib vaccine, which protects against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio and Haemophilus influenzae type B, is an example.

In other cases, the initial series of shots that children receive as part of their infant immunizations helps them build immunity. After a while, however, that immunity begins to wear off.

At this point, a “booster” dose is needed to bring immunity levels back up. The MMR vaccine, which protects against measles, mumps and rubella, is a good example.

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The Therapeutic Goods Administration and the Australian Technical Advisory Group on Immunisation recommended the use of the Pfizer vaccine for children aged five to 11 years, based on both clinical trials and real-world safety evidence.

Children in this age bracket will receive a lower dose of the vaccine 10 micrograms than those aged 12 years and older, who receive 30 micrograms.

Dr Clark said trials have shown “really good efficacy” for the Delta variant and “good efficacy” for Omicron and real-world data shows the vaccine itself is safe.

“With up to about seven million children now between the ages of five and 12 having been vaccinated worldwide, ongoing safety signals are not showing any significant problems within that .”

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Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Given At 2 Months 4 Months And 12 Months

The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine protects children against invasive pneumococcal infections such as pneumonia, bacteraemia and meningitis .

What is invasive pneumococcal disease ?

IPD is an infection caused by a type of bacteria called streptococcus pneumoniae . This type of bacteria can cause any of the following:

  • pneumonia
  • bacteraemia
  • meningitis

Pneumococcal infection is also a frequent cause of ear infections .

Pneumonia, bacteraemia and meningitis can sometimes cause death or long lasting complications such as deafness, especially in people with a high-risk medical condition.

Sometimes antibiotics do not work against the pneumococcal infection . Antibiotic resistance occurs when drugs, used to treat the infection, are no longer effective in killing or stopping the growth of particular microorganisms, such as pneumococcal bacteria. When there is antibiotic resistance, it is more difficult to treat the infection.

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With breastfeeding, the potential for immunity is less significant as the maternal antibodies are consumed by a baby through breastmilk and then go into the gut, and not directly into the babys own bloodstream. We know that breastfed infants are less likely to have some kinds of infection when they are infants, but whether that will turn out to be true from the antibodies from the COVID vaccine remains to be seen, Gray said.

But what about parents who were infected with COVID-19 during pregnancy? Wouldnt they pass on antibodies as well?

The research on that was less clear.

Dr. Carolynn Dude, an assistant professor of maternal fetal medicine at Emory University, helped lead a study on that subject. The results, which appear in the most recent issue of the journal Obstetrics and Gynecology, show that while parents were found to have mounted a robust immunological response after contracting COVID, with a significant of neutralizing antibodies present in their blood samples at the time of delivery, these same protective antibodies were found in only 25 percent of infants born to these same patients.

This, Dude said, suggested that the vaccines might offer more protection to babies than a parents bout with the disease.

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If Your Child Misses An Immunisation

To fully protect your child and avoid unnecessary costs, it is best to immunise your child at the recommended age. If you have fallen behind or missed a session, the vaccine schedule can be safely continued as if there had been no delay. Ask your doctor or immunisation provider about catch-up doses of vaccine.

There is no need to repeat doses already received before having catch-up doses.

I’m Pregnant Should I Get A Covid

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The CDC made its official recommendation in August that, yes, pregnant people, breastfeeding people and those who want to be pregnant in the future should get vaccinated against COVID-19. The ACOG and SMFM also recommend COVID-19 vaccines for pregnant people.

Other vaccines are recommended or offered during pregnancy. Some vaccines, for other diseases, aren’t recommended for pregnant people because they contain of a live virus. None of the coronavirus vaccines available in the US uses a live virus, making them safe during pregnancy.

Pregnant people who receive a COVID-19 vaccine should monitor themselves for fever, a common side effect after vaccination, and take acetaminophen if necessary. Fever during pregnancy has been associated with adverse outcomes, according to the CDC.

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What Is The Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine

The meningococcal conjugate vaccine protects against four strains of bacterial meningitis caused by the bacteria N. meningitidis. Bacterial meningitis is an infection of the fluid around the brain and spinal cord. It is a serious illness that can cause high fever, headache, stiff neck, and confusion. It can also cause more serious complications, such as brain damage, hearing loss, or blindness.

Children should get the MCV4 vaccine at 11 to 12 years of age. Children older than 12 years of age who have not received the vaccine should receive it before starting high school.

Your Childs Schedule Of Baby Immunisations

Every baby and child in the UK is offered a schedule of routine immunisations starting from when theyre two months old. The Department of Health, Public Health England and NHS England all recommend these immunisations to help protect your baby from what would otherwise be common childhood diseases.

In some areas, your baby will be offered a BCG tuberculosis vaccination in the first day or so. This will also be the case if your baby has family members visiting from countries that have high rates of TB .

It is important that your baby gets immunised at the right age, as this will help to keep the risk of your child catching a serious disease as low as possible. Premature babies might be at greater risk of infection so immunisations are particularly important for them .

Youll be given a personal child health record thats called a red book. Its called that because the cover is usually red and its for recording your childs health. It contains details of the fairly rigid schedule to follow for immunisations. Your babys GP might also send you reminders for when their immunisations are due.

Your baby will be protected sooner if they keep to the schedule for their immunisations. If something does happen to delay or interrupt the schedule, they can pick it up again at any time. Although something to be aware of is that delays to some immunisations can slightly change the schedule .

Heres what the current schedule for immunisations in the UK looks like.

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Childhood Vaccines: What They Are And Why Your Child Needs Them

A vaccine is a preventive treatment for certain medical diseases. These are diseases that are caused by infections and spread from person-to-person. Vaccines contain a weakened version of the infection or versions that resemble it. Most vaccines are given in childhood. Childhood vaccines help your childs body build up a protection against the disease if or when they are exposed to it.

Vaccines are important. They not only help keep your child healthy, they help all children by limiting the spread of disease and possibly eliminating serious childhood diseases.

Where Can Children Get Immunised

Hexavalent 6

In Queensland there are a few ways to go about it.

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