Measles Vaccine During Pregnancy
Measles is the other vaccine-preventable disease on the minds of moms across the country. With measles outbreaks popping up around Canada, many new mothers are facing real concerns about their newborn infants being exposed, says Poliquin. But, babies normally arent vaccinated until theyre about 12 months. In this case, having antibodies already on board is key. Unfortunately theres a catch: the MMR vaccine is live, so if youre already expecting, dont expect your practitioner to offer you a booster.
In general, live virus vaccines are not administered during pregnancy because there is a theoretical risk of infection to the fetus, says Sarah Tranquilli-Doherty, family physician who provides obstetrical care at St. Pauls Hospital in Vancouver. Other live vaccines like the herpes zoster for shingles and oral typhoid are also contra-indicated during pregnancy.
My advice is to see your primary care provider if getting pregnant is even a possibility and talk to them about whether you are immune , says Poliquin. Theres a good chance you received one or two doses of the vaccine in childhood If you got the vaccine, youre probably still protected. If youre not sure if you were immunized, your practitioner may suggest a blood test to see if you have sufficient antibodies. If youre not immune, but already expecting, youll have to wait until after baby arrives to get the vaccine and baby wont get any protection until their 1-year shots.
Principles For Developing Pregnancy Recommendations
Formulating policy to guide vaccination of women during pregnancy and breastfeeding is challenging because the evidence-base to guide decisions is extremely limited. In 2008, CDC published Guiding Principles for Developing ACIP Recommendations for Vaccination During Pregnancy and Breastfeeding to provide guidance to help standardize both the process of policy formulation and the format and language of recommendations for pregnant and breastfeeding women to CDC workgroups or subject matter experts developing vaccine statements subsequent to that date.
Should I Get The Covid Vaccine While Breastfeeding
You may wonder about the timing of your vaccination once you start breastfeeding. What if you get the first dose of vaccine while youre still pregnant and then the second one after you deliver?
You might find it helpful to know that according to experts, based on how vaccines work in the body, there shouldnt be any risk to you or your baby in this case. Doctors from Johns Hopkins Medicine have stated that if you get vaccinated, theres no need to stop breastfeeding.
A March 2021 study of 131 participants confirmed that vaccination doesnt pose a health risk to the mother or the baby . It also found that lactating parents who receive the mRNA vaccines pass antibodies down to their babies through their breast milk, which can help protect the baby.
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How Does Covid Vaccination Work During Pregnancy
Getting the COVID vaccine during pregnancy is the same as for people who arent pregnant . The Pfizer, Moderna, and AstraZeneca vaccines need two shots to build immunity, while the Johnson & Johnson vaccine is only one shot. Its now advised that the second shot be the same vaccine as the first one you got.
But sometimes its necessary to take doses from different vaccines, like if the first dose of a specific vaccine prompts a severe allergic reaction or if there is a shortage of the same vaccine locally. Some studies, including research by the University of Oxford in June 2021, have found that mixing vaccines might even boost the immune response, but the safety and effectiveness of mixing different vaccines are still being explored.Usually, a second dose of the Pfizer vaccine is recommended three weeks after the first one the Moderna vaccines second dose is recommended four weeks later and the second dose of the AstraZeneca vaccine is given between 8 and 12 weeks afterward. But local regulations might differ where you are, so its a good idea to check.It takes two weeks after the final shot to get the full effectiveness of the vaccine. This is the point when youre considered fully vaccinated.
Which Vaccines Should You Have During Pregnancy
During every pregnancy, the ACOG recommends:
- An influenza vaccine during flu season. This can protect women from severe medical and obstetrical complications, and provide protection for babies during early infancy. It can be safely given any time during pregnancy.
- A tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis vaccine, given during the third trimester. This protects against pertussis in pregnant women who might pass it to their babies during delivery, and also protects babies during early infancy when pertussis can be life-threatening. Additionally, Tdap is recommended for anyone who has not received the vaccine and will be in close contact with infants less than a year old, such as grandparents or childcare providers.
Additional vaccines to consider: Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, and pneumococcal vaccines are recommended if you have certain risk factors, or are midway through a vaccine series that was started before you conceived. Ask your doctor about whether you would benefit from any of these vaccines.
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When Should You Get The Covid
The CDC and professional medical organizations, including the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine, recommend COVID-19 vaccination at any point in pregnancy, as well as booster doses for those who are eligible.
Vaccination can protect you from getting very sick from COVID, and keeping you as healthy as possible during pregnancy is important for the health of your baby.
When it comes to research, the CDC and Food and Drug Administration havent found any safety concerns for vaccinated pregnant people or their babies. There also havent been any miscarriages, stillbirths, or preterm births linked to the vaccines, nor is there any evidence that the COVID-19 vaccines cause fertility issues, so you dont need to be concerned if you plan to get pregnant later on. In short, getting vaccinated has fewer risks than getting COVID-19, especially for pregnant people. But getting vaccinated is everyones personal choice, and you get to decide if its the right move for you during pregnancy.
Can I Get The Covid
Yes. It is now recommended by the ACOG, the SMFM and Johns Hopkins Medicine obstetrics leaders. Based on available data, it appears safe to receive the COVID-19 vaccine if you are nursing a baby. Although the vaccines were not initially studied in nursing mothers, review of the evidence by the ACOG, SMFM and CDC revealed no adverse safety issues among people and their babies. The vaccines do not contain live virus, so being vaccinated does not pose a risk to the baby. If you are vaccinated for COVID-19, there is no need to delay or discontinue breast-feeding.
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What Is A Vaccination
A vaccination is a shot that contains a vaccine. A vaccine is a medicine that helps protect you from certain diseases. During pregnancy, vaccinations help protect both you and your baby. Make sure your vaccinations are current before you get pregnant. And talk to your health care provider about vaccinations that are safe to get during pregnancy.
Our vaccination chart shows which routine vaccinations are recommended before and during pregnancy. Its based on the chart from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention shows which vaccinations are recommended before, during and after pregnancy.
Before you get any vaccination, tell your provider if you have any severe allergies or if youve ever had a severe allergic reaction to a vaccine. An allergy is a reaction to something you touch, eat or breathe in that makes you sneeze, itch, get a rash or have trouble breathing. For example, some vaccines are made with eggs. If youre allergic to eggs, those vaccines may cause an allergic reaction for you. If you have allergies, your provider can tell you which vaccines are safe for you. And you may need to get the vaccine at your providers office or at a hospital or health clinic so you can get treatment quickly if you have an allergic reaction.
What Vaccines Should You Get After Delivery
Now is the time to catch up on any vaccines you may have been unable to get during pregnancy or before becoming pregnant, such as the MMR and chickenpox vaccines. Moms who are breastfeeding can get vaccinated according to a normal adult vaccination schedule.
As mentioned above, if you’re due for a Td booster and didn’t get one during pregnancy, the latest recommendation is to get Tdap, which includes pertussis, also known as whooping cough. Women younger than 26 should also consider getting the HPV vaccine that helps protect against cervical cancer. The shot isn’t recommended during pregnancy because studies haven’t yet determined its safety for a developing baby.
What Vaccinations Are Recommended During Pregnancy
The CDC recommends two vaccinations during pregnancy:
If your provider thinks you may be at risk, he may recommend vaccinations during pregnancy to help protect you from:
- Hepatitis A and B
- Tetanus and diphtheria , although the Tdap vaccination is recommended.
If youre at high risk for serious infections because of travel outside the United States or other possible exposure, your provider may recommend these vaccinations during pregnancy:
Are Vaccines Safe If I Am Breastfeeding
Yes. It is safe to receive routine vaccines right after giving birth, even while you are breastfeeding. However, yellow fever vaccine is not recommended for breastfeeding women unless travel to certain countries is unavoidable and a healthcare provider determines that the benefits of vaccination outweigh the risks. Talk with your provider if you are considering yellow fever vaccine.
Donahue JG, Kieke BA, King JP, Mascola MA, Shimabukuro TT, DeStefano F, Hanson KE, McClure DL, Olaiya O, Glanz JM, Hechter RC, Irving SA, Jackson LA, Klein NP, Naleway AL, Weintraub ES, Belongia EA. Inactivated influenza vaccine and spontaneous abortion in the Vaccine Safety Datalink in 2012-13, 2013-14, and 2014-15.external icon Vaccine. 2019 Oct 16 37:6673-6681. Epub 2019 Sep 17.
Fortner KB, Swamy GK, Broder KR, Jimenez-Truque N, Zhu Y, Moro PL, Liang J, Walter EB, Heine RP, Moody MA, Yoder S, Edwards KM. Reactogenicity and immunogenicity of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccine in pregnant and nonpregnant women.external iconVaccine. 2018 Oct 8 36:6354-6360. Epub 2018 Sep 13.
Kharbanda, E. O., Vazquez-Benitez, G., Lipkind, H. S., Sheth, S. S., Zhu, J., Naleway, A. L., Klein, N. P., Hechter, R., Daley, M. F., Donahue, J. G., Jackson, M. L., Kawai, A. T., Sukumaran, L., and Nordin, J. D. Risk of Spontaneous Abortion After Inadvertent Human Papillomavirus Vaccination in Pregnancy.external iconObstet. Gynecol. 2018 Jul 132: 35-44.
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Vaccines Used In Pregnancy
The first vaccine to be approved for use in pregnancy was the tetanus vaccine. Tetanus is caused by a bacterium called Clostridium tetani that lives in dirt and in soil, as well as on rusty surfaces. When you injure your foot on a rusty nail, for example, you could get tetanus. The bacterium Clostridium tetani causes neonatal tetanus disease, which means tetanus disease of the new-born baby, and often leads to death. Pregnant women are advised to get the tetanus vaccine to protect themselves and their new-borns from this disease.
A second vaccine that is recommended during pregnancy is the whooping cough vaccine. This vaccine is recommended in pregnancy because whooping cough disease is more severe for babies in their first weeks of life, often leading to hospitalization and even death. The bacterium causing whooping cough is called Bordetella pertussis. Neither the pregnant woman nor the unborn baby are in danger when they are infected by Bordetella pertussis, yet the new-born baby is! Vaccination during pregnancy can protect new-born infants from birth until they are old enough to be vaccinated themselves.
Last, the flu vaccine is recommended in pregnancy mainly because pregnant women can become more severely ill if they get flu, which is caused by the influenza virus. Contracting flu during pregnancy can endanger the pregnant women and her unborn child.
Vaccines Currently Under Research And Development For Licensure For Maternal
To date, vaccines in the United States are not specifically licensed or targeted for use during pregnancy. However, vaccines aimed at fetal-infant immunization are in varying stages of research and development for which the target population will be pregnant women. Two examples are group B streptococcus and respiratory syncytial virus . GBS is the leading cause of invasive infection during the first 90 days of life and is the predominate cause of neonatal sepsis and meningitis, even in the setting of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis.76 From 1993 to 2008, intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis has reduced the incidence of early-onset neonatal GBS infection from 1.7 to 0.28 cases per 1,000 live births but has had no impact on late-onset GBS disease in the United States.77 Given the significant unmet need of late-onset disease and evidence of protection in the setting of passive immunity,76,78 a GBS vaccine could be a more effective and reliable way to prevent both early- and late-onset disease. Moreover, a regimen of screening plus intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis is neither feasible nor affordable in the developing world where invasive GBS disease remains a significant contributor to neonatal mortality and adverse pregnancy outcomes. A promising trivalent conjugated GBS vaccine is currently in phase II and III trials in pregnant women aimed at providing passive immunity to young infants.79
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Can I Get Covid
No. You cannot get COVID-19 from the currently available vaccines. You may experience mild, temporary side effects, but this is an indication of the immune response to the vaccination, not COVID-19.
How To Get Vaccinated
If you are pregnant, ask your doctor, obstetrician/gynecologist , nurse or midwife about getting the flu and Tdap vaccines. If you are 18 years of age or older, you can also get both vaccines without a prescription at many city pharmacies. For information on where to get the flu and Tdap vaccines, you can check the NYC Health Map, call 311, or ask your primary health care provider. Both vaccines are also available at no-to-low cost at NYCs walk-in immunization clinic in Fort Greene, Brooklyn.
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Which Vaccines Should Pregnant Women Avoid
The following vaccines can potentially be transmitted to the unborn child and may result in miscarriage, premature birth or birth defects.
- Hepatitis A: The safety of this vaccine hasn’t been determined, but it can be given if the benefits outweigh the risks. Women at high risk for exposure to this virus should discuss the risks and benefits with their doctors.
- Measles, Mumps, Rubella : Women should wait at least one month to become pregnant after receiving these live-virus vaccines. If the initial rubella test shows that you are not immune to rubella, then you will be given the vaccine after delivery.
- Varicella: This vaccine, used to prevent chicken pox, should be given at least one month before pregnancy.
- Pneumococcal: Because the safety of this vaccine is unknown, it should be avoided in pregnancy, except for women who are at high risk or have a chronic illness.
- Oral Polio Vaccine and Inactivated Polio Vaccine : Neither the live-virus nor the inactivated-virus version of this vaccine is recommended for pregnant women.
- HPV Vaccine: To prevent the human papillomavirus virus .
How Many Doses Are Administered Daily
Daily number of doses administered per 100 people
The following chart shows the daily number of doses administered per 100 people. This is shown as the rolling seven-day average. Note that this is counted as a single dose, and may not equal the total number of people vaccinated, depending on the specific dose regime .
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What Share Of The Population Has Received At Least One Dose Of Vaccine
The following chart shows the share of the total population that has received at least one dose of vaccine. This may not equal the share with a complete initial protocol if the vaccine requires two doses. If a person receives the first dose of a 2-dose vaccine, this metric goes up by 1. If they receive the second dose, the metric stays the same.
What Side Effects Can I Expect After A Vaccination
Side effects may occur up to three weeks after vaccination. If you experience any severe side effects, be sure to tell your doctor.
- Hepatitis A: Soreness and redness at injection site, headache, fatigue, severe allergic reaction in very rare cases
- Hepatitis B: Soreness at injection site, fever
- Influenza: Redness and swelling at injection site that can last up to two days, fever
- Tetanus/Diphtheria: Low-grade fever, soreness and swelling at injection site
- Measles, Mumps, Rubella : Non-contagious rash, swelling of neck glands and cheeks, pain and stiffness of joints one to two weeks after vaccination
- Varicella: Fever, soreness or redness at injection site, rash or small bumps up to three weeks after vaccination
- Pneumococcal: Fever, soreness at injection site
- Oral Polio Vaccine : None
- Inactivated Polio Vaccine : Redness, discomfort at injection site
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