How Does Immunisation Work
Immunisation is a simple, safe and effective way to protect children against certain diseases. The serious health risks of these diseases are far greater than the very small risks of immunisation.
Immunisation protects children against harmful infections before they come into contact with them in the community.
It uses the bodys natural defence mechanism the immune system to build resistance to specific infections. Generally it takes about 2 weeks after vaccination for the immune system to respond fully.
Vaccination is the term used for getting a vaccine that is, getting the injection or taking an oral vaccine dose. Immunisation refers to the process of both getting the vaccine and becoming immune to the disease after vaccination.
Learn more about the difference between vaccination and immunisation.
Vaccines for babies and young children are funded under the Department of Health’s National Immunisation Program.
In Australia, babies and children are immunised against the following diseases:
The hepatitis A vaccine is free for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children living in high-risk areas .
Children aged 6 months to under 5 years can have the flu vaccine for free each year. It is available in autumn. Children aged 12 to 13 should be vaccinated against human papillomavirus through their schools.
Most vaccines recommended in the program are given by injection. Some combine several vaccines in the one injection.
The Flu Shot: An Annual Immunization For Children Starting At 6 Months Old
The flu vaccine or influenza vaccine may be the most well-known of all immunizations. Thats because its one of the longest-running vaccines in the United States, with the first of its kind being approved for widespread use in 1945.
While influenza viruses circulate year-round, flu cases peak in the fall and winter months nearly every year. Flu shots help protect against the types of influenza viruses that research indicates will be most common that season. Thats why the CDC recommends annual flu shots for everyone by the end of October including kids 6 months and older.
When children receive their first flu shot, the vaccine is delivered in two doses, given at least one month apart. After that first pair of doses, just one shot is needed each year.
Children In Licensed Daycare Centres
If you want your child to attend daycare, and decide not to vaccinate them due to medical, religious or philosophical reasons, you will need to give your daycare a valid written exemption. If the disease appears in your childs daycare centre, your child may have to stay out of daycare until the disease is no longer present.
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What Are The Side Effects Of Vaccinations
Many children get minor side effects such as redness, soreness and swelling where the needle went in, mild fever, and being irritable or unsettled. If your child has any of these side effects, give them extra fluids to drink, dont overdress them if they feel hot, and consider giving them paracetamol to help ease any fever or soreness. Most side effects are short-lasting and the child recovers without any problems.
For young children about to receive their meningococcal B vaccination, you can give them the recommended dose of paracetamol beforehand. This can help reduce the chance of your child developing a fever. Talk to your doctor or child health nurse before your appointment about how to do this.
Serious reactions to vaccinations are very rare. However, if they do occur, take your child to the doctor immediately.
How Is A Baby Protected Against Hepatitis B At Birth
When a mother is infected with hepatitis B, or at risk of infection, her baby will receive 2 immunizations at birth. One is hepatitis B immune globulin, which provides antibodies that protect against the hepatitis B virus right away. The other immunization is the hepatitis B vaccine, which helps the baby make their own antibodies. A baby whose mother is not infected but who has a household member or a caregiver with hepatitis B would get only the hepatitis B vaccine at birth.
After birth, the baby will receive 3 more doses of hepatitis B vaccine at 2, 4 and 6 months of age. These are given at the same time as other childhood vaccines. For more information, see HealthLinkBC File #105 Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis, Hepatitis B, Polio and Haemophilus influenzae type b Vaccine.
Babies immunized at birth need to have a blood test 4 weeks after their last dose of hepatitis B vaccine to make sure the vaccine has protected them.
Some babies who received hepatitis B vaccine at birth may be on a different immunization schedule. If you are unsure when your baby should be immunized or tested, speak with your health care provider. It is important to keep a record of all immunizations received.
For more information on hepatitis B immune globulin or the hepatitis B infant vaccine see HealthlinkBC File #25b Hepatitis B Immune Globulin and HealthLinkBC File #25c Hepatitis B Infant Vaccine.
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Pollutants Linked To Skewed Sex Ratios Of Babies Research Finds
Pollution might be affecting the sex ratio of babies with some pollutants linked to higher birth of boys and others with more girls, according to new research.
A number of pollutants and indicators of poverty have been found to affect the ratio of baby boys to girls born to parents in the US and Sweden.
The human sex ratio at birth is defined as the ratio between the number of newborn boys to the total number of newborns.
After testing more than 100 possible factors, researchers found that increased levels of air and water pollutants were associated with lower SRBs. Some environmental toxins turned out to induce higher SRBs.
Mercury, chromium and aluminium pollution coincided with the birth of more boys while lead pollution increased the number of baby girls born.
The study was done by examining over half of the US population of approximately 150 million for over 8 years and the entire Swedish population of approximately 9 million for over 30 years.
Our present study is the first systematic investigation of numerous chemical pollutants and other environmental factors using large datasets from two continents, said the researchers.
Although the overall variation was found to be small, researchers believe that the large sizes of the two datasets made it a significant factor.
Proximity to farming also affected the sex ratio, possibly due to higher chemical exposures.
Fetal Deaths Stillbirths Skyrocket In Injected Women
As of November 12, 2021, there were 2,620 cases of fetal death or stillbirth among women who received a COVID-19 injection reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System .7 Health Impact News ran the same VAERS search, but this time excluded COVID-19 injections to look for fetal deaths in women who had been vaccinated with any vaccine other than a COVID-19 jab over the last 30+ years. They found:8
We are currently on pace to see a yearly total of 2,838 recorded fetal deaths following COVID-19 shots, while the yearly average of recorded fetal deaths following the vaccination of pregnant women for the past 30 years has been an average of 74 fetal deaths per year.
Health officials are adamant that pregnant women get a COVID-19 injection, but the data dont support its safety. The CDC-sponsored study9 published in The New England Journal of Medicine that was widely used to support the U.S. recommendation for pregnant women to get injected was corrected in October 2021, with the correction stating:10
In the table footnotes, the following content should have been appended to the double dagger footnote:
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You Cant Make An Informed Decision Without The Facts
At this time, women arent being warned about the potential risks for miscarriage, menstrual irregularities and even fertility that have been uncovered. But its an urgent matter that must be investigated so people can make an informed decision before consenting to an injection that could have serious reproductive effects.
It should be widely known, however, that Janci Chunn Lindsay, Ph.D., a prominent toxicologist and molecular biologist who works with M.D. Anderson Cancer Center-Houston, spoke at the CDCs Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices meeting April 23, 2021.
The focus of the meeting was blood clotting disorders following COVID-19 shots, and Lindsay spoke during the public comment period, calling for all gene therapy vaccines to be halted immediately due to safety concerns on several fronts, including fertility.25 Lindsay warned that severe red flags exist that an entire generation could be at risk of sterilization if COVID-19 shots arent stopped until more research is conducted:26
We simply cannot put these in our children who are at .002% risk for Covid mortality, if infected, or any more of the child-bearing age population without thoroughly investigating this matter. , we could potentially sterilize an entire generation. Speculation that this will not occur and a few anecdotal reports of pregnancies within the trial are not sufficient proof that this is not impacting on a population-wide scale.
How Long Vaccines Take To Work
It usually takes a few weeks for vaccines to work. Your child will not be protected immediately.
Also, most vaccines need to be given several times to build up long-lasting protection. For example, a child who gets only 1 or 2 doses of the whooping cough vaccine is only partly protected. They may still catch whooping cough if the course is not completed.
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Measles Mumps Rubella And Varicella Vaccine
The Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care recently introduced a new measles, mumps, rubella and varicella vaccine to the Publicly Funded Immunization Schedules for Ontario.
Immunization against measles, mumps and rubella is required by law for all children attending school in Ontario, unless exempted. Immunization against varicella is also required for children born in 2010 or later.
What is measles?
Measles can be a serious infection. It causes high fever, cough, rash, runny nose and watery eyes. Measles lasts for one to two weeks. Ear infections or pneumonia can happen in one out of every 10 children with measles. Measles can also be complicated by encephalitis, an infection of the brain, in about one out of every 1,000 children with measles. This may cause brain damage and developmental delays. Measles can also make a pregnant woman have a miscarriage or give birth prematurely.
Measles spreads from person to person very easily and quickly. People can get measles from an infected person coughing or sneezing around them or simply talking to them.
What is mumps?
Mumps can cause very painful, swollen testicles in about one out of four teenage boys or adult men, and painful infection of the ovaries in one out of 20 women. Mumps infection during the first three months of pregnancy may increase the risk of miscarriage. Mumps can cause deafness in some people.
What is rubella ?
What is varicella ?
Should My Child Receive Any Other Vaccines
The CPS recommends that all children over 6 months old get aflu shot each year. The vaccine is especially important for children less than 5 years of age, and for older children with chronic conditions who are at high risk of complications from the flu. The flu shot is also safe and highly recommended for pregnant and breastfeeding women. Since infants less than 6 months of age cannot get the flu shot , antibodies against the flu are transferred to the baby from the mother before birth and through breast milk.
The CPS also urges all children and youth age 12 years and older to get the COVID-19 vaccine.
If travelling, speak to your doctor about vaccines that can protect your child.
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Vaccination And Your Child
Vaccination is the best way to protect your child against many dangerous diseases. In Canada, vaccines prevent illnesses such as diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis , polio, Haemophilus influenzae type B , rotavirus, hepatitis B, measles, mumps, rubella, chickenpox, pneumococcal and meningococcal diseases, human papillomavirus virus , and influenza.
Immunisation And Young Children
In the first months of life, a baby might have some protection from infectious diseases that their mother has had or been immunised against. This is known as passive immunity. It occurs when antibodies are transferred from mother to baby during pregnancy. The level of antibody protection for the baby can be low and wears off quickly. This puts them at risk of diseases that can be prevented with vaccination.Most childhood immunisations are given as an injection in the arm or leg, except rotavirus vaccine, which is given by mouth. A vaccination dose may contain a vaccine against one specific disease, or several diseases. This is known as a combination injection, and it helps to reduce the number of injections your child needs.
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Keeping Your Childs Vaccination Record Up To Date
Ask the doctor or nurse to give you a written record and take this record with you whenever you take your child to a doctor, a clinic or hospital. An up-to-date vaccine record is especially important if you move to a new province or territory, as vaccine schedules are not the same everywhere. Your child may miss vaccine doses if your new doctor or clinic does not know exactly which vaccines they have already received.
You can also use the CANImmunize smartphone app. CANImmunize is a digital tool for Canadians that securely stores their vaccination records and helps them get vaccinated on time. The app also provides access to information and resources about vaccination from trusted Canadian health sources, so people can make informed vaccination decisions for themselves and their families.
Why Children Are Vaccinated At Such A Young Age
Children are vaccinated at a very young age because this is when they are most vulnerable to diseases. At this point their immune system is not developed enough to be able to fight serious infections.
The vaccination schedule is based on infants’ ability to create an immune response. Vaccines are given to protect them against 14 serious diseases at a time when they are most at risk.
Medical experts do not advise delaying or spreading out the recommended vaccines. This does not provide any added benefit to your child.
Recommended Immunizations For Children Ages 4 To 6 Years Old
The shots recommended between ages 4 and 6 are often called kindergarten vaccines because kids are often required to be up to date on their immunizations to start attending elementary school. No new vaccines are introduced at this time, but oftentimes vaccines are given as combinations.
For example, DTap and IPV can be given in a single shot. MMR and varicella vaccines can also be combined into a single immunization. These vaccines are just as effective when given together, and it cuts down on the number of shots kids need.
An overview of immunizations for kids ages 4 to 6 years old
- DTaP The fifth and final diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis vaccine is recommended when your child is between 4 and 6 years old.
- IPV The fourth and final poliovirus vaccine is recommended when your child is between 4 and 6 years old.
- MMR The second and final dose of the measles, mumps and rubella vaccine is also recommended when your child is between 4 and 6 years old.
- Varicella The second and final dose of the chickenpox vaccine is also recommended when your child is between 4 and 6 years old.
If Your Child Misses An Immunisation
To fully protect your child and avoid unnecessary costs, it is best to immunise your child at the recommended age. If you have fallen behind or missed a session, the vaccine schedule can be safely continued as if there had been no delay. Ask your doctor or immunisation provider about catch-up doses of vaccine.
There is no need to repeat doses already received before having catch-up doses.
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Benefits Of The Hepatitis B Vaccine
The main benefit of the vaccine is its effectiveness. The AAP note that if doctors give the first dose of the hepatitis B vaccine within 24 hours of the babys delivery, it is 75 to 95 percent effective in preventing the passage of hepatitis B from the birth mother to the baby.
If the newborn also receives the medication hepatitis B immune globulin at the correct time and a series of follow-up vaccines, the AAP estimate that the infection rate drops to between 0.7 and 1.1 percent.
For the best possible protection, the baby will need to complete the full series of vaccines.
state that the vaccine is very safe. The full series of the vaccine provides the highest possible level of protection from the infection.
Some people still express concern about the safety of vaccination. The reasons for this worry may vary.
Part of the fear may be due to older research. For example, a 2009 study indicated an association between the Engerix B vaccine, a specific type of hepatitis B vaccine, and an increased risk of damage to the central nervous system later in life.
However, the researchers note that this was the exception, not the rule. They also highlight the need for more studies to validate this finding.
On the whole, their research indicates that hepatitis B vaccination generally does not increase the risk of damage to the CNS.
The majority of research indicates that hepatitis B vaccines are a safe and effective way to prevent the infection.
How Can Parents Keep Children Safe Before They Get The Covid
Since it may still be a few months before your little ones can get vaccinated, its important to continue following the same safety measures youve used throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, says Kyle Monk, M.D., a pediatrician at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles, California and member of the What to Expect Medical Review Board.
This includes wearing masks, practicing social distancing and frequent handwashing. The good news is research does show low rates of transmission in schools, so you can comfortably send your children to school or summer camp, she says. The CDC also recently revised its K-12 school guidelines to say that spacing kids three feet apart is just as safe as six feet, as long as theres universal mask wearing.
However, life won’t necessarily return to normal just because schools and camps are open, adds Dr. Monk. You still need to hold off on unmasked playdates or sleepovers until children are vaccinated, she explains. If your kids interact with anyone outside of their immediate household, it should be masked .
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