The 1970s Vaccine Success
During the 1970s, one vaccine was eliminated. Because of successful eradication efforts, the smallpox vaccine was no longer recommended for use after 1972. While vaccine research continued, new vaccines were not introduced during the 1970s.
Late 1970s | Recommended Vaccines
* Given in combination as DTP** Given in combination as MMR
Are Vaccines Safe For Children
Vaccines are safe. They must go through extensive safety testing and evaluation before they are approved in the United States.
Some people worry that childhood vaccines could cause autism spectrum disorder . But many scientific studies have looked at this and have found no link between vaccines and autism.
The Vaccine Everyone Was Waiting For Polio Vaccine
Parents were scared of the polio epidemics that occurred each summer they kept their children away from swimming pools, sent them to stay with relatives in the country, and clamored for an understanding of the spread of polio. They waited for a vaccine, closely following vaccine trials and sending dimes to the White House to help the cause. When the polio vaccine was licensed in 1955, the country celebrated, and Jonas Salk, its inventor, became an overnight hero.
Late 1950s | Recommended Vaccines
* Given in combination as DTP
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How Many Shots Do Children Need
Although vaccines are combined to reduce the number of shots needed, the list is still long.
Here is a common immunization schedule recommended by age 2:
One vaccination for measles, mumps, and rubella
Four vaccinations for Haemophilus influenza , a common upper respiratory infection that can also cause meningitis
Three to four polio vaccinations
Four vaccinations for diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis
Three vaccinations for hepatitis B
One vaccination for varicella no earlier than age 12 months and only if your child does not develop chickenpox on his or her own
Three vaccinations for rotavirus, a type of infection that causes severe diarrhea
Four vaccinations for pneumococcal disease, a common cause of ear infections and pneumonia
From age 4 to 6, your child will need booster shots for DPT, IPV, MMR, and chickenpox. Children should also start receiving a yearly flu shot after age 6 months. A vaccination for hepatitis A is recommended for all children. This is a lot to keep track of and why you need an immunization records form.
Children In Licensed Daycare Centres
If you want your child to attend daycare, and decide not to vaccinate them due to medical, religious or philosophical reasons, you will need to give your daycare a valid written exemption. If the disease appears in your childs daycare centre, your child may have to stay out of daycare until the disease is no longer present.
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Keeping Your Childs Vaccination Record Up To Date
Ask the doctor or nurse to give you a written record and take this record with you whenever you take your child to a doctor, a clinic or hospital. An up-to-date vaccine record is especially important if you move to a new province or territory, as vaccine schedules are not the same everywhere. Your child may miss vaccine doses if your new doctor or clinic does not know exactly which vaccines they have already received.
You can also use the CANImmunize smartphone app. CANImmunize is a digital tool for Canadians that securely stores their vaccination records and helps them get vaccinated on time. The app also provides access to information and resources about vaccination from trusted Canadian health sources, so people can make informed vaccination decisions for themselves and their families.
Vaccines Given At Birth
Hepatitis B Vaccine is given before taking your baby home from the hospital. Hepatitis B can cause slow, persistent liver damage in a child. The virus, found in blood and body fluids, can last on a surface for up to a month. Doctors recommend this vaccine for all babies as a preventative to liver disease and cancer from the virus.
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Vaccination And Your Child
Vaccination is the best way to protect your child against many dangerous diseases. In Canada, vaccines prevent illnesses such as diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis , polio, Haemophilus influenzae type B , rotavirus, hepatitis B, measles, mumps, rubella, chickenpox, pneumococcal and meningococcal diseases, human papillomavirus virus , and influenza.
What Are The Risks Of Not Vaccinating Or Not Vaccinating On Time
The diseases prevented by infant and childhood vaccines are serious and even deadly. Measles can spread to the brain, cause brain damage and death. Mumps can cause permanent deafness. Polio can cause paralysis. Sadly, these diseases have not disappeared. There is no treatment and no cure for diseases like measles, polio and tetanus. The only way to protect your child is through vaccination.
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How Can Parents Keep Children Safe Before They Get The Covid
Since it may still be a few months before your little ones can get vaccinated, its important to continue following the same safety measures youve used throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, says Kyle Monk, M.D., a pediatrician at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles, California and member of the What to Expect Medical Review Board.
This includes wearing masks, practicing social distancing and frequent handwashing. The good news is research does show low rates of transmission in schools, so you can comfortably send your children to school or summer camp, she says. The CDC also recently revised its K-12 school guidelines to say that spacing kids three feet apart is just as safe as six feet, as long as theres universal mask wearing.
However, life won’t necessarily return to normal just because schools and camps are open, adds Dr. Monk. You still need to hold off on unmasked playdates or sleepovers until children are vaccinated, she explains. If your kids interact with anyone outside of their immediate household, it should be masked .
Recommended Immunizations For Children Ages 0 To 18 Months
When do babies get their first shots? Staying on track with childhood immunizations starts early, with immunizations beginning at birth and coinciding with baby and child wellness schedules.
Remember, child vaccination schedules are made with young immune systems in mind. If you have specific questions about when or why specific vaccines are recommended for your newborn baby, infant or toddler, talk with your childs doctor.
An overview of immunizations for newborns to 18-month-olds
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Why Childhood Immunizations Are Important
Childhood vaccines or immunizations can seem overwhelming when you are a new parent. Vaccine schedules recommended by agencies and organizations, such as the CDC, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the American Academy of Family Physicians cover about 14 different diseases.
Vaccinations not only protect your child from deadly diseases, such as polio, tetanus, and diphtheria, but they also keep other children safe by eliminating or greatly decreasing dangerous diseases that used to spread from child to child.
A vaccine is a dead, or weakened version, or part of the germ that causes the disease in question. When children are exposed to a disease in vaccine form, their immune system, which is the body’s germ-fighting machine, is able to build up antibodies that protect them from contracting the disease if and when they are exposed to the actual disease.
Over the years, vaccines have generated some controversy over safety, but no convincing evidence of harm has been found. And although children can have a reaction to any vaccine, the important thing to know is that the benefits of vaccinations far outweigh the possible side effects.
When Do Infants And Children Need Vaccines
|Your child should receive 2 doses of chickenpox vaccine. The first dose should be given at 1215 months, and the second dose at 46 years.|
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|Your child should receive 5 doses of DTaP. The first dose should be given at 2 months, the second dose at 4 months, the third dose at 6 months, the fourth dose at 1518 months, and the fifth dose at 46 years.|
|Your child should receive 34 doses of Hib vaccine . The first dose should be given at 2 months, the second dose at 4 months, the third dose at 6 months , and the last dose at 1215 months.|
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|Your child should receive 2 doses of hepatitis A vaccine. The first dose should be given at age 1 year and the second 6-18 months later.|
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|Your child should receive 3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine. The first dose should be given at birth, the second dose at 12 months, and the third dose at 6-18 months. Sometimes children receive 4 doses of hepatitis B vaccine if they are receiving a combination vaccine.|
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|Every person, beginning at age 6 months and continuing throughout their lifetime, should receive yearly vaccination against influenza. Vaccination is the most effective step you can take to be protected from this serious disease. Children under the age of 9 years may need 2 doses. Talk to your child’s healthcare provider to find out if your child needs more than 1 dose.|
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How Long Vaccines Take To Work
It usually takes a few weeks for vaccines to work. Your child will not be protected immediately.
Also, most vaccines need to be given several times to build up long-lasting protection. For example, a child who gets only 1 or 2 doses of the whooping cough vaccine is only partly protected. They may still catch whooping cough if the course is not completed.
When Is It Time To Get A Booster Shot
If you got Pfizer or Moderna, six months after the date of your second shot listed on your vaccination card is when you’re eligible to receive your booster dose. The CDC and other health authorities are now urging you to get your booster as soon as you’re eligible, to keep your immune response against omicron, delta and other coronavirus variants as strong as possible. Two months after the Johnson & Johnson vaccine is the time for a booster .
On Dec. 2, Biden also outlined a plan for Medicare to contact the 64 million people it serves and for AARP to reach out to its 38 million senior members. Pharmacies like Walgreens, CVS, RiteAid and others will also contact people who got a vaccine at their retail stores when it’s time to schedule another dose.
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What To Do If You Move
If you move to another province or territory, your child’s vaccination schedule may change. Once you have moved, contact your new health care provider or local public health office. They will tell you which vaccines may be needed in that province or territory.
Remember to take your child’s vaccination record to the appointment with you.
Should People Who Are Pregnant Get A Booster Shot
The COVID booster recommendations apply to all people 18 years and older, including people who are pregnant. In fact, the CDC urges pregnant people to get a COVID vaccine — and a booster is half a full vaccine dose.
“People who are pregnant or recently pregnant are more likely to get severely ill with COVID-19 compared with people who are not pregnant,” the CDC says on its website.
A recent study also linked COVID-19 infection in pregnant people to higher risk of stillbirth.
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Your Babys First Shot
Shortly after birth, your baby should receive the first dose of the vaccine to help protect against the following disease:
All babies should get the first shot of hepatitis B vaccine within first 12 hours after birth.
This shot acts as a safety net, reducing the risk of getting the disease from you or family members who may not know they are infected with hepatitis B.
If you have hepatitis B, theres additional medicine that can help protect your newborn against hepatitis B its called hepatitis B immune globin . HBIG gives your babys body extra help to fight the virus as soon as your baby is born.
How The Chickenpox Vaccine Works
Kathleen Sullivan, MD : Here’s how the chicken pox vaccine was made. The chickenpox virus was taken from a little boy with chickenpox in Japan in the 1960s. The chickenpox virus was then grown in specialized cells in the laboratory. As the virus got better and better at growing in the laboratory, it got worse and worse at growing in children. So the chickenpox vaccine represents the very best of two worlds. On the one hand, the vaccine virus doesn’t grow very well in children, so it doesn’t cause disease. On the other hand, the vaccine virus grows well enough to provide the shield of long-lasting immunity.
Christina L. Master, MD : He looks beautiful. You’re doing a wonderful job with him.
The next vaccine that we’re going to talk about is usually the first vaccine that babies get. It’s given to prevent a common infection of the liver.
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Contact Doctor Within 24 Hours
- Redness or red streak starts more than 48 hours after the shot
- Redness around the shot becomes larger than 3 inches
- Fever lasts more than 3 days
- Fever returns after being gone more than 24 hours
- Measles vaccine rash lasts more than 4 days
- You think your child needs to be seen, but the problem is not urgent
Can A Vaccine Cause My Baby To Get Sick
Vaccines are extremely safe and serious side effects are rare. Almost all sickness or discomfort after vaccination is minor and temporary, such as a soreness at the injection site or mild fever. These can often be controlled by taking over-the-counter pain medication as advised by a doctor, or applying a cold cloth to the injection site. If parents are concerned, they should contact their doctor or health care provider.
Extensive studies and research show that there is no evidence of a link between vaccines and autism.
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Children Five To 11 Years
Children five to 11 years of age and children turning five before the end of 2021 can book an appointment for their COVID-19 vaccine at a Public Health clinic through the provincial portal online or by calling 1-833-943-3900. These clinics will not be accepting any walk-ins.
Children five to 11 can also get vaccinated at participating pharmacies and at family doctor offices who are providing the vaccine.
Can A Child Get A Covid
Experts say that a child can get the COVID-19 vaccine without their parents’ permission, but that it would be extremely rare as the child would have to prove they are mentally capable of making the decision.
Dubey said that in this scenario, a physician would do an assessment to determine if the child has a complete understanding of what they are agreeing too. The process would likely be “a bit more intense” than what would be required of an adult, she said.
“It’s one of the reasons why, at our Toronto Public Health Clinics for example, we’re requiring parental consent because our nurses don’t necessarily have that expertise to do that kind of assessment. But you know, in a family doctor’s office, for example, perhaps even some pharmacists might be able to determine that.”
Dr. Adam Kassam, president of the Ontario Medical Association, admits that a child wanting to get a vaccine without parental consent is a “very challenging situation” but could be determined by a family doctor or someone with a pre-established relationship with the child.
Individuals between the ages of 12 and 18 the age group in which a youth is officially considered an adult are allowed to get the COVID-19 vaccine without parental consent, something that Kassam says is usual in terms of vaccinations. However, those doses are typically provided in school settings or at a family doctor’s office, not at a clinic or pharmacy.
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Vaccines Given At Two Months
Hepatitis B Vaccine is given to your baby for the second time during the two month check-up.
DTaP Vaccine protects your baby from three life-threatening, toxin-releasing bacterial diseases: diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis . Often found in unsanitary conditions or from improper wound care, tetanus is a severe disease of the nerves that can cause the jaw to lock. Diphtheria affects breathing and the throat in small children and may cause nerve, heart, and kidney damage. Pertussis is a highly contagious disease that mostly affects babies under six months and causes coughing spells that can become severe and potentially deadly. Getting the vaccine between 27 and 36 weeks of pregnancy is also a great way to help prevent your infant from contracting pertussis.
What Are The Types Of Vaccines
There are a few different types of vaccines. They include:
- Attenuated live germs are used in some vaccines such as in the measles, mumps, and rubella and chickenpox vaccines.
- Killed germs are used in some vaccines, such as in the flu shot or the inactivated poliovirus vaccine.
- Toxoid vaccines contain an inactivated toxin made by the germ. For example, the diphtheria and tetanus vaccines are toxoid vaccines.
- Conjugate vaccines contain small pieces of the germ combined with proteins that help trigger a strong immune response. Many commonly used vaccines are made this way, including those that protect against hepatitis B, HPV, whooping cough, and meningitis.
- mRNA vaccines use a piece of the germs RNA, which is part of its genetic material. Some of the COVID-19 vaccines are this type.
The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that kids get combination vaccines whenever possible. Many vaccines are offered in combination to help lower the number of shots a child gets. This has been shown to be very safe. From the day a baby is born, their immune system is exposed to countless germs every day. A few more in a combination vaccine is very easy for the immune system to handle.
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